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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458155/determining-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-and-starting-age-of-screening-based-on-lifestyle-environmental-and-genetic-factors
#1
Jihyoun Jeon, Mengmeng Du, Robert E Schoen, Michael Hoffmeister, Polly A Newcomb, Sonja I Berndt, Bette Caan, Peter T Campbell, Andrew T Chan, Jenny Chang-Claude, Graham G Giles, Jian Gong, Tabitha A Harrison, Jeroen R Huyghe, Eric J Jacobs, Li Li, Yi Lin, Loïc Le Marchand, John D Potter, Flora Qu, Stephanie A Bien, Niha Zubair, Robert J Macinnis, Daniel D Buchanan, John L Hopper, Yin Cao, Reiko Nishihara, Gad Rennert, Martha L Slattery, Duncan C Thomas, Michael O Woods, Ross L Prentice, Stephen B Gruber, Yingye Zheng, Hermann Brenner, Richard B Hayes, Emily White, Ulrike Peters, Li Hsu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Guidelines for initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are based on family history but do not consider lifestyle, environmental, or genetic risk factors. We developed models to determine risk of CRC, based on lifestyle and environmental factors and genetic variants, and to identify an optimal age to begin screening. METHODS: We collected data from 9748 CRC cases and 10,590 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary study, from 1992 through 2005...
February 16, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458109/modulation-of-cyp1a1-metabolism-from-adverse-health-effects-to-chemoprevention-and-therapeutic-options
#2
Melina Mescher, Thomas Haarmann-Stemmann
The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene encodes a monooxygenase that metabolizes multiple exogenous and endogenous substrates. CYP1A1 has become infamous for its oxidative metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, converting these chemicals into very potent human carcinogens. CYP1A1 expression is mainly controlled by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a transcription factor whose activation is induced by binding of persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458045/aldose-reductase-inhibitor-fidarestat-prevents-doxorubicin-induced-endothelial-cell-death-and-dysfunction
#3
Himangshu Sonowal, Pabitra Pal, Kirtikar Shukla, Ashish Saxena, Satish K Srivastava, Kota V Ramana
Despite doxorubicin (Dox) being one of the most widely used chemotherapy agents for breast, blood and lung cancers, its use in colon cancer is limited due to increased drug resistance and severe cardiotoxic side effects that increase mortality associated with its use at high doses. Therefore, better adjuvant therapies are warranted to improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy and to decrease cardiotoxicity. We have recently shown that aldose reductase inhibitor, fidarestat, increases the Dox-induced colon cancer cell death and reduces cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457984/cardio-oncology-the-role-of-advanced-echocardiography-in-cancer-patients
#4
Lucia Venneri, Giacomo Zoppellaro, Rajdeep S Khattar
Cardio-oncology is a rapidly growing field aimed at improving the quality of care of cancer patients by preventing and monitoring cardiovascular complications resulting from cancer treatment. Cardiac imaging, and in particular, transthoracic echocardiography, plays an essential role in the baseline assessment and serial follow-up of cardio-oncology patients. Areas covered: This review article discusses the role of cardiac imaging with a focus on advanced echocardiography for the detection and management of cancer therapy related cardiovascular complications, in particular, left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure...
February 19, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457849/tobacco-attributable-burden-of-cancer-according-to-socioeconomic-position-in-france
#5
Gwenn Menvielle, Ivana Kulhánová, Joséphine Bryère, Guy Launoy, Daniel Eilstein, Cyrille Delpierre, Isabelle Soerjomataram
Smoking is a major preventable cause of cancers and is increasingly concentrated among the most deprived individuals leading to increasing socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of cancers linked to smoking. We aimed to estimate the tobacco-attributable cancer burden according to socioeconomic position in France. The analysis was restricted to cancer sites for which tobacco smoking was recognized as a risk factor. Cancer cases by sex, age group and European Deprivation Index (EDI) among people aged 30-74 between 2006 and 2009 were obtained from cancer registries covering approximately 20% of the French population...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457496/prostate-cancer-risk-reduced-by-physical-activity-even-among-men-with-prolonged-sitting-time-a-study-from-vietnam
#6
Dong Van Hoang, Andy H Lee, Ngoc Minh Pham, Colin W Binns
Increasing prostate cancer incidence in the Asia-Pacific region may be related to a more sedentary lifestyle resulted from economic growth and rapid urbanization. The present case-control study of 640 men aged 64 to 75 years was conducted in Vietnam between 2013 and 2015 to ascertain the relationship between physical activity and prostate cancer risk, accounting for the duration of sitting time. Reduced prostate cancer risks were found for men engaging in medium (15.8-47.3 metabolic equivalent task [MET]-h/week) and high (>47...
February 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456858/enhanced-biostability-and-cellular-uptake-of-zinc-oxide-nanocrystals-shielded-with-a-phospholipid-bilayer
#7
B Dumontel, M Canta, H Engelke, A Chiodoni, L Racca, A Ancona, T Limongi, G Canavese, V Cauda
The widespread use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, including therapeutic drug delivery or stimuli-responsive activation, as well as imaging, imposes a careful control over the colloidal stability and long-term behaviour of ZnO in biological media. Moreover, the effect of ZnO nanostructures on living cells, in particular cancer cells, is still under debate. This paper discusses the role of surface chemistry and charge of zinc oxide nanocrystals, of around 15 nm in size, which influence their behaviour in biological fluids and effect on cancer cells...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456798/-18-f-radiolabeled-panobinostat-allows-for-positron-emission-tomography-guided-delivery-of-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor
#8
Harikrishna Kommidi, Umberto Tosi, Uday B Maachani, Hua Guo, Christopher S Marnell, Benedict Law, Mark M Souweidane, Richard Ting
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is becoming an increasingly popular approach to treat cancer, as HDAC overexpression is common in many malignancies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents systemically delivered drugs from reaching brain at effective concentration, making small-molecule-HDAC inhibition in brain tumors particularly challenging. To circumvent the BBB, novel routes for administering therapeutics are being considered in the clinic, and a need exists for drugs whose deliveries can be directly imaged, so that effective delivery across the BBB can be monitored...
February 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456671/current-perspectives-of-sa-4-1bbl-in-immune-modulation-during-cancer
#9
Shu-Ni Zhou, Rui-Zhi Ran, Li-Li Tan, Hao Guo
A recombinant co-stimulatory molecule capable of inducing multiple effects on varied immune cells when present in its soluble active form is termed as SA-4-1BBL. It has been reported to influence innate, adaptive, and regulatory immune cells. Recent studies confirmed its engagement with receptor, 4-1BB leading to collection of interleukin-2 (IL-2) that in turn overcomes Treg suppression. Further, a vast number of pre-clinical studies reported its therapeutic efficacy in the form of adjuvant subunit in cancer vaccines...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456623/osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-onj-in-patients-who-receive-bone-targeting-agents-btas-the-power-of-e-learning
#10
EDITORIAL
Ourania Nicolatou-Galitis, Cesar Migliorati
The definition, pathobiology and risk factors of ONJ in cancer patients who receive BTAs are discussed in the recent ecancer module for osteonecrosis of the jaw (http://ecancer.org/education/module/276-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw.php). ONJ prevention, early diagnosis and management are presented. The critical question of the performance of dental extraction, during BTA therapy, as indicated with the recent studies, is supported. The importance of the collaboration between dental and oncology professionals and the patients is highlighted and can be achieved through appropriate education...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456561/evaluation-of-observed-and-the-expected-incidence-of-common-cancers-an-experience-from-southwestern-of-iran-2010-2014
#11
Ali Ahmadi, Fatemeh Salehi
Background: Awareness of observed and expected incidence of cancers is so important in managing cancer as the third mortality cause in Iran. In the present study, we evaluated observed and the expected incidence of common cancers in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Materials and Methods: This study is a Secondary data analysis. All data about pathology-based cancer registration (Cancer diagnosis was based on pathological laboratory, ICD-O2) in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari in Southwestern Iran in 2010-2014 was used...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456511/p2y-12-receptors-in-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis
#12
REVIEW
Patrizia Ballerini, Melania Dovizio, Annalisa Bruno, Stefania Tacconelli, Paola Patrignani
Platelets, beyond their role in hemostasis and thrombosis, may sustain tumorigenesis and metastasis. These effects may occur via direct interaction of platelets with cancer and stromal cells and by the release of several platelet products. Platelets and tumor cells release several bioactive molecules among which a great amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ADP is also formed extracellularly from ATP breakdown by the ecto-nucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolases. Under ATP and ADP stimulation the purinergic P2Y1 receptor (R) initiates platelet activation followed by the ADP-P2Y12 R-mediated amplification...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456469/prophylactic-surgery-for-whom-when-and-how
#13
REVIEW
Christine Mau, Michael Untch
Risk-reducing surgery has proved to be a reasonable procedure in healthy women with a definitely elevated risk of developing cancer. Here we consider the elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. There is a clear indication for such surgery in healthy women with a pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation. For these patients, a risk-reducing bilateral mastectomy leads to a verifiable reduction in mortality from breast cancer, particularly for young patients. In most cases, surgery is combined with breast reconstruction...
December 2017: Breast Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456384/tea-polyphenols-and-prevention-of-epigenetic-aberrations-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Arundhati Bag, Niladri Bag
Tea polyphenols are secondary metabolites of tea plants and are well known for beneficial health effects. They can protect from a variety of illnesses including cancers. Tea polyphenols can prevent cancer by modulating epigenetic aberrations taking place in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and micro-RNAs. By altering these epimutations, they regulate chromatin dynamics and expression of genes those induce or suppress cancer formation. However, majority of the studies in existing literature are carried out for green tea polyphenols rather than black tea polyphenols despite the fact that black tea is the most commonly consumed form of tea (78%) followed by green tea (20%) and other forms of tea...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456158/autologous-ipsc-based-vaccines-elicit-anti-tumor-responses-in-vivo
#15
Nigel G Kooreman, Youngkyun Kim, Patricia E de Almeida, Vittavat Termglinchan, Sebastian Diecke, Ning-Yi Shao, Tzu-Tang Wei, Hyoju Yi, Devaveena Dey, Raman Nelakanti, Thomas P Brouwer, David T Paik, Idit Sagiv-Barfi, Arnold Han, Paul H A Quax, Jaap F Hamming, Ronald Levy, Mark M Davis, Joseph C Wu
Cancer cells and embryonic tissues share a number of cellular and molecular properties, suggesting that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be harnessed to elicit anti-tumor responses in cancer vaccines. RNA sequencing revealed that human and murine iPSCs express tumor-associated antigens, and we show here a proof of principle for using irradiated iPSCs in autologous anti-tumor vaccines. In a prophylactic setting, iPSC vaccines prevent tumor growth in syngeneic murine breast cancer, mesothelioma, and melanoma models...
February 8, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456101/ligand-based-modeling-of-akt3-lead-to-potent-dual-akt1-akt3-inhibitor
#16
Mahmoud A Al-Sha'er, Mutasem O Taha
Akt1 and Akt3 are important serine/threonine-specific protein kinases involved in G2 phase required by cancer cells to maintain cell cycle and to prevent cell death. Accordingly, inhibitors of these kinases should have potent anti-cancer properties. This prompted us to use pharmacophore/QSAR modeling to identify optimal binding models and physicochemical descriptors that explain bioactivity variation within a set of 74 diverse Akt3 inhibitors. Two successful orthogonal pharmacophores were identified and further validated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456024/protective-effects-of-flagellin-a-n-c-against-radiation-induced-nlr-pyrin-domain-containing-3-inflammasome-dependent-pyroptosis-in-intestinal-cells
#17
Dongming Wu, Rong Han, Shihua Deng, Teng Liu, Ting Zhang, Hongxiang Xie, Ying Xu
PURPOSE: To investigate changes induced in mouse intestines after irradiation and to explore the potential radioprotective effects of flagellin A N/C (FlaAN/C). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A mouse model of radiation-induced enteropathy was used in this study. A 10-Gy abdominal irradiation was performed on FlaAN/C- and vehicle-injected mice to explore the role of FlaAN/C in intestinal radiation injury and to study the molecular mechanism in this process. In the intestinal tissue, pathologic changes were investigated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, TUNEL staining, and immunohistochemistry; Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the changes in protein and messenger RNA levels, respectively; and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to determine protein concentration in serum...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455777/palliative-treatment-of-coronary-atherosclerotic-cancer-by-drug-eluting-or-bare-metal-stents-from-oculo-stenotic-reflex-period-to-age-of-precision-medicine
#18
Elif Hande Ozcan Cetin, Ozcan Ozeke, Erdogan Ilkay, Dursun Aras, Serkan Topaloglu, Zehra Golbasi, Sinan Aydogdu, Can Ozer
Medications and treatments are said to have a palliative effect if they relieve symptoms without having a curative effect on the underlying disease such as atherosclerosis or cancer. Some authors speculated that atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) could be considered a "cancer of the coronary arterial wall". Although the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has proven to be effective in decreasing mortality rates among patients with acute coronary syndromes, the previous meta-analyses of PCI versus optimal medical therapy for stable CAD have not been able to demonstrate a reduction in major adverse cardiac outcomes...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455734/bamboo-salt-suppresses-skin-inflammation-in-mice-with-2-4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced-atopic-dermatitis
#19
Myoung-Schook Yoou, Sun-Young Nam, Kyoung Wan Yoon, Hyun-Ja Jeong, Hyung-Min Kim
Bamboo salt (BS) is a traditional Korean food, and has been reported to have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastatic effects. However, the anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) activity of BS has not been described yet. In the present study, we examined the preventive effect of BS on AD. The effect of oral administration of BS was tested in a 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced AD animal model, by histological analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, caspase-1 assay, and Western blotting analysis...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455669/egfr-tkis-resistance-via-egfr-independent-signaling-pathways
#20
REVIEW
Qian Liu, Shengnan Yu, Weiheng Zhao, Shuang Qin, Qian Chu, Kongming Wu
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)-treatments bring significant benefit for patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, especially for those with lung cancer. Unfortunately, the majority of these patients ultimately develop to the acquired resistance after a period of treatment. Two central mechanisms are involved in the resistant process: EGFR secondary mutations and bypass signaling activations. In an EGFR-dependent manner, acquired mutations, such as T790 M, interferes the interaction between TKIs and the kinase domain of EGFR...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
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