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Cancer prevention

Hui Zhao, Nainan Hei, Yiling Wu, Winston Chan, Xiudong Lei, Carrie Cameron, Shine Chang, Mariana Chavez-MacGregor, Sharon H Giordano
BACKGROUND: The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B35 and International Breast Cancer Intervention Studies II Ductal Carcinoma In Situ trials showed similar treatment effects of anastrozole and tamoxifen in reducing cancer recurrence risk among ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients. Studies have shown low levels of hormone therapy drug initiation for DCIS patients, but the current body of literature lacks information on the 5-year adherence rates for these drugs from population-based studies...
October 25, 2016: Cancer
Yuan-Hua Wu, Chia-Jui Yen, Jenn-Ren Hsiao, Chun-Yen Ou, Jehn-Shyun Huang, Tung-Yiu Wong, Sen-Tien Tsai, Cheng-Chih Huang, Wei-Ting Lee, Ken-Chung Chen, Sheen-Yie Fang, Jiunn-Liang Wu, Wei-Ting Hsueh, Forn-Chia Lin, Ming-Wei Yang, Jang-Yang Chang, Hsiao-Chen Liao, Shang-Yin Wu, Chen-Lin Lin, Yi-Hui Wang, Ya-Ling Weng, Han-Chien Yang, Yu-Shan Chen, Jeffrey S Chang
OBJECTIVES: Although betel quid (BQ) is an established risk factor of head and neck cancer (HNC), insufficiencies exist in the literature regarding the dose-response, BQ types, HNC sites, and BQ cessation. The current study was conducted to fill these insufficiencies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the association between BQ and HNC. In-person interview was conducted to collect data on BQ chewing. The current analysis included 487 men newly diagnosed with HNC and 617 male controls who were frequency-matched to the cases by age...
2016: PloS One
Meijun Song, Hongcheng Wu, Shibo Wu, Ting Ge, Guoan Wang, Yingyan Zhou, Shimo Sheng, Jingbo Jiang
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and its clinical management remains challenge. Here, we repurposed antibiotic levofloxacin for lung cancer treatment. We show that levofloxacin is effectively against a panel of lung cancer cell lines via inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis, regardless of cellular origin and genetic pattern, in in vitro cell culture system and in vivo xenograft lung tumor model. Mechanistically, levofloxacin inhibits activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I and III, leading to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and reduction of ATP production...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
E E Jedy-Agba, E O Dareng, S N Adebamowo, M Odutola, E A Oga, F Igbinoba, T Otu, E Ezeome, F Bray, R Hassan, C A Adebamowo
INTRODUCTION: HPV attributable cancers are the second most common infection-related cancers worldwide, with much higher burden in less developed regions. There are currently no country-specific estimates of the burden of these cancers in Nigeria just like many other low and middle income countries. METHODS: In this study, we quantified the proportion of the cancer burden in Nigeria that is attributable to HPV infection from 2012 to 2014 using HPV prevalence estimated from previous studies and data from two population based cancer registries (PBCR) in Nigeria...
October 22, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Jiaqi Yao, Chi Ma, Wei Gao, Jinxiao Liang, Chang Liu, Hongfang Yang, Qiu Yan, Qingping Wen
Cancer pain is the most common complication of lung carcinoma. Opioid agonist fentanyl is widely used for relieving pain in cancer patients, and cisplatin (DDP)‑based chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of advanced lung cancer; these two drugs are always used together in lung carcinoma patients. However, the mechanisms and related biological pathways by which fentanyl influences cisplatin sensitivity are relatively poorly reported. Here, we found that fentanyl reduces the sensitivity of cisplatin in human lung cancer cells and induces autophagy...
October 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Mahmoud A Alfaqih, Emma H Allott, Robert J Hamilton, Michael R Freeman, Stephen J Freedland
An increasing amount of data supports an inverse association between statin use and cancer risk. The findings for prostate cancer, particularly advanced disease, are the most promising of all cancers studied. Use of these agents seems to also be associated with improved prostate- cancer-specific survival, particularly in men undergoing radiotherapy, suggesting usefulness of statins in secondary and tertiary prevention. Some study results might be influenced by increased PSA screening and health-conscious behaviour in statin users but these factors are unlikely to completely account for observed beneficial effects...
October 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
A Villalobos-Hernandez, D Bobbala, R Kandhi, M G M Khan, M Mayhue, C M Dubois, G Ferbeyre, C Saucier, S Ramanathan, S Ilangumaran
BACKGROUND: The suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) gene is repressed in prostate cancer (PCa) by epigenetic silencing and microRNA miR30d. Increased expression of the SOCS1-targeting miR30d correlates with higher biochemical recurrence, suggesting a tumor suppressor role of SOCS1 in PCa, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We have shown that SOCS1 inhibits MET receptor kinase signaling, a key oncogenic pathway in cancer progression. Here we evaluated the role of SOCS1 in attenuating MET signaling in PCa cells and tumor growth in vivo...
October 25, 2016: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Marie Eliade, Jeremy Skrzypski, Amandine Baurand, Caroline Jacquot, Geoffrey Bertolone, Catherine Loustalot, Charles Coutant, France Guy, Pierre Fumoleau, Yannis Duffourd, Laurent Arnould, Alexandra Delignette, Marie-Martine Padéano, Côme Lepage, Géraldine Raichon-Patru, Axelle Boudrant, Marie-Christine Bône-Lépinoy, Anne-Laure Villing, Aurélie Charpin, Karine Peignaux, Sandy Chevrier, Frédérique Vegran, François Ghiringhelli, Romain Boidot, Nicolas Sevenet, Sarab Lizard, Laurence Faivre
Until recently, the molecular diagnosis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) was mostly based on BRCA1/2 testing. Next generation sequencing and the recent discovery of new genes involved in HBOC now permit the transfer of genomic capture targeting multiple candidate genes from research to clinical use. However, the implications for the management of patients and their families have not been extensively studied, in particular since some of these genes are not well-established cancer predisposing genes...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Leila Rahbarnia, Safar Farajnia, Hossein Babaei, Jafar Majidi, Kamal Veisi, Shiva Ahdi Khosroshahi, Asghar Tanomand
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor is frequently overexpresses in tumors with epithelial origin. The L2 domain from extracellular part of EGFR is involved in ligand binding and the blockage of this domain prevents activation of related signaling pathways. This study was aimed to develop a novel human scFv against EGFR L2 domain as a promising target for cancer therapy. The L2 recombinant protein was purified and used for panning a human scFv phage library (Tomlinson I)...
September 28, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Hasan Karanlik, Ilker Ozgur, Berkay Kilic, Alisan Fathalizadeh, Yasemin Sanli, Semen Onder, Pinar Saip, Fatma Sen, Bahadir M Gulluoglu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is not clear whether sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) can be applied to patients with a second breast cancer or recurrence occurring at previously treated breast. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of SLNB procedure in patients with recurrent breast cancer. METHODS: Patients with non-metastatic recurrent N0 breast cancer at ipsilateral breast were included. Patients were grouped according to their initial breast, axilla, and overall surgery...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Jaqueline C Avila, Yong-Fang Kuo, Ana M Rodriguez, Rebeca Wong, Sapna Kaul
PURPOSE: Examine preventive services utilization among female survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer compared with women without cancer in the USA. METHODS: A total of 1017 women diagnosed with cancer at AYA ages (15-39 years) who were at least 5 years since diagnosis were identified from 2008 to 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. A comparison group without cancer was matched on age and other characteristics. General preventive services included dental, medical, blood pressure, and cholesterol checkups, and flu shots in the previous year...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Hermann Fromme, Wolfgang Schober
Waterpipe (WP) smoking, also known as shisha or hookah smoking, is growing in western countries as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that shisha smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking.In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include well-known carcinogens...
October 24, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Lauren Van Der Kraak, Gaurav Goel, Krishnaveni Ramanan, Christof Kaltenmeier, Lin Zhang, Daniel P Normolle, Gordon J Freeman, Daolin Tang, Katie S Nason, Jon M Davison, James D Luketich, Rajeev Dhupar, Michael T Lotze
BACKGROUND: Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle in the effective treatment of cancer patients. B7-homolog 1, also known as programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), is an immunoregulatory protein that is overexpressed in several human cancers. Interaction of B7-H1 with programmed death 1 (PD-1) prevents T-cell activation and proliferation, sequestering the T-cell receptor from the cell membrane, inducing T-cell apoptosis, thereby leading to cancer immunoresistance. B7-H1 upregulation contributes to chemoresistance in several types of cancer, but little is known with respect to changes associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or gastrointestinal cancers...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Defeng Qi, Jinhui Li, Biao Que, Jialin Su, Mengxi Li, Chaofeng Zhang, Mei Yang, Guoren Zhou, Weidong Ji
BACKGROUND: Many long non coding RNAs have been identified as key modulators in cancer development. A lncRNA, DBCCR1-003, derived from the locus of tumor suppressor gene DBCCR1 (deleted in bladder cancer chromosome region 1), has unknown function. In the present study, we explored function and molecular mechanism of DBCCR1-003 in bladder cancer (BC) development. METHODS: We evaluated the expression levels of DBCCR1-003 in tissues and cells with western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2016: Cancer Cell International
Shinji Kuroda, Satoru Kikuchi, Masahiko Nishizaki, Shunsuke Kagawa, Shiro Hinotsu, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara
Although intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has become common as perioperative prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) consisting of pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), the prophylactic effect against VTE, especially lethal PE, is not yet satisfactory. Therefore, pharmacologic prophylaxis, such as with enoxaparin, is desirable. While the efficacy and safety of enoxaparin have been proven in several clinical trials, concern about bleeding with longterm (at least 7 days) use have potentially decreased its widespread adoption...
October 2016: Acta Medica Okayama
Peter Lance, David S Alberts, Patricia A Thompson, Liane Fales, Fang Wang, Jerilyn San Jose, Elizabeth T Jacobs, Phyllis J Goodman, Amy K Darke, Monica Yee, Lori Minasian, Ian M Thompson, Denise J Roe
Selenium and vitamin E micronutrients have been advocated for the prevention of colorectal cancer. Colorectal adenoma occurrence was used as a surrogate for colorectal cancer in an ancillary study to the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) for prostate cancer prevention. The primary objective was to measure the effect of selenium (as selenomethionine) on colorectal adenomas occurrence, with the effect of vitamin E (as alpha tocopherol) supplementation on colorectal adenoma occurrence considered as a secondary objective...
October 24, 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Mantas Grigalavicius, Marina Juraleviciute, Mateusz Kwitniewski, A Juzeniene
BACKGROUND: Senescent cells, which are resistant to apoptosis, accumulate with age and after ultraviolet (UV) radiation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Preventing or eliminating senescent cells may be crucial for protection against skin cancer development and improving tumour treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to induce senescence in skin cancer cells and to eliminate senescent cells induced by chemotherapy (bleomycin) or UVA (315-400nm) exposure...
October 21, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Christopher Coyle, Fay H Cafferty, Samuel Rowley, Mairead MacKenzie, Lindy Berkman, Sudeep Gupta, C S Pramesh, Duncan Gilbert, Howard Kynaston, David Cameron, Richard H Wilson, Alistair Ring, Ruth E Langley
BACKGROUND: There is a considerable body of pre-clinical, epidemiological and randomised data to support the hypothesis that aspirin has the potential to be an effective adjuvant cancer therapy. METHODS: Add-Aspirin is a phase III, multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial with four parallel cohorts. Patients who have undergone potentially curative treatment for breast (n=3100), colorectal (n=2600), gastro-oesophageal (n=2100) or prostate cancer (n=2120) are registered into four tumour specific cohorts...
October 21, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Alain Luxembourg, Susanne K Kjaer, Mari Nygard, Misoo C Ellison, Thomas Group, J Brooke Marshall, David Radley, Alfred Saah
The 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) (9vHPV) vaccine targets four HPV types (6/11/16/18) also covered by the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine and five additional types (31/33/45/52/58). Vaccine efficacy to prevent HPV infection and disease was established in a Phase III clinical study in women 16-26years of age. A long-term follow-up (LTFU) study has been initiated as an extension of the Phase III clinical study to assess effectiveness of the 9vHPV vaccine up to at least 14years after the start of vaccination...
October 21, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Marko Gerić, Ana Marija Domijan, Valentina Gluščić, Renato Janušić, Božena Šarčević, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac
Since the incidence of cancer has increased over the years, adequate prevention programmes are needed. Thyroid cancer is one of the fastest growing cancer types in the world. In this study we performed a case-control study of 100 untreated patients with thyroid diseases (papillary thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid adenoma, and other thyroid diseases) and 100 control volunteers. Oxidative status differed among the two investigated groups. The patients' group had 1.60-fold higher concentrations of malondialdehyde and 1...
November 1, 2016: Mutation Research
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