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Cancer prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684818/glut1-protects-prostate-cancer-cells-from-glucose-deprivation-induced-oxidative-stress
#1
Pedro Gonzalez-Menendez, David Hevia, Rebeca Alonso-Arias, Alejandro Alvarez-Artime, Aida Rodriguez-Garcia, Sandrina Kinet, Ivan Gonzalez-Pola, Naomi Taylor, Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz
Glucose, chief metabolic support for cancer cell survival and growth, is mainly imported into cells by facilitated glucose transporters (GLUTs). The increase in glucose uptake along with tumor progression is due to an increment of facilitative glucose transporters as GLUT1. GLUT1 prevents cell death of cancer cells caused by growth factors deprivation, but there is scarce information about its role on the damage caused by glucose deprivation, which usually occurs within the core of a growing tumor. In prostate cancer (PCa), GLUT1 is found in the most aggressive tumors, and it is regulated by androgens...
April 12, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684682/identification-and-validation-nucleolin-as-a-target-of-curcumol-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells
#2
Juan Wang, Jiacai Wu, Xumei Li, Haowei Liu, Jianli Qin, Zhun Bai, Bixia Chi, Chen Xu
Identification of the specific protein target(s) of a drug is a critical step in unraveling its mechanisms of action (MOA) in many natural products. Curcumol, isolated from well known Chinese medicinal plant Curcuma zedoary, has been shown to possess multiple biological activities. It can inhibit nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) proliferation and induce apoptosis, but its target protein(s) in NPC cells remains unclear. In this study, we employed a mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics approach reveal the possible protein targets of curcumol in NPC cells...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684479/impairment-of-the-gn%C3%AE-11-controlled-expression-of-claudin-1-and-mmp-9-and-collective-migration-of-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells-by-dheas
#3
Neha Upmanyu, Ahmed Bulldan, Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Raimund Dietze, Viveka Nand Malviya, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
Although dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) constitutes the most abundant steroid in humans, in-depth investigations of its effects are rather scarce. We address here DHEAS effects on the estrogen receptor-positive metastatic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. We focus on DHEAS-mediated signaling that might influence expression of claudin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), both known to be critical factors for migration and invasiveness of various cancers, including breast cancer cells. Physiological concentrations of DHEAS trigger persistent phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in MCF-7 cells...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684233/secondary-prevention-strategies-for-nonmelanoma-skin-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Adriana T Lopez, Richard D Carvajal, Larisa Geskin
Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States and has become a major public health problem that continues to grow. Despite numerous initiatives and increased public awareness of the dangers of skin cancer, the incidence of skin cancer continues to rise worldwide. This highlights the need for a critical review of existing skin cancer prevention strategies as a means to determine where targeted efforts may improve patient outcomes. In this article, we review the published literature and evaluate secondary prevention strategies for nonmelanoma skin cancer...
April 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683958/kidney-protective-effect-of-magnesium-supplementation-in-cisplatin-containing-chemotherapy-for-pediatric-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#5
Motohiro Matsui, Yuya Saito, Shoko Yamaoka, Yuichi Yokokawa, Yoshihiko Morikawa, Atsushi Makimoto, Yuki Yuza
In total, 158 chemotherapy courses containing cisplatin for 37 pediatric cases of newly diagnosed cancer were divided into 2 groups depending on whether magnesium (Mg) supplementation was administered (Mg+: 92 courses) or not (Mg-: 66 courses). Renal impairment was defined as grade 2 or higher creatinine elevation (CE) after each chemotherapy course. The incidence of CE in the Mg+ was significantly lower than in the Mg- (9.8% vs. 22.7%; P=0.025). Multivariate analysis revealed that Mg supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of CE (odds ratio, 0...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683818/pan-trk-immunohistochemistry-identifies-ntrk-rearrangements-in-pediatric-mesenchymal-tumors
#6
Erin R Rudzinski, Christina M Lockwood, Bradley A Stohr, Sara O Vargas, Rachel Sheridan, Jennifer O Black, Veena Rajaram, Theodore W Laetsch, Jessica L Davis
Activating neurotrophic receptor kinase (NTRK) fusions define certain pediatric mesenchymal tumors, including infantile fibrosarcoma and cellular mesoblastic nephroma. Traditionally, molecular confirmation of these fusions has included either fluorescent in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangements or reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the classic ETV6-NTRK3 fusion. However, these methods overlook variant NTRK rearrangements, which are increasingly appreciated as recurrent events in a subset of pediatric mesenchymal tumors...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683475/pharmacological-interventions-for-the-prevention-of-insufficiency-fractures-and-avascular-necrosis-associated-with-pelvic-radiotherapy-in-adults
#7
REVIEW
Qurrat U van den Blink, Kate Garcez, Caroline C Henson, Susan E Davidson, Claire E Higham
BACKGROUND: Pelvic radiotherapy is a treatment delivered to an estimated 150,000 to 300,000 people annually across high-income countries. Fractures due to normal stresses on weakened bone due to radiotherapy are termed insufficiency fractures. Pelvic radiotherapy-related interruption of the blood supply to the hip is termed avascular necrosis and is another recognised complication. The reported incidences of insufficiency fractures are 2.7% to 89% and risk of developing avascular necrosis is 0...
April 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682718/-meta-analysis-for-high-risk-factor-of-anastomotic-leakage-after-anal-preserving-surgery-for-rectal-cancer
#8
Yingjiang Ye, Hongpeng Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the effect of defunctioning stoma, preoperative radiotherapy, and level of inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) ligation on the postoperative anastomotic leakage in rectal cancer by meta-analysis. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCT) published before December 2017 regarding the effects of defunctioning stoma, preoperative radiotherapy, and level of inferior mesenteric artery ligation on the postoperative anastomotic leakage in rectal cancer were searched from PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang database, meanwhile open data in unpublished trials from clinicaltrials...
2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682715/-effect-of-anastomotic-reinforcing-sutures-on-the-incidence-of-anastomotic-leakage-after-laparoscopic-radical-resection-of-rectal-cancer-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Yiren He, Zhiqiang Zhu, Shaojun Liu, Liu Liu, Bin Hu, Xiao Wan, Qiang Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of anastomotic reinforcing sutures on the incidence of anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic radical resection of rectal cancer. METHODS: In this study, 300 patients diagnosed with rectal cancer, scheduled to undergo laparoscopic anterior resection at the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery of Anhui Provincial Hospital, between September 2014 and December 2016, were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopic rectal resection with (reinforcing group, n=150) or without (control group, n=150) anastomotic reinforcing sutures...
2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682714/-factors-associated-with-anastomotic-leakage-after-anterior-resection-in-rectal-cancer
#10
Kai Deng, Jianli Zhang, Xiuli Jiang, Shuai Feng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with the anastomotic leakage after anterior resection in rectal cancer. METHODS: From January 2014 to January 2017 471 patients underwent Dixon procedure for rectal cancer in The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University. The data of those patients was collected and reviewed retrospectively. Inclusion criteria included: 1) rectal cancer confirmed by preoperative electron colonoscopy; 2) the standard of total mesorectal excision followed by the surgeon during the surgery; and 3) elective surgery...
2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682713/-risk-factors-of-anastomotic-leakage-after-anterior-resection-for-rectal-cancer-and-the-diagnostic-value-of-computed-tomography-signs-in-anastomotic-leakage
#11
Junling Zhang, Xiaochao Guo, Jixin Zhang, Jing Liu, Tao Wu, Pengyuan Wang, Guowei Chen, Yong Jiang, Yingchao Wu, Xin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors and computed tomography (CT) diagnostic accuracy of anastomotic leakage after resection of rectal cancer (Dixon). METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in Peking University First Hospital from January 2013 to June 2015. A cohort of 452 patients with rectal cancer was enrolled in the study. All the patients underwent anterior resection. The relationship between clinical-pathological data (including sex, age, body mass index (BMI), presence of diabetes, hypohemoglobin (Hb<90 g/L), hypoalbuminemia (Alb<35 g/L), the distance from the lower edge of the tumors to the anus, tumor diameter, tumor differentiation, tumor TNM stage, neoadjuvant therapy status, ligation of the left colonic artery(LCA), preventive colostomy, and anastomotic leakage was analyzed retrospectively...
2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682711/-imaging-diagnosis-and-imaging-risk-factors-of-anastomotic-leakage-after-rectal-cancer-surgery
#12
Yi Wang
Dispite continual improvements in diagnostic and management techniques, anastomotic leak (AL) remains one of the most devastating consequences of rectal cancer surgery. Recently, many investigations have attempted to identify the risk factors and established risk model to predict and prevent anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection. The distance between the lower edge of rectal cancer and the anal verge measured by magnetic resonance imaging was demonstrated as one of the independent risk factors associated with AL...
2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682710/-surgical-skills-in-the-prevention-of-anastomotic-leakage-after-rectal-neoplasm-surgery
#13
Qianqian Shao, Guole Lin
For colorectal surgeons, how to reduce anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery remains to be challenging. We provide a brief discussion regarding the surgical skills required to prevent anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery, such as the following: 1) Low ligation of inferior mesenteric vessel during laparoscopic total mesorectal excision can improve anastomotic tension and blood supply, thus reducing the risk of anastomotic leakage. While high ligation of inferior mesenteric artery results in poor blood supply and high tension in atastomotic site, thus increasing the risk of anastomotic leakage...
2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682709/-prevention-of-anastomotic-leakage-after-robotic-surgery-for-rectal-cancer
#14
Xiaohui Du, Xiaowei Xing
With popularity of robotic surgery system, robotic rectal cancer surgery is increasing. Precautionary measures of different perioperative periods should be taken to reduce the risk for anastomotic leakage. First, the general condition of patients should be acquainted and improved, and the risk for anastomotic leakage should be evaluated preoperatively. Preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy may not increase the risk for anastomotic leakage after rectal surgery. The impact of routine bowel preparation to prevent anastomotic leakage needs to be verified further...
2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682708/-early-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-anastomotic-leak-after-rectal-cancer-surgery
#15
Tinghan Yang, Ziqiang Wang
Anastomotic leakage is the most common major complication after mid-low rectal cancer surgery. Due to lack of knowledge regarding the virtual mechanisms of anastomotic leakage, not much can be done to prevent its development. The aim of the present review was to discuss the prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery. For patients with risk factors, such as anastomotic site within 4 cm from anus, obese men, lack of blood supply of the anastomotic site, neoadjuvant chemo radiotherapy, or patients with severe co-morbidity, aggressive preventive strategy should be adopted...
2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682707/-risk-factors-for-anastomotic-leakage-after-rectal-cancer-surgery
#16
Kaixiong Tao, Jinbo Gao
Anastomotic leakage is one of the common complications after rectal cancer surgery. Advances in the field of rectal surgery, such as introduction of total mesorectal excision, double-stapling reconstruction techniques, and minimally invasive surgery have improved oncologic outcomes and resulted in more favorable functional results, with a greater proportion of patients undergoing sphincter-preserving surgeries. Despite technical improvements, the incidence of anastomotic leakage has not decreased significantly...
2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682704/-anastomotic-leakage-after-rectal-cancer-surgery-classification-and-management
#17
Pan Chi, Shenghui Huang
Many studies have focused on the identification of risk factors and prevention of anastomotic leakage following rectal cancer surgery. However, there is little knowledge regarding classification and management of anastomotic leakage in clinic. Herein, we reviewed and summarized the classification and management of anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery. The relevant treatments of anastomotic leakage should be chosen based on patient's manifestation, including general and local reactions, anatomical location, and nature of the leakage (contained or free, controlled or uncontrolled leakage)...
2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682678/more-protection-of-lactobacillus-acidophilus-than-bifidobacterium-bifidum-probiotics-on-azoxymethane-induced-mouse-colon-cancer
#18
Shahram Agah, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Maryam Mosavi, Peyman Ranji, Hossein Khavari-Daneshvar, Farnaz Ghasemian, Sahar Bahmani, Abbas Tavassoli
Based on the ability of the probiotics in the gut microflora modification, they can have the beneficial effects on diseases in the short and/or the long term. In previous study, we revealed that unlike Bifidobacterium bifidum, the amount of Lactobacillus acidophilus remained almost unchanged in mice gut microflora in the long term, indicating more stability of L. acidophilus than B. bifidum which can be used to prevent some incurable diseases such as cancer. Thirty-eight male BALB/c mice were divided into four groups, control, azoxymethane (AOM), L...
April 22, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682676/how-human-microbiome-talks-to-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Jing Cong, Xiaochun Zhang
Microbes are ubiquitous in the human body. They usually live in communities, and each of these communities has a distinct taxonomical structure. Due to its close relationship with human health and disease, the human microbiome has received great attention and is probably considered to be the most valuable biomarker in preventing and solving human diseases. In this paper, we first review the value of the human microbiome. Then, we focus on the role of the human microbiome in influencing human health and disease...
April 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682330/yes-associated-protein-yap-in-pancreatic-cancer-at-the-epicenter-of-a-targetable-signaling-network-associated-with-patient-survival
#20
Enrique Rozengurt, James Sinnett-Smith, Guido Eibl
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is generally a fatal disease with no efficacious treatment modalities. Elucidation of signaling mechanisms that will lead to the identification of novel targets for therapy and chemoprevention is urgently needed. Here, we review the role of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and WW-domain-containing Transcriptional co-Activator with a PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) in the development of PDAC. These oncogenic proteins are at the center of a signaling network that involves multiple upstream signals and downstream YAP-regulated genes...
2018: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
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