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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053407/lung-rads-pushing-the-limits
#1
Maria D Martin, Jeffrey P Kanne, Lynn S Broderick, Ella A Kazerooni, Cristopher A Meyer
In response to the recommendation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the coverage decision by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for lung cancer screening (LCS) computed tomography (CT), the American College of Radiology introduced the Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) in 2014 to standardize the reporting and management of screening-detected lung nodules. As with many first-edition guidelines, questions arise when such reporting systems are used in daily practice...
October 20, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053225/histological-outcomes-of-anal-high-grade-cytopredictions
#2
Jennifer Margaret Roberts, Fengyi Jin, Isobel Mary Poynten, Carmella Law, David James Templeton, Julia Kathleen Thurloe, Suzanne Marie Garland, Andrew Edwin Grulich, Annabelle Farnsworth, Richard John Hillman
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies of histological outcomes after anal cytological screening in men who have sex with men (MSM) are rare. This study measured the positive predictive values (PPVs) of each level of baseline cytological abnormality in MSM in Sydney, Australia, over a 12-month period. METHODS: The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer is a 3-year prospective study of the natural history of anal human papillomavirus infection in MSM at least 35 years old...
October 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053193/body-mass-index-at-adolescence-and-risk-of-noncardia-gastric-cancer-in-a-cohort-of-1-79-million-men-and-women
#3
Zohar Levi, Jeremy D Kark, Gilad Twig, Lior Katz, Adi Leiba, Estela Derazne, Dorit Tzur, Irena Liphshitz, Lital Keinan-Boker, Arnon Afek
BACKGROUND: This study assessed adolescent predictors of noncardia gastric cancer (NCGC) with a focus on the body mass index (BMI) in late adolescence. METHODS: This study analyzed a cohort of 1,087,358 Israeli Jewish males and 707,212 Israeli Jewish females who underwent a compulsory physical examination between the ages of 16 and 19 years from 1967 to 2002. By linkage to the national cancer registry, participants were followed for NCGC through December 31, 2012...
October 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052449/resveratrol-in-management-of-bone-and-spinal-cancers
#4
Gang Chen, Hong Xia, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Hai-Liang Yu
Bone cancer is a malignant primary tumour of the bone with different typing, such as, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and fibrosarcoma. Despite the clinical efficacy of conventional therapies of bone cancer, most patients eventually relapse and the disease remains incurable. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed to improve patient outcome. In this review article, we have discussed the role of resveratrol in preventing bone and spinal cancers and therapeutics. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural polyphenol, which has been widely reported as an anticancer molecule...
October 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052136/human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-infection-and-adult-t-cell-leukemia
#5
Chi-Ping Chan, Kin-Hang Kok, Dong-Yan Jin
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the first retrovirus discovered to cause adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a highly aggressive blood cancer. HTLV-1 research in the past 35 years has been most revealing in the mechanisms of viral oncogenesis. HTLV-1 establishes a lifelong persistent infection in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. The infection outcome is governed by host immunity. ATL develops in 2-5% of infected individuals 30-50 years after initial exposure. HTLV-1 encodes two oncoproteins Tax and HBZ, which are required for initiation of cellular transformation and maintenance of cell proliferation, respectively...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052129/hepatitis-b-virus-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Youhua Xie
Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide in men and the ninth in women. It is also the second most common cause of cancer mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. About 350 million people globally are chronically infected with HBV. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for at least 50% cases of HCC worldwide. Other non-HBV factors may increase HCC risk among persons with chronic HBV infection. Both indirect and direct mechanisms are involved in HCC oncogenesis by HBV...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052128/overview-of-infectious-causes-of-human-cancers
#7
Qiliang Cai, Zhenghong Yuan
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that almost each person is infected at least one potentially cancer-causing organism; however, only a small proportion of infected individual develops cancer. In this review, to elucidate the potential role of infectious organisms in the development and progression of human cancers, we summarize the previous history and current understandings of infection-associated cancers and highlight the common molecular mechanisms of cancers caused by infectious agents and their potential cofactors, which may bring us to effectively prevent and reduce the infection-associated cancers in the future...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052104/anticoagulation-prescribing-patterns-in-patients-with-cancer
#8
Elaine Xiang, Tania Ahuja, Veronica Raco, Frank Cirrone, David Green, John Papadopoulos
Cancer is a known hypercoagulable state that leads to an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Low molecular weight heparin remains the preferred anticoagulant for VTE in patients with cancer over vitamin K antagonist. However, the preferred anticoagulant in prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with cancer has yet to be determined. The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are increasingly being utilized; however their role in cancer has only recently been investigated...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051851/biomimetically-engineered-demi-bacteria-potentiate-vaccination-against-cancer
#9
Dezhi Ni, Shuang Qing, Hui Ding, Hua Yue, Di Yu, Shuang Wang, Nana Luo, Zhiguo Su, Wei Wei, Guanghui Ma
Failure in enhancing antigen immunogenicity has limited the development of cancer vaccine. Inspired by effective immune responses toward microorganisms, demi-bacteria (DB) from Bacillus are engineered as carriers for cancer vaccines. The explored hydrothermal treatment enables the Bacillus to preserve optimal pathogen morphology with intrinsic mannose receptor agonist. Meanwhile, the treated Bacillus can be further endowed with ideal hollow/porous structure for efficient accommodation of antigen and adjuvant, such as CpG...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051491/fan1-interaction-with-ubiquitylated-pcna-alleviates-replication-stress-and-preserves-genomic-integrity-independently-of-brca2
#10
Antonio Porro, Matteo Berti, Julia Pizzolato, Serena Bologna, Svenja Kaden, Anja Saxer, Yue Ma, Kazuo Nagasawa, Alessandro A Sartori, Josef Jiricny
Interstrand cross-link (ICL) hypersensitivity is a characteristic trait of Fanconi anemia (FA). Although FANCD2-associated nuclease 1 (FAN1) contributes to ICL repair, FAN1 mutations predispose to karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN) and cancer rather than to FA. Thus, the biological role of FAN1 remains unclear. Because fork stalling in FAN1-deficient cells causes chromosomal instability, we reasoned that the key function of FAN1 might lie in the processing of halted replication forks. Here, we show that FAN1 contains a previously-uncharacterized PCNA interacting peptide (PIP) motif that, together with its ubiquitin-binding zinc finger (UBZ) domain, helps recruit FAN1 to ubiquitylated PCNA accumulated at stalled forks...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051371/adrenergic-nerves-activate-an-angio-metabolic-switch-in-prostate-cancer
#11
Ali H Zahalka, Anna Arnal-Estapé, Maria Maryanovich, Fumio Nakahara, Cristian D Cruz, Lydia W S Finley, Paul S Frenette
Nerves closely associate with blood vessels and help to pattern the vasculature during development. Recent work suggests that newly formed nerve fibers may regulate the tumor microenvironment, but their exact functions are unclear. Studying mouse models of prostate cancer, we show that endothelial β-adrenergic receptor signaling via adrenergic nerve-derived noradrenaline in the prostate stroma is critical for activation of an angiogenic switch that fuels exponential tumor growth. Mechanistically, this occurs through alteration of endothelial cell metabolism...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051341/indoor-tanning-dependence-in-young-adult-women
#12
Darren Mays, Michael B Atkins, Jaeil Ahn, Kenneth P Tercyak
Background: There is mounting evidence that young people can develop a dependence on indoor tanning, but research on factors associated with indoor tanning dependence remains limited.Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with indoor tanning dependence in a community sample of 389 non-Hispanic white young adult women ages 18 to 30 who had indoor tanned ≥1 time in the past year. Participants completed measures of indoor tanning dependence, including the modified CAGE and modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV psychiatric screening assessments, indoor tanning behavior and beliefs, and behavioral and psychiatric comorbidity...
October 19, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051323/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-antagonizes-response-to-targeted-therapies-in-lung-cancer-by-suppressing-bim
#13
Anthony C Faber, Kyung-A Song, Matthew J Niederst, Timothy L Lochmann, Aaron N Hata, Hidenori Kitai, Jungoh Ham, Konstantinos V Floros, Mark A Hicks, Haichuan Hu, Hillary E Mulvey, Yotam Drier, Daniel A R Heisey, Mark T Hughes, Neha U Patel, Elizabeth Lockerman, Angel R Garcia, Shawn Gillepsie, Hannah L Archibald, Maria Gomez-Caraballo, Tara J Nulton, Brad Windle, Zofia Piotrowska, Sinem E Sahingur, Shirley M Taylor, Mikhail G Dozmorov, Lecia V Sequist, Bradley E Bernstein, Hiromichi Ebi, Jeffrey A Engelman
PURPOSE: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers resistance to a number of targeted therapies and chemotherapies. However, it has been unclear why EMT promotes resistance, thereby impairing progress to overcome it. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have developed several models of EMT-mediated resistance to EGFR inhibitors (EGFRi) in EGFR mutant lung cancers to evaluate a novel mechanism of EMT-mediated resistance. Results: We observed that mesenchymal EGFR mutant lung cancers are resistant to EGFRi-induced apoptosis via insufficient expression of BIM, preventing cell death despite potent suppression of oncogenic signaling following EGFRi treatment...
October 19, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051018/access-to-employee-wellness-programs-and-use-of-preventive-care-services-among-u-s-adults
#14
Oluwaseyi O Isehunwa, Erik L Carlton, Yang Wang, Yu Jiang, Satish Kedia, Cyril F Chang, Daniel Fijabi, Soumitra S Bhuyan
INTRODUCTION: There is little research at the national level on access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. This study examined the use of seven preventive care services among U.S working adults with access to employee wellness programs. METHODS: The study population comprised 17,699 working adults aged ≥18 years, obtained from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the relationship between access to employee wellness programs and use of seven preventive care services: influenza vaccination, blood pressure check, diabetes check, cholesterol check, Pap smear test, mammogram, and colon cancer screening...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050810/how-to-not-detonate-the-bomb-the-case-of-the-italian-national-health-service
#15
G La Torre, A Federici
Why is Italy one of the world's highest ranked for ability and quality of healthcare in relationship to the resources invested? The last decade has been characterized by many Italian Regions with Recovery Plans, whose main focus was on short-term issues with a high impact on healthcare costs. Italy is now leaving this phase and at the regional level there will be an increase of new hirings in the healthcare sectors, as stated by the Ministry of Health. There is a large amount of scientific literature that supports the role of factors such as lifestyles, diet and genetics as the base of population health...
October 16, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050538/evaluation-of-the-head-and-neck-cancer-patient-population-and-the-incidence-of-hospitalization-at-an-academic-medical-center
#16
Lindsay A Hazelden, Matthew J Newman, Stephanie Shuey, Julie M Waldfogel, Victoria T Brown
Purpose Patients with head and neck cancer are at risk for disease- and treatment-related toxicities that may be severe enough to require hospitalization. The risk factors associated with hospitalization in these patients are not well defined. Methods We conducted a single-center, retrospective observational study of patients with head and neck cancer receiving chemotherapy at an academic medical center infusion clinic in a one-year period. The primary objective was to characterize the head and neck cancer population at an academic medical center...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050290/gmi-ablates-cancer-stemness-and-cisplatin-resistance-in-oral-carcinomas-stem-cells-through-il-6-stat3-signaling-inhibition
#17
Tung Yuan Wang, Cheng-Chia Yu, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Yi-Wen Liao, Chuan-Hang Yu, Ming-Yung Chou
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified to exert tumor-initiating ability, resulting in the recurrence, metastasis and chemoresistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas. In the present study, we showed that GMI, an immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma microsporum, induc ed a cytotoxic effect in oral carcinomas stem cells (OCSCs). Treatment of GMI dose-dependently inhibited the expression of CSC markers, including ALDH1 activity and CD44 positivity. Moreover, GMI suppressed the self-renewal property, colony formation, migration, and invasion abilities as well as potentiated chemo-sensitivity in OCSCs...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050286/a-prospective-study-of-serum-metabolites-and-glioma-risk
#18
Jiaqi Huang, Stephanie J Weinstein, Cari M Kitahara, Edward D Karoly, Joshua N Sampson, Demetrius Albanes
Malignant glioma is one of the most lethal adult cancers, yet its etiology remains largely unknown. We conducted a prospective serum metabolomic analysis of glioma based on 64 cases and 64 matched controls selected from Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. Median time from collection of baseline fasting serum to diagnosis was nine years (inter-decile range 3-20 years). LC/MS-MS identified 730 known metabolites, and conditional logistic regression models estimated odds ratios for one-standard deviation differences in log-metabolite signals...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050282/effective-antitumor-peptide-vaccines-can-induce-severe-autoimmune-pathology
#19
Hussein Sultan, Jimena Trillo-Tinoco, Paulo Rodriguez, Esteban Celis
Immunotherapy has shown a tremendous success in treating cancer. Unfortunately, this success is frequently associated with severe autoimmune pathology. In this study, we used the transgenic RIP-gp mouse model to assess the antitumor therapeutic benefit of peptide vaccination while evaluating the possible associated autoimmune pathology. We report that palmitoylated gp33-41 peptide and poly-IC adjuvant vaccine (BiVax) generated ∼ 5-10 % of antigen specific T cell responses in wild type and supposedly immune tolerant RIP-gp mice...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050263/the-prognostic-value-of-osteopontin-in-limited-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-and-its-mechanism
#20
Fanglei Liu, Chunxue Bai, Zhongliang Guo
Osteopontin (OPN) is known to be overexpressed in numerous carcinomas. Although abundant OPN has been reported to be correlated with poor survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but their clinical and prognostic significance in SCLC remains unknown. In this study, RNA-sequencing was used to obtain gene expression data in SCLC tissue samples and OPN expression levels were then investigated using qPCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot. We found OPN was one of the most upregulated genes. Besides, the correlation of OPN with tumor clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated and we found OPN was associated with advanced tumor stages...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
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