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Pediatric traumatic brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532235/development-and-preliminary-validation-of-the-paediatric-awareness-questionnaire-for-children-and-adolescents-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Owen Lloyd, Tamara Ownsworth, Jennifer Fleming, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck
There is a lack of validated measures for assessing self-awareness of deficits after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study aimed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Paediatric Awareness Questionnaire (PAQ), and investigate factors related to self-awareness. The PAQ was administered to 32 children aged 8-16 years with mild to severe TBI (72% male, M age = 11.75, SD = 2.9), their parents, and treating clinicians, and to 32 age- and gender-matched typically developing controls and their parents...
May 23, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520673/behavioral-clinical-trials-in-moderate-to-severe-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-challenges-potential-solutions-and-lessons-learned
#2
Shari L Wade, Brad G Kurowski
The purpose of this commentary is to outline the challenges encountered when conducting clinical trials of interventions for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and share potential solutions for surmounting these issues. This commentary grows out of our experience implementing 8 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of family-centered interventions to reduce child behavior problems and caregiver/parent distress following pediatric brain injury. These studies, involving more than 600 participants from 8 clinical centers, support the feasibility of conducting RCTs with children who have sustained TBIs while highlighting potential challenges and threats to validity...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520669/investigating-the-connection-between-traumatic-brain-injury-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-adolescents
#3
Tara Rhine, Amy Cassedy, Keith Owen Yeates, Hudson Gerry Taylor, Michael W Kirkwood, Shari L Wade
OBJECTIVE: To identify potentially modifiable individual and social-environmental correlates of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among adolescents hospitalized for traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: Four pediatric hospitals and 1 general hospital in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Children ages 11 to 18 years, hospitalized for moderate-severe TBI within the past 18 months. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511727/rejection-sensitivity-as-a-moderator-of-psychosocial-outcomes-following-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Emily A Meadows, Keith Owen Yeates, Kenneth H Rubin, H Gerry Taylor, Erin D Bigler, Maureen Dennis, Cynthia A Gerhardt, Kathryn Vannatta, Terry Stancin, Kristen R Hoskinson
OBJECTIVES: The current study examines whether psychosocial outcomes following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) vary as a function of children's rejection sensitivity (RS), defined as their disposition to be hypersensitive to cues of rejection from peers. METHODS: Children ages 8-13 with a history of severe TBI (STBI, n=16), complicated mild/moderate TBI (n=35), or orthopedic injury (OI, n=49) completed measures assessing self-esteem and RS on average 3.28 years post-injury (SD=1...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508995/l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-roles-and-neuroprotection-in-developing-brain
#5
Gustavo C Ferreira, Mary C McKenna
L-Carnitine functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation. Treatment with L-carnitine can ameliorate metabolic imbalances in many inborn errors of metabolism. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and its acetylated derivative acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) for neuroprotection in a number of disorders including hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and in conditions leading to central or peripheral nervous system injury...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507895/diverging-volumetric-trajectories-following-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Emily L Dennis, Joshua Faskowitz, Faisal Rashid, Talin Babikian, Richard Mink, Christopher Babbitt, Jeffrey Johnson, Christopher C Giza, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern, and can be especially disruptive in children, derailing on-going neuronal maturation in periods critical for cognitive development. There is considerable heterogeneity in post-injury outcomes, only partially explained by injury severity. Understanding the time course of recovery, and what factors may delay or promote recovery, will aid clinicians in decision-making and provide avenues for future mechanism-based therapeutics. We examined regional changes in brain volume in a pediatric/adolescent moderate-severe TBI (msTBI) cohort, assessed at two time points...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505355/uncovering-the-neuroanatomical-correlates-of-cognitive-affective-and-conative-theory-of-mind-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-neural-systems-perspective
#7
Nicholas P Ryan, Cathy Catroppa, Richard Beare, Timothy J Silk, Stephen J Hearps, Miriam H Beauchamp, Keith Owen Yeates, Vicki A Anderson
Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) are common after neurological insult acquired in the first and second decade of life, however the contribution of large-scale neural networks to ToM deficits in children with brain injury is unclear. Using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated the sub-acute effect of brain injury on gray-matter volume of three large-scale, domain-general brain networks (the Default Mode Network, DMN; the Central Executive Network, CEN; and the Salience Network, SN), as well as two domain-specific neural networks implicated in social-affective processes (the Cerebro-Cerebellar Mentalizing Network, CCMN, and the Mirror Neuron/Empathy Network, MNEN)...
May 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505079/melatonin-secretion-is-increased-in-children-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Lucia Marseglia, Gabriella D'Angelo, Sara Manti, Immacolata Rulli, Vincenzo Salvo, Giuseppe Buonocore, Russel J Reiter, Eloisa Gitto
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Oxidative stress plays a significant role in brain damage and melatonin exhibits both direct and indirect antioxidant effects. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate serum melatonin levels in children with severe TBI in comparison to critically ill children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit for conditions other than TBI. METHODS: Twenty-four children were evaluated, equally divided into severe TBI and no-TBI...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503704/use-of-eeg-in-critically-ill-children-and-neonates-in-the-united-states-of-america
#9
Marina Gaínza-Lein, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Tobias Loddenkemper
The objective of the study was to estimate the proportion of patients who receive an electroencephalogram (EEG) among five common indications for EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: traumatic brain injury (TBI), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), cardiac arrest, cardiac surgery and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We performed a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) for the years 2010-2012. The KID is the largest pediatric inpatient database in the USA and it is based on discharge reports created by hospitals for billing purposes...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497984/recovery-of-working-memory-following-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-longitudinal-analysis
#10
Stephanie Gorman, Marcia A Barnes, Paul R Swank, Linda Ewing-Cobbs
In a prospective longitudinal study, the trajectory of verbal and visual-spatial working memory (WM) development was examined 2-, 6-, 12-, and 24-months following complicated-mild to severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI; n = 55) relative to an orthopedic injury comparison group (n = 47). Individual growth curve modeling revealed an interaction of age, severity, and time for verbal, but not visual-spatial WM. The youngest children with severe TBI had the lowest scores and slowest verbal WM growth...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481580/neurocognitive-deficits-in-children-with-chronic-health-conditions
#11
Bruce E Compas, Sarah S Jaser, Kristen Reeslund, Niral Patel, Janet Yarboi
Over 4 million children in the United States suffer from chronic health conditions, including cancer, sickle cell disease, and diabetes. Because of major advances in the early identification and treatment of these conditions, survival rates for these children continue to rise, and the majority now lives into adulthood. However, increases in survival have come with costs related to long-term effects of disease processes and treatments. Foremost among these consequences is impairment in brain development and neurocognitive function that may affect a substantial portion of children with chronic health conditions and follow many into adulthood...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474982/posttraumatic-epilepsy-long-term-follow-up-of-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Amit Keret, Odeya Bennett-Back, Guy Rosenthal, Tal Gilboa, Moatasim Shweiki, Yigal Shoshan, Mony Benifla
OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a known complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The true incidence of PTE in children is still uncertain, because most research has been based primarily on adults. This study aimed to determine the true incidence of PTE in a pediatric population with mild TBI (MTBI) and to identify risk factors for the development of epileptic events. METHODS Data were collected from electronic medical records of children 0-17 years of age, who were admitted to a single medical center between 2007 and 2009 with a diagnosis of MTBI...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460697/pediatric-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-population-health-an-introduction-for-nursing-care-providers
#13
REVIEW
Michelle Borzik Goreth
Despite increasing injury prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children, most injuries in children are mild in severity. Even mild injuries can result in long-term or chronic effects not apparent until the child ages, resulting in increased economic burden and overall lifetime costs related to injury. Early recognition of TBI is essential for ongoing evaluation and management of acute symptoms and reduction of chronic health effects. Providing early interventions to manage acute and postconcussive symptoms and reducing health disparities in children with mild TBI can minimize adverse events that impact health-related quality of life for the injured child and their family and increase overall population health...
June 2017: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434268/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-uch-l1-as-a-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-target-in-neurodegeneration-neurotrauma-and-neuro-injuries
#14
Kevin K Wang, Zhihui Yang, George Sarkis, Isabel Torres, Vijaya Raghavan
Since its discovery as a major CNS-abundant protein 25 years ago, Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has emerged as an important enzyme in regulating brain protein metabolism, by coupling to the proteasome pathway of protein degradation. Areas covered: UCH-L1 is implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson disease and other chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Also, UCH-L1 has been recently emerging as a biofluid-based biomarker for various forms of acute neurotrauma and CNS injury. Expert opinion: The loss of UCH-L1 activity coupled with the gain of proteinopathy function are linked to neurodegeneration such as Parkinsonism and Alzheimer's disease...
April 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430697/abusive-head-trauma-and-mortality-an-analysis-from-an-international-comparative-effectiveness-study-of-children-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Nikki Miller Ferguson, Ajit Sarnaik, Darryl Miles, Nadeem Shafi, Mark J Peters, Edward Truemper, Monica S Vavilala, Michael J Bell, Stephen R Wisniewski, James F Luther, Adam L Hartman, Patrick M Kochanek
OBJECTIVES: Small series have suggested that outcomes after abusive head trauma are less favorable than after other injury mechanisms. We sought to determine the impact of abusive head trauma on mortality and identify factors that differentiate children with abusive head trauma from those with traumatic brain injury from other mechanisms. DESIGN: First 200 subjects from the Approaches and Decisions in Acute Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Trial-a comparative effectiveness study using an observational, cohort study design...
April 20, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429381/the-structural-connectome-of-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Marsh Königs, L W Ernest van Heurn, Roel Bakx, R Jeroen Vermeulen, J Carel Goslings, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Marleen van der Wees, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Jaap Oosterlaan, Petra J W Pouwels
This study aimed to investigate the impact of mild to severe pediatric TBI on the structural connectome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild(RF+) , n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 16) at 2.8 years post-injury. Probabilistic tractography on diffusion tensor imaging data was used in combination with graph theory to study structural connectivity. Functional outcome was measured using neurocognitive tests and parent and teacher questionnaires for behavioral functioning...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425334/remifentanil-for-sedation-of-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
James L Hungerford, Nicole O'Brien, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Eric A Sribnick, Cheryl Sargel, Mark Hall, Jeffrey R Leonard, Joseph D Tobias
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether remifentanil would provide adequate sedation while allowing frequent and reproducible neurologic assessments in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary care PICU. PATIENTS: Thirty-eight patients over a 30-month period. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Median age was 9 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413125/transient-dysautonomia-in-an-acute-phase-of-encephalopathy-with-biphasic-seizures-and-late-reduced-diffusion
#18
Yuko Ichimiya, Noriyuki Kaku, Yasunari Sakai, Fumiya Yamashita, Wakato Matsuoka, Mamoru Muraoka, Satoshi Akamine, Soichi Mizuguchi, Michiko Torio, Yoshitomo Motomura, Yuichiro Hirata, Yoshito Ishizaki, Masafumi Sanefuji, Hiroyuki Torisu, Hidetoshi Takada, Yoshihiko Maehara, Shouichi Ohga
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a dysautonomic condition that is associated with various types of acquired brain injuries. Traumatic brain lesions have been documented as the leading cause of PSH. However, detailed clinical features of pediatric PSH caused by intrinsic brain lesions remain to be elusive. We present a 3-year-old boy, who had been diagnosed as having cerebral palsy, developmental delay and epilepsy after perinatal hypoxia-induced brain injury. He developed status epilepticus with fever on the third day of respiratory infection...
April 13, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406438/u-s-trends-of-ed-visits-for-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injuries-implications-for-clinical-trials
#19
Cheng Chen, Junxin Shi, Rachel M Stanley, Eric A Sribnick, Jonathan I Groner, Henry Xiang
Our goal in this paper was to use the 2006-2013 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) database to describe trends of annual patient number, patient demographics and hospital characteristics of pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs); and to use the same database to estimate the available sample sizes for various clinical trials of pediatric TBI cases. National estimates of patient demographics and hospital characteristics were calculated for pediatric TBI...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405773/failure-and-fatigue-properties-of-immature-human-and-porcine-parasagittal-bridging-veins
#20
Stephanie A Pasquesi, Susan S Margulies
Tearing of the parasagittal bridging veins (BVs) is thought to be a source of extra-axial hemorrhage (EAH) associated with abusive traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children. However, the pediatric BV mechanical properties are unknown. We subjected porcine adult, porcine newborn, and human infant BVs to either a low rate pull to failure, a high rate pull to failure, or 30 s of cyclic loading followed by a pull to failure. An additional subset of human infant BVs was examined for viscoelastic recovery between two cycling episodes...
April 12, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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