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Juvenile traumatic brain injury

Wayne A Gordon, Lisa A Spielman, Amanda E Hahn-Ketter, Karla Therese L Sy
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and criminal behavior in youth who are incarcerated or on probation in Texas. SETTING: Seven juvenile justice facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Juvenile offenders in state or county correctional facilities or on probation. DESIGN: Screening for TBI was conducted among adolescents at 7 juvenile justice centers. MAIN MEASURES: Participants were administered the Brain Injury Screening Questionnaire, and results were linked to participants' offense history and psychiatric diagnoses...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
William M Armstead, John Riley, Monica S Vavilala
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of injury-related death in children, with boys and children <4 years of age having particularly poor outcomes. Cerebral autoregulation is often impaired after TBI, contributing to poor outcome. Cerebral perfusion pressure can be normalized by use of vasoactive agents. The c-Jun-terminal kinase (JNK) isoform of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) produces hemodynamic impairment after TBI, but less is known about its role in histopathology. We investigated whether epinephrine (EPI), age, and sex dependently protected cerebral autoregulation and limited histopathology after TBI, and sought to determine the role of JNK in that outcome...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
Kate Karelina, Kristopher R Gaier, Maya Prabhu, Vanessa Wenger, Timothy E D Corrigan, Zachary M Weil
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are a major public health problem with enormous costs in terms of health care dollars, lost productivity, and reduced quality of life. Alcohol is bidirectionally linked to TBI as many TBI patients are intoxicated at the time of their injury and we recently reported that, in accordance with human epidemiological data, animals injured during juvenile development self-administered significantly more alcohol as adults than did sham injured mice. There are also clinical data that drinking after TBI significantly reduces the efficacy of rehabilitation and leads to poorer long-term outcomes...
February 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Emily R White, Cristina Pinar, Crystal A Bostrom, Alicia Meconi, Brian R Christie
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is becoming recognized as a significant concern in modern society. In particular, youth is being increasingly seen as a vulnerable time period for mTBI, as this is the final developmental period for the brain and typically involves robust synaptic reorganization and axonal myelination. Another issue that is being hotly debated is whether mTBI differentially impacts the male and female brain. To examine the impact of mTBI in the juvenile brain, we measured hippocampal synaptic plasticity using a closed-head mTBI model in male and female Long-Evans rats (25-28 days of age) at either 1 h, 1 day, 7 days, or 28 days post-injury...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Angelina R A Pikstra, Zwany Metting, Johanna M Fock, Joukje van der Naalt
BACKGROUND: Annually 14.000 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) in the Netherlands. Presentation varies and a specific entity comprises the juvenile head trauma syndrome (JHTS) with secondary deterioration after a mild trauma. As outcome of JHTS can be fatal, early recognition is essential. AIM: To outline the epidemiology and clinical features of JHTS, in comparison to paediatric mild TBI patients without JHTS...
September 23, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Kevin S Nye, Matthew I Converse, Mar Janna Dahl, Kurt H Albertine, Kenneth L Monson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating problem for people of all ages, but the nature of the response to such injury is often different in children than in adults. Cerebral vessel damage and dysfunction are common following TBI, but age-dependent, large-deformation vessel response has not been characterized. Our objective was to investigate the mechanical properties of cerebral arteries as a function of development. Sheep middle cerebral arteries from four age groups (fetal, newborn, juvenile, and adult) were subjected to biaxial loading around physiological conditions and then to failure in the axial direction...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Bridgette D Semple, Jaclyn Carlson, Linda J Noble-Haeusslein
Due to a high incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents, age-specific studies are necessary to fully understand the long-term consequences of injuries to the immature brain. Preclinical and translational research can help elucidate the vulnerabilities of the developing brain to insult, and provide model systems to formulate and evaluate potential treatments aimed at minimizing the adverse effects of TBI. Several experimental TBI models have therefore been scaled down from adult rodents for use in juvenile animals...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
C S Allely
OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives of the present systematic PRISMA review were: (1) to explore the range of prevalence of TBI in offenders and whether this is higher than in a control sample; (2) to determine which screening measures are available and evaluate the evidence on these; and, lastly, (3) to evaluate whether prevalence of TBI is associated with increased prevalence of other health conditions and/or offending behaviour. METHODS: The present systematic PRISMA review explores the peer-reviewed literature published since 2005 which has investigated TBI in incarcerated populations using five databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO) in addition to separate searches conducted on 'Google Scholar' using specific search criteria...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Peter Deng, Audrey Torrest, Kari Pollock, Heather Dahlenburg, Geralyn Annett, Jan A Nolta, Kyle D Fink
Progress to date from our group and others indicate that using genetically-engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports our plan to submit an Investigational New Drug application to the Food and Drug Administration for the future planned Phase 1 safety and tolerability trial of MSC/BDNF in patients with Huntington's disease (HD). There are also potential applications of this approach beyond HD. Our biological delivery system for BDNF sets the precedent for adult stem cell therapy in the brain and could potentially be modified for other neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), Alzheimer's disease, and some forms of Parkinson's disease...
May 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Fanuel T Hagos, Monica J Daood, Jacob A Ocque, Thomas D Nolin, Hulya Bayir, Samuel M Poloyac, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert S B Clark, Philip E Empey
1. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is being investigated as an antioxidant for several conditions including traumatic brain injury, but the mechanism by which it crosses membrane barriers is unknown. We have attempted to understand how the transporter inhibitor, probenecid, affects NAC pharmacokinetics and to evaluate the interaction of NAC with transporters. 2. Juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats were administered NAC alone or in combination with probenecid intraperitoneally. Plasma and brain samples were collected serially and NAC concentrations were measured...
June 9, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
E Durand, L Watier, M Fix, J J Weiss, M Chevignard, P Pradat-Diehl
OBJECTIVE: The first aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of TBI and epilepsy in a French prison population and to study variables known to be associated with TBI. The second aim was to compare prisoners with and without a history of TBI. PARTICIPANTS: All offenders (females, males and juveniles) admitted consecutively to Fleury-Mérogis prison over a period of 3 months were included in the study. DESIGN: During the admission procedure, offenders were interviewed by healthcare staff using a self-reported questionnaire...
March 10, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Nicholas P Ryan, Cathy Catroppa, Celia Godfrey, Linda J Noble-Haeusslein, Sandy R Shultz, Terence J O'Brien, Vicki Anderson, Bridgette D Semple
Social dysfunction is common after traumatic brain injury (TBI), contributing to reduced quality of life for survivors. Factors which influence the development or persistence of social deficits after injury remain poorly understood, particularly in the context of ongoing brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Aberrant social interactions have recently been modeled in adult and juvenile rodents after experimental TBI, providing an opportunity to gain new insights into the underlying neurobiology of these behaviors...
May 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Zheng Zachory Wei, Jin Hwan Lee, Yongbo Zhang, Yan Bing Zhu, Todd C Deveau, Xiaohuan Gu, Megan M Winter, Jimei Li, Ling Wei, Shan Ping Yu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and long-term morbidity in children and adolescents. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently develops in these patients, leading to a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes. Currently, few therapeutic strategies are available to treat juveniles with PTSD and other developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present investigation, postnatal day 14 (P14) Wistar rats were subjected to TBI induced by a controlled cortical impact (CCI) (velocity = 3 m/s, depth = 2...
2016: Cell Transplantation
Harleen Hehar, Richelle Mychasiuk
Telomeres were originally believed to be passive players in cellular replication, but recent research has highlighted their more active role in epigenetic patterning and promotion of cellular growth and survival. Furthermore, literature demonstrates that telomere length (TL) is responsive to environmental manipulations such as prenatal stress and dietary programming. As the search for a prognostic biomarker of concussion has had limited success, this study sought to examine whether or not telomere length (TL) could be an efficacious predictor of symptom severity in juvenile rats following concussion...
March 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
William M Armstead, John Riley, Monica S Vavilala
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to morbidity in children, and boys are disproportionately represented. Cerebral autoregulation is impaired after TBI, contributing to poor outcome. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is often normalized by use of vasoactive agents to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP). In prior studies of 1- to 5-day-old newborn piglets, we observed that norepinephrine (NE) preferentially protected cerebral autoregulation and prevented hippocampal necrosis in females but not males after fluid percussion injury (FPI)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Harleen Hehar, Keith Yeates, Bryan Kolb, Michael J Esser, Richelle Mychasiuk
Impulsivity and poor executive control have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Similarly, concussions/mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) have been associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders and the development of impulsivity and inattention. Researchers and epidemiologists have therefore considered whether or not concussions induce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or merely unmask impulsive tendencies that were already present...
2015: PloS One
Zachary M Weil, Kate Karelina, Kristopher R Gaier, Timothy E D Corrigan, John D Corrigan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is closely and bi-directionally linked with alcohol use, as by some estimates intoxication is the direct or indirect cause of one-third to one-half of all TBI cases. Alcohol use following injury can reduce the efficacy of rehabilitation and increase the chances for additional injury. Finally, TBI itself may be a risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders. Children who suffer TBIs have poorer life outcomes and more risk of substance abuse. We used a standardized closed-head injury to model mild traumatic brain injuries...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Richelle Mychasiuk, Harleen Hehar, Michael J Esser
Although attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly reported after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), research is struggling to find a strong link between mild TBI or concussion and ADHD. Epidemiological studies often generate conflicting results which may be related to the difficulty identifying the lingering symptoms of mTBI, the lack of baseline knowledge and the possible exacerbation of pre-existing ADHD symptomology, and/or differential diagnostic criteria for secondary ADHD...
June 1, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
Prathiba Chitsabesan, Charlotte Lennox, Huw Williams, Omar Tariq, Jenny Shaw
BACKGROUND: Young people in contact with the youth juvenile justice system have well-documented vulnerabilities including high rates of mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders. Studies have suggested that they may also be at increased risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI). OBJECTIVE: (1) To describe the profile of a cohort of juvenile offenders with TBI and associated comorbidity with other neurodevelopmental disorders, mental health needs, and offending behavior...
March 2015: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Joseph A Wszalek, Lyn S Turkstra
As many as 30% of incarcerated juveniles have a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Moderate or severe TBI is associated with a high risk of impairment in language comprehension and expression, which may have profound effects on juveniles' ability to understand and express themselves in criminal proceedings. In this article, we review common language impairments in youths with TBI and discuss potential effects of these impairments on 3 stages of US criminal proceedings: (1) initial encounter with law enforcement; (2) interrogation and Miranda rights; and (3) competence to undergo trial proceedings...
March 2015: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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