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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677197/a-novel-statistical-method-for-assessing-effective-adherence-to-medication-and-calculating-optimal-drug-dosages
#1
Garrett Greene, Richard W Costello, Breda Cushen, Imran Sulaiman, Elaine Mac Hale, Ronan M Conroy, Frank Doyle
OBJECTIVE: We derive a novel model-based metric for effective adherence to medication, and validate it using data from the INhaler Compliance Assessment device (INCATM). This technique employs dose timing data to estimate the threshold drug concentration needed to maintain optimal health. METHODS: The parameters of the model are optimised against patient outcome data using maximum likelihood methods. The model is fitted and validated by secondary analysis of two independent datasets from two remote-monitoring studies of adherence, conducted through clinical research centres of 5 Irish hospitals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676646/ambient-air-pollution-and-clinical-implications-for-susceptible-populations
#2
Laura G Hooper, Joel D Kaufman
Air pollution is associated with a diversity of health effects, and evidence for a causal relationship with specific diseases exists. Exposure to air pollution is ubiquitous and typically beyond the control of the individual; the resulting health burden for the population can be high. Disproportionate effects are seen in individuals who have increased susceptibility to air pollution owing to individual- or community-level characteristics. As studies grow increasingly sophisticated, the understanding of who comprises the susceptible population continuously expands...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676630/international-approach-to-environmental-and-lung-health-a-perspective-from-the-fogarty-international-center
#3
Roger I Glass, Joshua P Rosenthal
The global burden of lung disease is substantial, accounting for an estimated 7.5 million deaths per year, approximately 14% of annual deaths worldwide. The prime illnesses include, in descending order, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections, asthma, and interstitial lung fibrosis. Key risk factors include smoking, both indoor and outdoor air pollution, and occupational exposures. Although the distribution of both the diseases and the risk factors varies greatly by age, geography, and setting, the greatest burden falls on populations living in low- and middle-income countries...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676069/perceptions-of-severe-asthma-and-asthma-copd-overlap-syndrome-among-specialists-a-questionnaire-survey
#4
Sang Heon Kim, Ji Yong Moon, Jae Hyun Lee, Ga Young Ban, Sujeong Kim, Mi Ae Kim, Joo Hee Kim, Min Hye Kim, Chan Sun Park, So Young Park, Hyouk Soo Kwon, Jae Woo Kwon, Jae Woo Jung, Hye Ryun Kang, Jong Sook Park, Tae Bum Kim, Heung Woo Park, You Sook Cho, Kwang Ha Yoo, Yeon Mok Oh, Byung Jae Lee, An Soo Jang, Sang Heon Cho, Hae Sim Park, Choon Sik Park, Ho Joo Yoon
PURPOSE: Severe asthma and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) are difficult to control and are often associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, much is not understood regarding the diagnosis and treatment of severe asthma and ACOS. To evaluate the current perceptions of severe asthma and COPD among asthma and COPD specialists, we designed an e-mail and internet-based questionnaire survey. METHODS: Subjects were selected based on clinical specialty from among the members of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672122/pruning-of-the-pulmonary-vasculature-in-asthma-the-sarp-cohort
#5
Samuel Y Ash, Farbod N Rahaghi, Carolyn E Come, James C Ross, Alysha G Colon, Juan Carlos Cardet-Guisasola, Eleanor M Dunican, Eugene R Bleecker, Mario Castro, John V Fahy, Sean B Fain, Benjamin M Gaston, Eric A Hoffman, Nizar N Jarjour, David T Mauger, Sally E Wenzel, Bruce D Levy, Raul San Jose Estepar, Elliot Israel, George R Washko
RATIONALE: Loss of the peripheral pulmonary vasculature, termed vascular pruning, is associated with disease severity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine if pulmonary vascular pruning is associated with asthma severity and exacerbations. METHODS: We measured the total pulmonary blood vessel volume (TBV) and the blood vessel volume of vessels less than 5mm2 in cross sectional area (BV5) and of vessels less than 10mm2 (BV10) in cross sectional area on non-contrast computed tomographic scans of participants from the Severe Asthma Research Program...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670674/tiotropium-for-the-treatment-of-asthma-patient-selection-and-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
V Madhu Chari, Robert Andrew McIvor
Asthma is a chronic disease of airway inflammation with a large global burden. Despite established, guideline-based stepwise therapy, a significant proportion of patients remain symptomatic and poorly controlled. As such, there is a need for additional safe, effective, convenient, and cost-effective therapies that can be broadly applied across a range of asthma phenotypes. Tiotropium is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) that leads to bronchodilation by blocking endogenous acetylcholine receptors in the airways...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667303/mir-146a-regulates-pm-1-induced-inflammation-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-beas-2b-cells
#7
Limin Liu, Chong Wan, Wei Zhang, Longfei Guan, Guoxiong Tian, Fang Zhang, Wenjun Ding
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) leads to kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases, such as asthma, COPD, arrhythmias, lung cancer, etc., which are related to PM-induced inflammation. We have found that PM2.5 (aerodynamics diameter <2.5 µm) exposure induces inflammatory response both in vivo and in vitro. Since the toxicity of PM is tightly associated with its size and components, PM1 (aerodynamics diameter <1.0 µm) is supposed to be more toxic than PM2.5 . However, the mechanism of PM1 -induced inflammation is not clear...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653129/delivering-drugs-to-the-lungs-the-history-of-repurposing-in-the-treatment-of-respiratory-diseases
#8
Stephen P Newman
The repurposing of drug delivery by the pulmonary route has been applied to treatment and prophylaxis of an increasingly wide range of respiratory diseases. Repurposing has been most successful for the delivery of inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Repurposing utilizes the advantages that the pulmonary route offers in terms of more targeted delivery to the site of action, the use of smaller doses, and a lower incidence of side-effects...
April 10, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649811/transcription-elongation-factor-p-tefb-is-involved-in-il-17f-signaling-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#9
Masayuki Nakajima, Mio Kawaguchi, Masashi Matsuyama, Kyoko Ota, Junichi Fujita, Satoshi Matsukura, Shau-Ku Huang, Yuko Morishima, Yukio Ishii, Hiroaki Satoh, Tohru Sakamoto, Nobuyuki Hizawa
BACKGROUND: IL-17F is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including asthma and COPD. However, the effects of steroids on the function of IL-17F signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. One of the transcription elongation factors, positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) composed of cyclin T1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), is known as a novel checkpoint regulator of gene expression via bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4). METHODS: Human airway smooth muscle cells were stimulated with IL-17F and the expression of IL-8 was evaluated by real-time PCR and ELISA...
April 12, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648520/transfer-coefficients-kco-better-reflect-emphysematous-changes-than-carbon-monoxide-diffusing-capacity-dlco-in-obstructive-lung-diseases
#10
Kaoruko Shimizu, Satoshi Konno, Hironi Makita, Hirokazu Kimura, Hiroki Kimura, Masaru Suzuki, Masaharu Nishimura
The overlap between asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has attracted the interest of pulmonary physicians; thus, measurement of carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLco) and/or transfer coefficients (Kco, DLco/VA) may become valuable in clinical settings. How these parameters behave in chronic obstructive lung diseases is poorly understood. We predicted that Kco might more accurately reflect emphysematous changes in the lungs, than DLco. We examined DLco and Kco in non-smokers and smokers with asthma and investigated their relationships with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (%FEV1 ) by group...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628377/lung-function-trajectories-from-pre-school-age-to-adulthood-and-their-associations-with-early-life-factors-a-retrospective-analysis-of-three-population-based-birth-cohort-studies
#11
Danielle C M Belgrave, Raquel Granell, Steve W Turner, John A Curtin, Iain E Buchan, Peter N Le Souëf, Angela Simpson, A John Henderson, Adnan Custovic
BACKGROUND: Maximal lung function in early adulthood is an important determinant of mortality and COPD. We investigated whether distinct trajectories of lung function are present during childhood and whether these extend to adulthood and infancy. METHODS: To ascertain trajectories of FEV1 , we studied two population-based birth cohorts (MAAS and ALSPAC) with repeat spirometry from childhood into early adulthood (1046 participants from 5-16 years and 1390 participants from 8-24 years)...
April 5, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628376/childhood-predictors-of-lung-function-trajectories-and-future-copd-risk-a-prospective-cohort-study-from-the-first-to-the-sixth-decade-of-life
#12
Dinh S Bui, Caroline J Lodge, John A Burgess, Adrian J Lowe, Jennifer Perret, Minh Q Bui, Gayan Bowatte, Lyle Gurrin, David P Johns, Bruce R Thompson, Garun S Hamilton, Peter A Frith, Alan L James, Paul S Thomas, Deborah Jarvis, Cecilie Svanes, Melissa Russell, Stephen C Morrison, Iain Feather, Katrina J Allen, Richard Wood-Baker, John Hopper, Graham G Giles, Michael J Abramson, Eugene H Walters, Melanie C Matheson, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND: Lifetime lung function is related to quality of life and longevity. Over the lifespan, individuals follow different lung function trajectories. Identification of these trajectories, their determinants, and outcomes is important, but no study has done this beyond the fourth decade. METHODS: We used six waves of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) to model lung function trajectories measured at 7, 13, 18, 45, 50, and 53 years. We analysed pre-bronchodilator FEV1 z-scores at the six timepoints using group-based trajectory modelling to identify distinct subgroups of individuals whose measurements followed a similar pattern over time...
April 5, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627118/alveolar-and-bronchial-nitric-oxide-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-asthma-copd-overlap
#13
Bernardino Alcázar-Navarrete, Francisca Castellano Miñán, Pablo Santiago Díaz, Oliveiro Ruiz Rodríguez, Pedro J Romero Palacios
INTRODUCTION: Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO ) measurements differentiate COPD phenotypes from asthma-COPD overlap (ACO). To date, no study has been conducted to determine whether alveolar and bronchial components differ in this group of patients. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study recruiting ambulatory COPD patients. FENO was measured, differentiating alveolar (CANO ) from bronchial (JawNO ) components using a multiple-flow technique. CANO and JawNO values were compared between eosinophilic COPD patients (defined as ≥ 300 eosinophils/μL in peripheral blood test, or ≥ 2% eosinophils or ≥ 3% eosinophils), and a linear regression analysis was performed to determine clinical and biological variables related to these measurements...
April 4, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626985/asthma-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-overlap-aco-an-emerging-entity-in-allergic-respiratory-diseases
#14
EDITORIAL
Jun Tamaoki, Kenji Izuhara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626211/targeting-cytokines-to-treat-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
REVIEW
Peter J Barnes
Cytokines play a key role in orchestrating and perpetuating the chronic airway inflammation in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), making them attractive targets for treating these disorders. Asthma and some cases of COPD are mainly driven by type 2 immune responses, which comprise increased airway eosinophils, T helper 2 (TH 2) cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the secretion of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Clinical trials of antibodies that block these interleukins have shown reduced acute exacerbations and oral corticosteroid use and improvements in lung function and symptoms in selected patients...
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620545/endobronchial-biopsy-in-the-final-diagnosis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-asthma-a-clinicopathological-study
#16
Maria Abdulrahim Arafah, Emad Raddaoui, Faisal Al Kassimi, Esam H Alhamad, Ahmed Amer Alboukai, Ahlam Abdullah Alshedoukhy, Abderrahman Ouban
BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic conditions with an increasing prevalence in developing countries. The evaluation of endobronchial biopsies has emerged as a tool to differentiate between both conditions via the measurement of the reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness with various conclusions drawn from different studies. OBJECTIVES: Compare the thickness of the RBM between asthma and COPD and evaluate other histomorphological features in both groups...
March 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617859/human-lung-epithelial-cells-support-human-metapneumovirus-persistence-by-overcoming-apoptosis
#17
Stefania Marsico, Francesca Caccuri, Pietro Mazzuca, Paola Apostoli, Sara Roversi, Giovanni Lorenzin, Alberto Zani, Simona Fiorentini, Cinzia Giagulli, Arnaldo Caruso
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been identified as a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children. Epidemiological and molecular evidence has highlighted an association between severe childhood respiratory viral infection and chronic lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Currently, animal models have demonstrated the ability of hMPV to persist in vivo suggesting a role of the virus in asthma development in children. However, mechanisms involved in hMPV persistence in the respiratory tract are not yet understood...
March 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617436/correction-clinical-and-inflammatory-characteristics-of-asthma-copd-overlap-in-workers-with-occupational-asthma
#18
Iñigo Ojanguren, Gregory Moullec, Jad Hobeika, Marc Miravitlles, Catherine Lemiere
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193144.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617009/correction-differentiation-of-quantitative-ct-imaging-phenotypes-in-asthma-versus-copd
#19
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1136/bmjresp-2017-000252.].
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615204/effect-of-air-quality-alerts-on-human-health-a-regression-discontinuity-analysis-in-toronto-canada
#20
Hong Chen, Qiongsi Li, Jay S Kaufman, Jun Wang, Ray Copes, Yushan Su, Tarik Benmarhnia
BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is a major health risk globally. To reduce adverse health effects on days when air pollution is high, government agencies worldwide have implemented air quality alert programmes. Despite their widespread use, little is known about whether these programmes produce any observable public-health benefits. We assessed the effectiveness of such programmes using a quasi-experimental approach. METHODS: We assembled a population-based cohort comprising all individuals who resided in the city of Toronto (Ontario, Canada) from 2003 to 2012 (about 2·6 million people)...
January 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
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