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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731031/nlrp9b-a-novel-rna-sensing-inflammasome-complex
#1
Chinh Ngo, Si Ming Man
Inflammasome sensors recognize pathogens and danger signals and assemble an immune signaling complex, which induces the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, and pyroptosis. A new study published in Nature now describes a new inflammasome sensor NLRP9b in intestinal epithelial cells, which in concert with the RNA sensor DHX9, recognize short dsRNA from Rotavirus.
July 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729628/a-new-approach-for-ratiometric-in-vivo-calcium-imaging-of-microglia
#2
Bianca Brawek, Yajie Liang, Daria Savitska, Kaizhen Li, Natalie Fomin-Thunemann, Yury Kovalchuk, Elizabeta Zirdum, Johan Jakobsson, Olga Garaschuk
Microglia, resident immune cells of the brain, react to the presence of pathogens/danger signals with a large repertoire of functional responses including morphological changes, proliferation, chemotaxis, production/release of cytokines, and phagocytosis. In vitro studies suggest that many of these effector functions are Ca(2+)-dependent, but our knowledge about in vivo Ca(2+) signalling in microglia is rudimentary. This is mostly due to technical reasons, as microglia largely resisted all attempts of in vivo labelling with Ca(2+) indicators...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725984/cytokine-expression-and-barrier-disruption-in-human-corneal-epithelial-cells-induced-by-alarmin-released-from-necrotic-cells
#3
Ken Fukuda, Waka Ishida, Yusaku Miura, Tatsuma Kishimoto, Atsuki Fukushima
PURPOSE: Dying cells release endogenous molecules known as alarmins that signal danger to surrounding tissue. We investigated the effects of necrotic cell-derived alarmins on cytokine expression and barrier function in human corneal epithelial cells. METHODS: The release of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from immortalized human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells in culture was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The abundance of IL-6 and 8 mRNAs was quantitated by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis...
July 19, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725637/opportunistic-pathogen-porphyromonas-gingivalis-modulates-danger-signal-atp-mediated-antibacterial-nox2-pathways-in-primary-epithelial-cells
#4
JoAnn S Roberts, Kalina R Atanasova, Jungnam Lee, Gill Diamond, Jeff Deguzman, Chul Hee Choi, Özlem Yilmaz
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major opportunistic pathogen in the etiology of chronic periodontitis, successfully survives in human gingival epithelial cells (GECs). P. gingivalis abrogates the effects of a host danger molecule, extracellular ATP (eATP)/P2X7 signaling, such as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the mitochondria and NADPH oxidases (NOX) from primary GECs. However, antimicrobial functions of ROS production are thoroughly investigated in myeloid-lineage immune cells and have not been well-understood in epithelial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722711/limiting-inflammation-the-negative-regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#5
REVIEW
Inna S Afonina, Zhenyu Zhong, Michael Karin, Rudi Beyaert
A properly mounted immune response is indispensable for recognizing and eliminating danger arising from foreign invaders and tissue trauma. However, the 'inflammatory fire' kindled by the host response must be tightly controlled to prevent it from spreading and causing irreparable damage. Accordingly, acute inflammation is self-limiting and is normally attenuated after elimination of noxious stimuli, restoration of homeostasis and initiation of tissue repair. However, unresolved inflammation may lead to the development of chronic autoimmune and degenerative diseases and cancer...
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718816/complex-dna-damage-a-route-to-radiation-induced-genomic-instability-and-carcinogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Ifigeneia V Mavragani, Zacharenia Nikitaki, Maria P Souli, Asef Aziz, Somaira Nowsheen, Khaled Aziz, Emmy Rogakou, Alexandros G Georgakilas
Cellular effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are of great variety and level, but they are mainly damaging since radiation can perturb all important components of the cell, from the membrane to the nucleus, due to alteration of different biological molecules ranging from lipids to proteins or DNA. Regarding DNA damage, which is the main focus of this review, as well as its repair, all current knowledge indicates that IR-induced DNA damage is always more complex than the corresponding endogenous damage resulting from endogenous oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716882/protein-kinase-d-at-the-golgi-controls-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#7
Zhirong Zhang, Gergö Meszaros, Wan-Ting He, Yanfang Xu, Helena de Fatima Magliarelli, Laurent Mailly, Michael Mihlan, Yansheng Liu, Marta Puig Gámez, Alexander Goginashvili, Adrien Pasquier, Olga Bielska, Bénédicte Neven, Pierre Quartier, Rudolf Aebersold, Thomas F Baumert, Philippe Georgel, Jiahuai Han, Romeo Ricci
The inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes sensing tissue damage and infectious agents to initiate innate immune responses. Different inflammasomes containing distinct sensor molecules exist. The NLRP3 inflammasome is unique as it detects a variety of danger signals. It has been reported that NLRP3 is recruited to mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs) and is activated by MAM-derived effectors. Here, we show that in response to inflammasome activators, MAMs localize adjacent to Golgi membranes...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713392/il-15-harnesses-pro-inflammatory-function-of-temra-cd8-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#8
Gaëlle Tilly, Tra-My Doan-Ngoc, Michelle Yap, Aurélie Caristan, Lola Jacquemont, Richard Danger, Marion Cadoux, Sarah Bruneau, Magali Giral, Pierrick Guerif, Bryan Nicol, Alexandra Garcia, David-Axel Laplaud, Sophie Brouard, Claire Pecqueur Hellman, Nicolas Degauque
The involvement of TEMRA CD8 is evident in a large array of immunological conditions ranging from auto- to allo-immunity. Nevertheless, the factors leading to their accumulation and activation remain ill-defined and, efficient therapeutics to control their inflammatory response is lacking. Here, we show that IL-15-stimulated TEMRA from kidney-transplant (KT) recipients promote inflammation by inducing the expression of CX3CL1 by endothelial cells in an IFN-γ- and TNF-α-dependent manner. The responsiveness of TEMRA to IL-15 is not restricted to chronic stimulation, as TEMRA from healthy volunteers respond earlier and faster when compared to effector memory (EM)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712470/field-proteomics-of-populus-alba-grown-in-a-heavily-modified-environment-an-example-of-a-tannery-waste-landfill
#9
Agnieszka Szuba, Gabriela Lorenc-Plucińska
Tannery waste is highly toxic and dangerous to living organisms because of the high heavy metal content, especially chromium [Cr(III)]. This study analysed the proteomic response of the Populus alba L. clone 'Villafranca' grown for 4years on a tannery waste landfill. In this extremely hostile environment, the plants struggled with continuous stress, which inhibited growth by 54%, with a 67% decrease in tree height and diameter at breast height compared to those of the forest reference plot, respectively. The leaves and roots of the tannery landfill-grown plants produced strong proteomic stress signals for protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and repair to ROS-damaged proteins and DNA as well as signals for protection of the photosynthetic apparatus...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705494/inflammation-initiated-by-stressed-organelles
#10
Fabio Martinon
Key cellular functions including those related to energy metabolism, organization of the genetic information or production of membrane-bound and secreted proteins are compartmentalized within organelles. Various stresses such as differentiation programs, viral and bacterial infections, perturbations in protein production, mechanical constraints, changes in the environment and nutriment accessibility can impact cellular homeostasis and organelle integrity. Perturbations of these cellular compartments trigger repair and adaptation programs aimed at restoring homeostasis...
July 10, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704139/influencing-safety-in-australian-agriculture-and-fisheries
#11
Kristin E McBain-Rigg, Richard C Franklin, Jemma C King, Tony Lower
BACKGROUND: Improving the health and safety of those working in Australian agriculture and fishery industries is a recognized priority area for preventative activities. With Australian agricultural industries being among the nation's most dangerous workplaces, there is a need for action. While there are currently known solutions, their implementation is limited. Influential agents, that is, people who can influence others, are important for helping to engender action to enact solutions into practice...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701426/dynamics-of-in-vivo-asc-speck-formation
#12
Paola Kuri, Nicole L Schieber, Thomas Thumberger, Joachim Wittbrodt, Yannick Schwab, Maria Leptin
Activated danger or pathogen sensors trigger assembly of the inflammasome adaptor ASC into specks, large signaling platforms considered hallmarks of inflammasome activation. Because a lack of in vivo tools has prevented the study of endogenous ASC dynamics, we generated a live ASC reporter through CRISPR/Cas9 tagging of the endogenous gene in zebrafish. We see strong ASC expression in the skin and other epithelia that act as barriers to insult. A toxic stimulus triggered speck formation and rapid pyroptosis in keratinocytes in vivo...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701312/inflammation-and-premature-aging-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Jeroen Kooman, Marijke Dekker, Len A Usvyat, Peter Kotanko, Frank Van der Sande, Casper G Schalkwijk, Paul G Shiels, Peter Stenvinkel
Systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an established risk factor for mortality and a catalyst for other complications which are related to a premature aging phenotype, including muscle wasting, vascular calcification and other forms of premature vascular disease, depression, osteoporosis and frailty. Uremic inflammation is also mechanistically related to mechanisms involved in the aging process, such as telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered nutrient sensing, which can have direct effect on cellular and tissue function...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699371/minocycline-attenuates-high-mobility-group-box-1-translocation-microglial-activation-and-thalamic-neurodegeneration-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-postnatal-day-17-rats
#14
Dennis William Simon, Rajesh K Aneja, Henry Alexander, Michael J Bell, Hulya Bayir, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert S B Clark
In response to cell injury the danger signal high mobility group box-1 (HMGB) is released, activating macrophages by binding pattern recognition receptors. We investigated the role of the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline in attenuating HMGB1 translocation, microglial activation, and neuronal injury in a rat model of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Postnatal day 17 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to moderate-severe controlled cortical impact (CCI). Animals were randomized to treatment with minocycline (90 mg/kg, i...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699352/redox-signaling-in-diabetic-wound-healing-regulates-extracellular-matrix-deposition
#15
Britta Kunkemoeller, Themis Kyriakides
SIGNIFICANCE: Impaired wound healing is a major complication of diabetes, and can lead to development of chronic foot ulcers in a significant portion of patient. Despite the danger posed by poor healing, very few specific therapies exist, leaving patients at risk of hospitalization, amputation, and further decline in overall health. Recent Advances: Redox signaling is a key regulator of wound healing, especially through its influence on the extracellular matrix (ECM). Normal redox signaling is disrupted in diabetes leading to several pathological mechanisms that alter the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and scavenging...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698504/impact-of-autophagy-in-oncolytic-adenoviral-therapy-for-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Hiroshi Tazawa, Shinji Kuroda, Joe Hasei, Shunsuke Kagawa, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara
Oncolytic virotherapy has recently emerged as a promising strategy for inducing tumor-specific cell death. Adenoviruses are widely and frequently used in oncolytic virotherapy. The mechanism of oncolytic adenovirus-mediated tumor suppression involves virus-induced activation of the autophagic machinery in tumor cells. Autophagy is a cytoprotective process that produces energy via lysosomal degradation of intracellular components as a physiologic response to various stresses, including hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and disruption of growth signaling...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694507/a-novel-highly-sensitive-no2-sensor-based-on-perovskite-na0-5-xbi0-5tio3-%C3%AE-electrolyte
#17
Yihong Xiao, Chufan Zhang, Xu Zhang, Guohui Cai, Yong Zheng, Ying Zheng, Fulan Zhong, Lilong Jiang
NOx is one of dangerous air pollutants, and the demands for reliable sensors to detect NOx are extremely urgent recently. Conventional fluorite-phase YSZ used for NOx sensor requires higher operating temperature to obtain desirable oxygen ion conductivity. In this work, perovskite-phase Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) oxygen conductor was chosen as the solid electrolyte to fabricate a novel highly sensitive NO2 sensor with CuO as the sensing electrode and Pt as reference electrode. Na dopped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 greatly improved the sensing performance of this sensor...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692414/how-common-is-within-plant-signalling-via-volatiles
#18
Tao Li, James D Blande
Many plants respond to herbivory by releasing a complex blend of volatiles that may differ from that emitted by intact counterparts. These herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) mediate many interactions among plants and their community members, including alerting undamaged leaves of the attacked or neighbouring plants to impending danger. It has been postulated that HIPVs evolved for within-plant signalling and that other organisms subsequently evolved to use them. However, only seven studies have reported HIPV-mediated within-plant signalling, most conducted in the laboratory or greenhouse...
July 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687662/virus-triggered-atp-release-limits-viral-replication-through-facilitating-ifn-%C3%AE-production-in-a-p2x7-dependent-manner
#19
Chengfei Zhang, Hongwang He, Li Wang, Na Zhang, Hongjun Huang, Qingqing Xiong, Yan Yan, Nannan Wu, Hua Ren, Honghui Han, Mingyao Liu, Min Qian, Bing Du
Accumulating evidence shows that innate immune responses are associated with extracellular nucleotides, particularly ATP. In this article, we demonstrate extensive protection of ATP/P2X7 signaling in a host against viral infection. Interestingly, we observed a significant increase in ATP as a danger signal in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cell supernatant and VSV-infected mice in an exocytosis- and pannexin channel-dependent manner. Furthermore, extracellular ATP reduces the replication of VSV, Newcastle disease virus, murine leukemia virus, and HSV in vivo and in vitro through the P2X7 receptor...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686335/infection-and-apoptosis-associated-with-inflammation-in-periodontitis-an-immunohistologic-study
#20
Dyah Listyarifah, Ahmed Al-Samadi, Abdelhakim Salem, Ahmad Syaify, Tuula Salo, Taina Tervahartiala, Daniel Grenier, Dan C Nordström, Timo Sorsa, Mari Ainola
OBJECTIVE: Evidence of increased apoptosis is observed in periodontitis, and may be associated with destruction of the periodontal tissue caused by the increased cell death, with the release of danger signals and subsequent stimulation of the proinflammatory processes. However, the exact mechanisms associated with these processes remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the presence of the periodontal pathogen Treponema denticola, apoptosis, High Mobility Group Box1 as a damage-associated molecular pattern and several inflammatory markers in periodontitis and gingivitis subjects...
July 7, 2017: Oral Diseases
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