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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640516/damp-molecular-il-33-augments-monocytic-inflammatory-storm-in-hepatitis-b-precipitated-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#1
Xiaoxing Du, Yu Shi, Ying Yang, Ye Yu, Guohua Lou, Fangfang Lv, Zhi Chen, Qiao Yang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) usually exhibit defective monocyte function and excessive systemic inflammatory response. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) acts as a danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) to modulate immune response. However, the role of IL-33 in regulating monocyte function during hepatitis B-precipitated ACLF (HB-ACLF) in response to lipopolisaccharide (LPS) has not been clear. METHODS: In the present study, the levels of IL-33/ST2 in blood and liver samples collected from patients with HB-ACLF, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and normal controls and the associated of those findings with disease severity were analyzed...
June 22, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638724/calcium-electroporation-induces-tumor-eradication-long-lasting-immunity-and-cytokine-responses-in-the-ct26-colon-cancer-mouse-model
#2
Hanne Falk, Patrick F Forde, Marie Lund Bay, Uma Maheswari Mangalanathan, Pernille Hojman, Declan M Soden, Julie Gehl
Electroporation is used in cancer treatment because of its ability to increase local cytotoxicity of e.g. bleomycin (electrochemotherapy) and calcium (calcium electroporation). Calcium electroporation is a novel anticancer treatment that selectively kills cancer cells by necrosis, a cell death pathway that stimulates the immune system due to high release of antigens and "danger signals." In this exploratory study, we aimed to investigate whether calcium electroporation could initiate an anticancer immune response similar to electrochemotherapy...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630380/the-immunological-basis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-gout
#3
Junwei Chen, Meng Wu, Jinhua Yang, Jing Wang, Yue Qiao, Xiaofeng Li
Gout is an inflammatory arthritis characterized by red, tender, hot and tumid joints. The development cause and process of gout is very sophisticated; recent studies, notwithstanding, have offered novel perspectives on the mechanism from an immunological viewpoint. The pathological process of gout involves both innate and adaptive immune responses. Other studies have demonstrated that gout development is associated with the presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals which serve as a "danger signal" affecting certain immune cells, cytokine production, and effector molecule expression, triggering both types of immune responses...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615545/inhibitory-effects-of-low-decibel-infrasound-on-the-cardiac-fibroblasts-and-the-involved-mechanism
#4
Wei Jin, Qin-Qin Deng, Bao-Ying Chen, Zhen-Xing Lu, Qing Li, Hai-Kang Zhao, Pan Chang, Jun Yu, Zhao-Hui Pei
INTRODUCTION: Infrasound is a mechanical vibration wave with frequency between 0.0001 and 20 Hz. It has been established that infrasound of 120 dB or stronger is dangerous to humans. However, the biological effects of low decibel infrasound are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low decibel infrasound on the cardiac fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cardiac fibroblasts were isolated and cultured from Sprague-Dawley rats...
May 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595089/dexamethasone-facilitates-fear-extinction-and-safety-discrimination-in-ptsd-a-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#5
Vasiliki Michopoulos, Seth D Norrholm, Jennifer S Stevens, Ebony M Glover, Barbara O Rothbaum, Charles F Gillespie, Ann C Schwartz, Kerry J Ressler, Tanja Jovanovic
Psychophysiological hallmarks of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include exaggerated fear responses, impaired inhibition and extinction of conditioned fear, and decreased discrimination between safety and fear cues. This increased fear load associated with PTSD can be a barrier to effective therapy thus indicating the need for new treatments to reduce fear expression in people with PTSD. One potential biological target for reducing fear expression in PTSD is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is dysregulated in PTSD...
May 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593730/dynamics-of-cytokine-gene-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-indigenous-and-exotic-breeds-of-pigs-in-india
#6
Perumalraja Kirthika, Mohammad Ayub Ali, Parthasarathi Behera, Prasant Kumar Subudhi, Thingujam Chaa Tolenkhomba, Jagan Mohanarao Gali
To incorporate immune competence traits in swine breeding programs, association between immune responsiveness and susceptibility to specific infectious diseases must be established. In order to understand the differences in immune competence between indigenous (Zovawk) and exotic (Large White Yorkshire: LWY) pigs reared in India, we carried out a time course expression analysis of immune-regulating key cytokine genes (interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4 and IL-10) in the phytohemagglutinin-P stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
June 8, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588585/leaky-gut-as-a-danger-signal-for-autoimmune-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Qinghui Mu, Jay Kirby, Christopher M Reilly, Xin M Luo
The intestinal epithelial lining, together with factors secreted from it, forms a barrier that separates the host from the environment. In pathologic conditions, the permeability of the epithelial lining may be compromised allowing the passage of toxins, antigens, and bacteria in the lumen to enter the blood stream creating a "leaky gut." In individuals with a genetic predisposition, a leaky gut may allow environmental factors to enter the body and trigger the initiation and development of autoimmune disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588460/aversive-learning-of-colored-lights-in-walking-honeybees
#8
Nicholas H Kirkerud, Ulrike Schlegel, C Giovanni Galizia
The honeybee has been established as an important model organism in studies on visual learning. So far the emphasis has been on appetitive conditioning, simulating floral discrimination, and homing behavior, where bees perform exceptionally well in visual discrimination tasks. However, bees in the wild also face dangers, and recent findings suggest that what is learned about visual percepts is highly context dependent. A stimulus that follows an unpleasant period, is associated with the feeling of relief- or safety in humans and animals, thus acquiring a positive meaning...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587064/prostaglandin-e2-induced-cox-2-expressions-via-ep2-and-ep4-signaling-pathways-in-human-lovo-colon-cancer-cells
#9
Hsi-Hsien Hsu, Yueh-Min Lin, Chia-Yao Shen, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Shin-Yi Li, Sheng-Huang Chang, Chien-Chung Lin, Ray-Jade Chen, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Hui-Nung Shih, Chih-Yang Huang
Metastasis is the most dangerous risk faced by patients with hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been observed in several types of human cancers and regulates the efficacy of many therapies. Here, we show that treatment with various concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2; 0, 1, 5 or 10 μM) promotes the migration ability of the human LoVo colon cancer cell line. As demonstrated by mRNA and protein expression analyses, EP2 and EP4 are the major PGE2 receptors expressed on the LoVo cell membrane...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580958/transcriptional-determination-and-functional-specificity-of-myeloid-cells-making-sense-of-diversity
#10
REVIEW
Silvia Monticelli, Gioacchino Natoli
Early responses to invading pathogens and to non-microbial danger signals are mediated by different innate immune and parenchymal tissue cells, which are able to respond to a variety of pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns. In most if not all instances, innate immune responses to a given molecule are not uniquely confined to one responding cell type, but instead involve the engagement of different cells with intrinsically distinct properties. In this Review, we discuss the molecular basis of the differentiation of myeloid cells, which is controlled by transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators and post-transcriptional mechanisms, and examine how the functional specification of the resulting mature immune cells of the myeloid lineage affects their response to danger signals...
June 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579989/acute-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-triggers-early-and-transient-interleukin-7-production-in-the-gut-leading-to-enhanced-local-chemokine-expression-and-intestinal-immune-cell-homing
#11
Rosalie Ponte, Magali Rancez, Suzanne Figueiredo-Morgado, Jacques Dutrieux, Véronique Fabre-Mersseman, Bénédicte Charmeteau-de-Muylder, Thomas Guilbert, Jean-Pierre Routy, Rémi Cheynier, Anne Couëdel-Courteille
The intestinal barrier, one of the first targets of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is subjected to major physiological changes during acute infection. Having previously shown that pharmaceutical injection of interleukin-7 (IL-7) triggers chemokine expression in many organs leading to massive T-cell homing, in particular to the intestine, we here explored mucosal IL-7 expression as part of the cytokine storm occurring during the acute phase of SIV infection in rhesus macaques. Quantifying both mRNA and protein in tissues, we demonstrated a transient increase of IL-7 expression in the small intestine of SIV-infected rhesus macaques, starting with local detection of the virus by day 3 of infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570826/specific-monoclonal-antibodies-recognizing-the-endogenous-chicken-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein
#12
Yurong Qu, Yuan Zhan, Shen Yang, Xusheng Qiu, Lei Tan, Yingjie Sun, Chunchun Meng, Cuiping Song, Shengqing Yu, Chan Ding
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a key member of the "danger associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs), which can localize in various compartments of the cell, and plays important roles in systemic inflammation. In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specifically against chicken HMGB1 were generated. The open reading frame of chicken HMGB1 was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a to construct a recombinant plasmid pET-chHMGB1. The recombinant chicken HMGB1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta under IPTG induction and then purified by Ni-NTA Purification System...
June 1, 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564720/inflammasomes-in-liver-fibrosis
#13
Fernando Alegre, Pablo Pelegrin, Ariel E Feldstein
Cell death and inflammation are two central elements in the development of liver fibrosis. Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes expressed in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells in the liver that are key regulators of inflammation and cell fate. They respond to cellular danger signals by activating caspase 1, releasing the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, as well as initiating a novel pathway of programmed cell death termed "pyroptosis." These processes can initiate and perpetuate an abnormal wound-healing response with the principle cellular target being the activation of hepatic stellate cells...
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560357/impact-of-heme-on-specific-antibody-production-in-mice-promotive-inhibitive-or-null-outcome-is-determined-by-its-concentration
#14
Guofu Li, Haiyan Xue, Zeng Fan, Yun Bai
Free heme is an endogenous danger signal that provokes innate immunity. Active innate immunity provides a precondition of an effective adaptive immune response. However, heme catabolites, CO, biliverdin and bilirubin trigger immunosuppression. Furthermore, free heme induces expression of heme oxygenase-1 to increase production of CO, biliverdin and bilirubin. As such, free heme can play a paradoxical role in adaptive immunity. What is the outcome of the animal immune response to an antigen in the presence of free heme? This question remains to be explored...
May 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552244/ca-2-signalling-underlying-pancreatitis
#15
REVIEW
J V Gerasimenko, S Peng, T Tsugorka, O V Gerasimenko
In spite of significant scientific progress in recent years, acute pancreatitis (AP) is still a dangerous and in up to 5% of cases deadly disease with no specific cure. It is self-resolved in the majority of cases, but could result in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and increased risk of pancreatic cancer (PC). One of the early events in AP is premature activation of digestive pro-enzymes, including trypsinogen, inside pancreatic acinar cells (PACs) due to an excessive rise in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, which is the result of Ca(2+) release from internal stores followed by Ca(2+) entry through the store operated Ca(2+) channels in the plasma membrane...
May 18, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547381/purinergic-signalling-links-mechanical-breath-profile-and-alveolar-mechanics-with-the-pro-inflammatory-innate-immune-response-causing-ventilation-induced-lung-injury
#16
REVIEW
Djo Hasan, Paul Blankman, Gary F Nieman
Severe pulmonary infection or vigorous cyclic deformation of the alveolar epithelial type I (AT I) cells by mechanical ventilation leads to massive extracellular ATP release. High levels of extracellular ATP saturate the ATP hydrolysis enzymes CD39 and CD73 resulting in persistent high ATP levels despite the conversion to adenosine. Above a certain level, extracellular ATP molecules act as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and activate the pro-inflammatory response of the innate immunity through purinergic receptors on the surface of the immune cells...
May 26, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533780/innate-immune-function-of-mitochondrial-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
David Sancho, Michel Enamorado, Johan Garaude
Sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns or danger signals by innate immune receptors drives a complex exchange of information. Innate receptor signaling not only triggers transcriptional events but also induces profound changes in metabolic fluxes, redox balance, and metabolite abundance thereby influencing immune cell function. Mitochondria are at the core of metabolic adaptation to the changing environment. The close interaction between mitochondrial metabolism and immune signaling has emerged as a central regulator of innate sensing...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531279/mechanisms-governing-inflammasome-activation-assembly-and-pyroptosis-induction
#18
Sannula Kesavardhana, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that regulate inflammatory responses and pyroptotic cell death to exert host defense against microbes. Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors such as nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) and absent in melanoma 2 like receptors (ALRs) assemble the inflammasome complexes in response to pathogens and danger or altered-self signals in the cell. Inflammasome sensors, in association with an adaptor protein - apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activation and -recruitment domain (ASC) - activate inflammatory caspase-1 to enable the release of inflammatory cytokines and induce cell death, conferring host defense against pathogens...
May 20, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531130/comparative-safety-and-efficacy-profile-of-a-novel-oil-in-water-vaccine-adjuvant-comprising-vitamins-a-and-e-and-a-catechin-in-protective-anti-influenza-immunity
#19
Sapna Patel, Yasser Faraj, Debra K Duso, William W Reiley, Erik A Karlsson, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Michael Vajdy
Non-replicating vaccines, such as those based on recombinant proteins, require adjuvants and delivery systems, which have thus far depended on mimicking pathogen danger signals and strong pro-inflammatory responses. In search of a safer and more efficacious alternative, we tested whether vaccinations with influenza recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) mixed with a novel vegetable oil in water emulsion adjuvant (Natural Immune-enhancing Delivery System, NIDS), based on the immune-enhancing synergy of vitamins A and E and a catechin, could protect against intra-nasal challenge with live influenza virus...
May 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530643/danger-signals-in-regulating-the-immune-response-to-solid-organ-transplantation
#20
Jamie L Todd, Scott M Palmer
Endogenous danger signals, or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are generated in response to cell stress and activate innate immunity to provide a pivotal mechanism by which an organism can respond to damaged self. Accumulating experimental and clinical data have established the importance of DAMPs, which signal through innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) or DAMP-specific receptors, in regulating the alloresponse to solid organ transplantation (SOT). Moreover, DAMPs may incite distinct downstream cellular responses that could specifically contribute to the development of allograft fibrosis and chronic graft dysfunction...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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