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Optic neuritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088912/melatonin-as-a-therapeutic-resource-for-inflammatory-visual-diseases
#1
Marcos L Aranda, María Florencia González Fleitas, Hernán Dieguez, Agustina Iaquinandi, Pablo H Sande, Damián Dorfman, Ruth E Rosenstein
BACKGROUND: Uveitis and optic neuritis are prevalent ocular inflammatory diseases, and highly damaging ocular conditions. Both diseases are currently treated with corticosteroids, but they do not have adequate efficacy and are often associated with severe side effects. Thus, uveitis and optic neuritis remain a challenging field to ophthalmologists and a significant public health concern. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes findings showing the benefits of a treatment with melatonin in experimental models of these inflammatory ocular diseases...
January 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077493/disease-modifying-therapies-modulate-retinal-atrophy-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-retrospective-study
#2
Julia Button, Omar Al-Louzi, Andrew Lang, Pavan Bhargava, Scott D Newsome, Teresa Frohman, Laura J Balcer, Elliot M Frohman, Jerry Prince, Peter A Calabresi, Shiv Saidha
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively investigate whether disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) exert differential effects on rates of retinal atrophy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), as assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: A total of 402 patients with RRMS followed at the Johns Hopkins MS Center who underwent Cirrus-HD OCT were assessed for eligibility. Inclusion criteria included at least 1 year of OCT follow-up and adherence to a single DMT during the period of follow-up...
January 11, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074347/pattern-and-motion-related-visual-evoked-potentials-in-hiv-infected-adults
#3
Jana Szanyi, Jan Kremlacek, Zuzana Kubova, Miroslav Kuba, Pavel Gebousky, Jaroslav Kapla, Juraj Szanyi, Frantisek Vit, Jana Langrova
PURPOSE: The goal of the current study was to explore visual function in virally suppressed HIV patients undergoing combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) by using pattern-reversal and motion-onset visual evoked potentials (VEPs). METHODS: The pattern-reversal and motion-onset VEPs were recorded in 20 adult HIV+ patients with a mean age of 38 years and CD4 cell counts ≥230 × 10(6) cells/L of blood. RESULTS: Nine out of 20 patients displayed VEP abnormalities...
January 10, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071581/role-of-aqp4-antibody-serostatus-and-its-prediction-of-visual-outcome-in-neuromyelitis-optica-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Nan Lin, Qing Liu, Xiaoyu Wang, Jianmei Ma, Yuyuan Li
: Backgroud: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, which is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis and myelitis. Antibodies (Ab) to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) (or NMO-IgG) as a serological biomarker of NMO have been widespread used. Nevertheless, some NMO patients remain seronegative for AQP4-Ab and/or have no detected optic nerve involvement. In addition, no consensus exists on the association between AQP4-Ab serostatus and visual outcome in NMO. To drive a more precise estimate of this postulated relationship, a meta-analysis was performed based on existing relevant studies...
January 10, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068933/screening-for-onconeural-antibodies-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#5
Benjamin Berger, Tilman Hottenrott, Sebastian Rauer, Oliver Stich
BACKGROUND: Some so-called "non-classical" paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS), namely optic neuritis and myelitis, clinically overlap with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), and conversely, in cancer-associated NMOSD, a paraneoplastic etiology has been suggested in rare cases. Therefore, we retrospectively investigated the prevalence of onconeural antibodies, which are highly predictive for a paraneoplastic etiology, and the prevalence of malignancies in NMOSD patients...
January 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060135/melanocytoma-or-juxtapapillary-melanoma
#6
Brandon J Baartman, Baseer Ahmad, Sunil Srivastava, Stephen Jones, Arun D Singh
PURPOSE: To report the case of a melanocytoma of the optic disc leading to severe vision loss, raising concern for possible malignant transformation and optic nerve infiltration. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 36-year-old Arabic woman presented to an outside facility with severe vision loss and a clinical picture concerning for optic neuritis with central retinal vein occlusion. On referral to the authors' institution 1 month after initial presentation, the vision of the patient was no light perception in the affected eye, and examination revealed the presence of a pigmented lesion adjacent to the nerve...
January 2, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057643/retinal-segmented-layers-with-strong-aquaporin-4-expression-suffered-more-injuries-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-compared-with-optic-neuritis-with-aquaporin-4-antibody-seronegativity-detected-by-optical-coherence-tomography
#7
Chun Xia Peng, Hong Yang Li, Wei Wang, Jun Qing Wang, Lei Wang, Quan Gang Xu, Shan Shan Cao, Huan Fen Zhou, Shuo Zhao, Shi Hui Wei
PURPOSE: To evaluate retinal segmented layer alterations in optic neuritis (ON) in an AQP4-Ab seropositive (AQP4-Ab+/ON) cohort and in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) with ON eyes (NMO-ON) compared with an AQP4-Ab seronegative ON (AQP4-Ab-/ON) cohort using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: We recruited 109 patients with ON (161 eyes) and 47 healthy controls. All patients with ON were subdivided into three subcohorts: 37 patients (54 eyes) with AQP4-Ab+/ON, 45 patients (65 eyes) with AQP4-Ab-/ON and 27 patients (42 eyes) with NMO-ON...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043954/an-abnormal-periventricular-magnetization-transfer-ratio-gradient-occurs-early-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
J William L Brown, Matteo Pardini, Wallace J Brownlee, Kryshani Fernando, Rebecca S Samson, Ferran Prados Carrasco, Sebastien Ourselin, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, David H Miller, Declan T Chard
In established multiple sclerosis, tissue abnormality-as assessed using magnetization transfer ratio-increases close to the lateral ventricles. We aimed to determine whether or not (i) these changes are present from the earliest clinical stages of multiple sclerosis; (ii) they occur independent of white matter lesions; and (iii) they are associated with subsequent conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis and disability. Seventy-one subjects had MRI scanning a median of 4.6 months after a clinically isolated optic neuritis (49 females, mean age 33...
January 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040492/valproic-acid-and-ask1-deficiency-ameliorate-optic-neuritis-and-neurodegeneration-in-an-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Yuriko Azuchi, Atsuko Kimura, Xiaoli Guo, Goichi Akiyama, Takahiko Noro, Chikako Harada, Atsuko Nishigaki, Kazuhiko Namekata, Takayuki Harada
Optic neuritis, which is an acute inflammatory demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system, is one of the major complications in multiple sclerosis (MS). Herein, we investigated the therapeutic potential of valproic acid (VPA) on optic neuritis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG35-55 and VPA (300mg/kg) was administered via intraperitoneal injection once daily from day 3 postimmunization until the end of the experimental period (day 28)...
December 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039596/optic-neuritis-secondary-to-antiandrogen-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Á Ní Mhéalóid, G Cunniffe
BACKGROUND: Optic neuropathy is a disorder characterised by dysfunction or destruction of the optic nerve tissues. Acquired causes include interruption in the blood supply, nutritional deficiency, compression by a tumour or aneurysm, trauma, and toxic types (Ambizas and Patel In US Pharm 36(4):HS2-HS6, 1). Drug-induced optic neuropathy is of the toxic type and can be defined as a clinical syndrome characterised by papillomacular bundle damage, central, or cecocentral scotoma, and reduced colour vision (Ambizas and Patel In US Pharm 36(4):HS2-HS6, 2011; Sharma and Sharma In Indian J Ophthalmol 59(2):137-141, 2)...
December 30, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017256/treatment-of-neuromyelitis-optica-and-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-with-rituximab-using-a-maintenance-treatment-regimen-and-close-cd19-b-cell-monitoring-a-six-year-follow-up
#11
M E Evangelopoulos, E Andreadou, G Koutsis, V Koutoulidis, M Anagnostouli, P Katsika, D S Evangelopoulos, I Evdokimidis, C Kilidireas
Neuromyelitis optinca (NMO) represents a serious demyelinating disease of the central nervous system selectively attacking the spinal cord and optic nerve. Early differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis is of vital importance, as NMO mandates immunosuppressive and not immunomodulatory treatment. Rituximab has been recently introduced as a treatment option for NMO. However, optimal surrogate measures and treatment intervals are still unclear. Five patients (females, mean age 54±10.21years) with NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) were evaluated with respect to disability and relapse rate...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998455/-optic-nerve-subarachnoid-space-expansion-in-mr-imaging-a-etiology-study
#12
M Li, Q G Xu, J Q Wang, Y R Wang, J Zhao, S H Wei
Objective: To investigate spectrum of causes in optic nerve subarachnoid space (ONSS) expansion by using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Methods: A retrospective study. Twenty-six patients (46 eyes) with ONSS expansion and 20 healthy adults (40 eyes) were recruited in Neuro-ophthalmology Department of Chinese PLA General Hospital from January, 2014 to December, 2015. The diameters were measured on the optic nerve (OND) and optic nerve sheath (ONSD) 2.4 mm behind the globe. ONSS was calculated by the formula of (ONSD-OND)/2...
December 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998453/-clinical-features-of-neurosyphilis-with-optic-neuritis-as-an-initial-finding
#13
S S Cao, H Y Li, Q G Xu, S Y Tan, S H Wei
Objective: To study the characteristics of neurosyphilis with optic neuritis as an initial finding. Methods: Retrospective analysis of clinical data and laboratory testing results of 16 cases (27 eyes) with optic neuritis as an initial finding of neurosyphilis from October 2010 to March 2015 in General Hospital of People's Liberation Army was made. Results: Six-teen patients (12 males, 4 females) were collected, the median age of patients was 47 (range 33 to 65) years ,the mean age was (49.63±9.05) years. Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) analysis was positive in all of the patients and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test was positive in 14 patients (2 patients did not test)...
December 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988051/the-clinical-characteristics-of-aqp4-antibody-positive-nmo-sd-in-a-large-cohort-of-chinese-han-patients
#14
Jingzi ZhangBao, Lei Zhou, Xiaoyang Li, Tongjia Cai, Jiahong Lu, Chuanzhen Lu, Chongbo Zhao, Chao Quan
We aim to summarize the clinical features of AQP4-ab-positive NMO/SD in a large Chinese Han cohort. The clinical data of 145 AQP4-ab-seropositive patients was retrospectively reviewed. 55.9% (81/145) of the patients were defined as NMO while 39.3% (57/145) were defined as NMOSD according to the criteria established in 2006 and 2007. The mean onset age was 34.4years and the female to male ratio was 8.7:1. The median disease duration was 57months. The median of "time to second attack" and "time to develop NMO" was 7 and 13months respectively...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974923/uhthoff-s-phenomenon-125-years-later-what-do-we-know-today
#15
REVIEW
J A Opara, W Brola, A A Wylegala, E Wylegala
125 years have passed since Wilhelm Uhthoff reported the symptoms he observed after an increased body temperature from physical exertion. Those symptoms, which might have led to the transient impairment of vision in patients with Multiple Sclerosis and also observed in optic neuritis, were later named after him "Uhthoff's phenomenon". This has defined the strategy of rehabilitation procedures in Multiple Sclerosis for more than 100 years, restricting the use of thermal treatments and the possibility of aerobic exercises...
January 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941524/neuroprotection-and-visual-function-after-optic-neuritis
#16
Axel Petzold
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the advantages and pitfalls of testing neuroprotective treatment strategies in patients suffering from optic neuritis. RECENT FINDINGS: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography now permits for automated segmentation of individual retinal layers. The peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) has been used in 13 of the 15 trials reviewed. Twelve trials also made use of electrophysiology. Overestimation of good visual recovery in the past has recently been recognized...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936193/occurrence-of-asymptomatic-acute-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-typical-brain-lesions-during-an-attack-of-optic-neuritis-or-myelitis
#17
Su-Hyun Kim, Jae-Won Hyun, AeRan Joung, Sang Hyun Lee, Ho Jin Kim
We aimed to investigate the frequency of asymptomatic acute brain MRI abnormalities accompanying optic neuritis (ON) or myelitis in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients with aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). We reviewed 324 brain MRI scans that were obtained during acute attacks of ON or myelitis, in 165 NMOSD patients with AQP4-Ab. We observed that acute asymptomatic NMOSD-typical brain lesions accompanied 27 (8%) acute attacks of ON or myelitis in 24 (15%) patients. The most common asymptomatic brain abnormalities included edematous corpus callosum lesions (n = 17), followed by lesions on the internal capsule and/or cerebral peduncle lesions (n = 9), periependymal surfaces of the fourth ventricle (n = 5), large deep white matter lesions (n = 4), periependymal cerebral lesions surrounding the lateral ventricles (n = 3), and hypothalamic lesions (n = 1)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936154/retinal-morphology-and-sensitivity-are-primarily-impaired-in-eyes-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd
#18
Ryutaro Akiba, Hirotaka Yokouchi, Masahiro Mori, Toshiyuki Oshitari, Takayuki Baba, Setsu Sawai, Satoshi Kuwabara, Shuichi Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed that the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in eyes without a history of optic neuritis (ON) was thinner than that of healthy controls. It remains unclear whether the ONL thinning is caused by a direct attack on the retina by an autoantibody or a retrograde degeneration. OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanisms involved in the retinal damage in eyes with NMOSD without ON...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932889/alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma-of-the-sphenoid-sinus-mimicking-optic-neuritis-presenting-with-intermittent-visual-loss-in-an-adult
#19
Wendong Liu, Libin Jiang, Yulan Jin, Bentao Yang, Timothy Yy Lai
A 23-year-old male with intermittent visual loss in his left eye for 4 months was originally treated as optic neuritis elsewhere. Upon presentation to our hospital (Beijing Tongren Hospital), his left eye visual acuity was reduced to hand motion at face. The left eye ocular motility was limited in upgaze, downgaze, adduction, and abduction. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed lesions in the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses, orbital apex and carvernous sinus invading adjacent extraocular muscles...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928405/trauma-associated-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#20
Supanut Apinyawasisuk, Jane W Chan, Anthony C Arnold
A 19-year-old man developed visual loss in the left eye 1 day following a martial arts kick to the head. Vision worsened over a week, when visual loss was noted in the right eye without further trauma. The fundus was initially normal, but visual field testing showed temporal depression right eye with diffuse depression left eye, and traumatic chiasmopathy was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated an enlarged chiasm with intrinsic signal abnormality, but no enhancement. Treatment with intravenous corticosteroids and hyperbaric oxygen therapy did not result in visual improvement...
August 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
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