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Optic neuritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727882/corneal-confocal-microscopy-an-imaging-endpoint-for-axonal-degeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Ioannis N Petropoulos, Saadat Kamran, Yi Li, Adnan Khan, Georgios Ponirakis, Naveed Akhtar, Dirk Deleu, Ashfaq Shuaib, Rayaz A Malik
Purpose: To evaluate whether corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) detects axonal degeneration and whether this is associated with retinal nerve fiber degeneration and clinical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Twenty-five patients with MS and 25 healthy control subjects underwent CCM, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and assessment of neurological disability using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and MS severity score (MSSS)...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726788/neuroprotection-by-eif2%C3%AE-chop-inhibition-and-xbp-1-activation-in-eae-optic-neuritiss
#2
Haoliang Huang, Linqing Miao, Feisi Liang, Xiaodong Liu, Lin Xu, Xiuyin Teng, Qizhao Wang, William H Ridder, Kenneth S Shindler, Yang Sun, Yang Hu
No therapies exist to prevent neuronal deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS), because the molecular mechanism responsible for the progressive neurodegeneration is unknown. We previously showed that axon injury-induced neuronal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and optic nerve degeneration in traumatic and glaucomatous optic neuropathies. Optic neuritis, one of the most common clinical manifestations of MS, is readily modeled by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mouse...
July 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719871/optic-neuritis-in-pregnancy-after-tdap-vaccination-report-of-two-cases
#3
Jose M Cabrera-Maqueda, Rocio Hernández-Clares, Ana E Baidez-Guerrero, Julian Ignacio Bermúdez Pío-Rendón, Jose J Martín Fernández
Two pregnant women developed one-eye blurring vision within three weeks after Tdap vaccination. Neurophtalmologic and MR examination confirmed an unilateral optic neuritis without evidence of underlying disease. Both patients had a full recovery, one after intravenous metilprednisolone. This is the first report of optic neuritis related with Tdap vaccination in pregnancy.
July 11, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718500/neurofilament-light-as-an-immune-target-for-pathogenic-antibodies
#4
Fabiola Puentes, Baukje J van der Star, Stephanie D Boomkamp, Markus Kipp, Louis Boon, Isabel Bosca, Joel Raffel, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Paul van der Valk, Jodie Stephenson, Susan C Barnett, David Baker, Sandra Amor
Antibodies to neuronal antigens are associated with many neurological diseases including paraneoplastic neurological disorders, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Immunisation with neuronal antigens such as neurofilament light NF-L, a neuronal intermediate filament in axons, has been shown to induce neurological disease and spasticity in mice. Also, while antibodies to NF-L are widely used as surrogate biomarkers of axonal injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, it remains to be elucidated if antibodies to NF-L contribute to neurodegeneration and neurological disease...
July 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716667/pupillometric-evaluation-of-the-melanopsin-containing-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-mitochondrial-and-non-mitochondrial-optic-neuropathies
#5
Shakoor Ba-Ali, Henrik Lund-Andersen
In recent years, chromatic pupillometry is used in humans to evaluate the activity of melanopsin expressing intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Blue light is used to stimulate the ipRGCs and red light activates the rod/cone photoreceptors. The late re-dilation phase of pupillary light reflex is primarily driven by the ipRGCs. Optic neuropathies i.e. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), glaucoma, optic neuritis and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are among the diseases, which have been subject to pupillometric studies...
July 14, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709761/central-nervous-system-involvement-in-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-churg-strauss-report-of-26-patients-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Raphaël André, Vincent Cottin, Jean-Luc Saraux, Gilles Blaison, Boris Bienvenu, Pascal Cathebras, Romain Dhote, Aurélie Foucher, Helder Gil, Joëlle Lapoirie, David Launay, Valentine Loustau, François Maurier, Edouard Pertuiset, Thierry Zénone, Jörg Seebach, Nathalie Costedoat-Chalumeau, Xavier Puéchal, Luc Mouthon, Loïc Guillevin, Benjamin Terrier
BACKGROUND: Although peripheral nervous system involvement is common in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are poorly described. This study aimed to describe CNS involvement in EGPA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective, observational, multicenter study included patients with EGPA and CNS involvement affecting cranial nerves, brain and/or spinal cord. We also undertook a systematic literature review...
July 11, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694135/characteristics-of-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-the-turkish-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-database
#7
Ünsal Yılmaz, Banu Anlar, Kıvılcım Gücüyener
OBJECTIVE: To document the clinical and paraclinical features of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) in Turkey. METHODS: Data of MS patients with onset before age 18 years (n = 193) were collected from 27 pediatric neurology centers throughout Turkey. Earlier-onset (<12 years) and later-onset (≥12 years) groups were compared. RESULTS: There were 123 (63.7%) girls and 70 (36.3%) boys aged 4-17 years, median 14 years at disease onset. Family history of MS was 6...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684532/longitudinal-analysis-of-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-cns-inflammatory-diseases
#8
Jae-Won Hyun, Mark R Woodhall, Su-Hyun Kim, In Hye Jeong, Byeong-Su Kong, Gayoung Kim, Yeseul Kim, Min Su Park, Sarosh R Irani, Patrick Waters, Ho Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the seroprevalence of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G1 (MOG-IgG) and associated clinical features of patients from a large adult-dominant unselected cohort with mainly relapsing central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases. We also investigate the clinical relevance of MOG-IgG through a longitudinal analysis of serological status over a 2-year follow-up period. METHODS: Serum samples from 505 patients with CNS inflammatory diseases at the National Cancer Center were analysed using cell-based assays for MOG-IgG and aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680531/mitochondrial-uncoupler-prodrug-of-2-4-dinitrophenol-mp201-prevents-neuronal-damage-and-preserves-vision-in-experimental-optic-neuritis
#9
Reas S Khan, Kimberly Dine, John G Geisler, Kenneth S Shindler
The ability of novel mitochondrial uncoupler prodrug of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), MP201, to prevent neuronal damage and preserve visual function in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of optic neuritis was evaluated. Optic nerve inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss are prominent features of optic neuritis, an inflammatory optic neuropathy often associated with the central nervous system demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Currently, optic neuritis is frequently treated with high-dose corticosteroids, but treatment fails to prevent permanent neuronal damage and associated vision changes that occur as optic neuritis resolves, thus suggesting that additional therapies are required...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674367/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-recurrent-intracranial-hemorrhage
#10
Hiroaki Yaguchi, Yasunori Mito, Ikkei Ohashi, Taichi Nomura, Ichiro Yabe, Yasutaka Tajima
The patient was a woman without hypertension who had previously experienced intracranial hemorrhage twice at 48 and 56 years of age. At 59 years of age, she was diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) based on the presence of a brain stem lesion and the detection of anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies. After 5 months of continuous treatment with prednisolone (15 mg/day), she presented with optic neuritis and intracranial bleeding. A recurrent attack of NMOSD and intracranial hemorrhage were concurrently diagnosed...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670343/differential-diagnosis-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Sung-Min Kim, Seong-Joon Kim, Haeng Jin Lee, Hiroshi Kuroda, Jacqueline Palace, Kazuo Fujihara
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) mostly manifesting as optic neuritis and/or myelitis, which are frequently recurrent/bilateral or longitudinally extensive, respectively. As the autoantibody to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) can mediate the pathogenesis of NMOSD, testing for the AQP4-Ab in serum of patients can play a crucial role in diagnosing NMOSD. Nevertheless, the differential diagnosis of NMOSD in clinical practice is often challenging despite the phenotypical and serological characteristics of the disease because: (1) diverse diseases with autoimmune, vascular, infectious, or neoplastic etiologies can mimic these phenotypes of NMOSD; (2) patients with NMOSD may only have limited clinical manifestations, especially in their early disease stages; (3) test results for AQP4-Ab can be affected by several factors such as assay methods, serologic status, disease stages, or types of treatment; (4) some patients with NMOSD do not have AQP4-Ab; and (5) test results for the AQP4-Ab may not be readily available for the acute management of patients...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670235/ophthalmologic-manifestations-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Hye Jin Lee, Hyun Joo Song, Jin Ho Jeong, Heung Up Kim, Sun-Jin Boo, Soo-Young Na
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), has been reported to have various ophthalmologic manifestations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of ophthalmologic manifestations associated with IBD in Korea. METHODS: Sixty-one patients were examined between May 2013 and October 2014. We performed complete ophthalmologic examinations. RESULTS: Findings included 36 patients with CD and 25 with UC...
July 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669275/early-retinal-atrophy-predicts-long-term-visual-impairment-after-acute-optic-neuritis
#13
Bernardo Sanchez-Dalmau, Elena H Martinez-Lapiscina, Ruben Torres-Torres, Santiago Ortiz-Perez, Irati Zubizarreta, Irene V Pulido-Valdeolivas, Salut Alba-Arbalat, Ana Guerrero-Zamora, David Calbet, Pablo Villoslada
BACKGROUND: Visual recovery after optic neuritis (ON) used to be defined as good, although patients frequently complain of poor vision. METHODS: We carried out a prospective study on 38 consecutive patients with acute ON followed monthly for 6 months and evaluated high- and low-contrast visual acuity (HCVA and LCVA, respectively), quality of vision (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25)), visual fields, and retinal thickness by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647756/role-of-coronal-high-resolution-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-acute-optic-neuritis-a-comparison-with-axial-orientation
#14
Ping Lu, Yan Sha, Hailin Wan, Feng Wang, Guohong Tian
PURPOSE: Through a comparison with the axial orientation, we aimed to evaluate the role of coronal high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in acute optic neuritis based on diagnostic accuracy and the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. METHODS: Orbital DWI, using readout-segmented, parallel imaging, and 2D navigator-based reacquisition (RESOLVE-DWI), was performed on 49 patients with acute vision loss. The coronal (thickness = 3 mm) and axial (thickness = 2 mm) diffusion images were evaluated by two neuroradiologists retrospectively...
June 24, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638708/citation-classics-in-central-nervous-system-inflammatory-demyelinating-disease
#15
Jee-Eun Kim, Kang M Park, Yerim Kim, Dae Y Yoon, Jong S Bae
OBJECTIVES: To identify and analyze the characteristics of the most influential articles about central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database and the 2014 Journal Citation Reports Science Edition were used to retrieve the top 100 cited articles on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. The citation numbers, journals, years of publication, authorships, article types, subjects and main issues were analyzed...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626779/optical-coherence-tomography-and-visual-evoked-potentials-in-pediatric-ms
#16
Amy T Waldman, Grant T Liu, Amy M Lavery, Geraldine Liu, William Gaetz, Tomas S Aleman, Brenda L Banwell
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEPs) to detect visual pathway involvement in pediatric-onset MS. METHODS: Pediatric-onset MS participants (onset <18 years) and healthy controls (HCs) underwent OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT) and pVEPs. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer to inner plexiform layer (GCL-IPL), and P100 pVEP latency were measured. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare the groups, adjusting for age and intereye correlations...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624951/prefoveal-floaters-as-a-differential-diagnosis-to-optic-neuritis-mouches-dormantes
#17
Marloes C Burggraaff, Willemine A E J de Vries-Knoppert, Axel Petzold
This case series describes a new optical coherence tomography (OCT) specific observation relevant to the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected optic neuritis. A tiny prefoveal floater, only detectable by OCT, was found responsible for the symptoms in three patients, one of whom had been referred with unilateral delayed visual evoked potentials. This case series suggests that with increased use of OCT in routine clinical care, entoptic phenomena can be demonstrated as a relevant differential diagnosis to optic neuritis...
June 17, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615429/diagnostic-algorithm-for-relapsing-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-in-children
#18
Yael Hacohen, Kshitij Mankad, W K Chong, Frederik Barkhof, Angela Vincent, Ming Lim, Evangeline Wassmer, Olga Ciccarelli, Cheryl Hemingway
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether children with relapsing acquired demyelinating syndromes (RDS) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) show distinctive clinical and radiologic features and to generate a diagnostic algorithm for the main RDS for clinical use. METHODS: A panel reviewed the clinical characteristics, MOG-Ab and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) Ab, intrathecal oligoclonal bands, and Epstein-Barr virus serology results of 110 children with RDS. A neuroradiologist blinded to the diagnosis scored the MRI scans...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611640/visual-loss-from-choroidal-melanoma-mimicking-neurological-syndromes
#19
Karim Hammamji, Ehud Reich, Amit Arora, Victoria M L Cohen, Mandeep S Sagoo
Melanoma of the eye is rare, but can mimic a range of disorders. This report highlights 2 cases of choroidal melanoma with vision loss mimicking neurological diagnoses. The first patient is a 41-year-old white male with a known history of multiple sclerosis and a previous episode of optic neuritis in the right eye, who presented with a 6-month history of decreased vision in the same eye, and occasional photopsiae. He was treated with 2 courses of oral steroids for presumed recurrent optic neuritis. After a temporary improvement in his symptoms, his vision worsened, following which he had a head MRI, which revealed a solid intraocular mass...
January 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611623/visual-loss-induced-by-adalimumab-used-for-plaque-psoriasis
#20
Norman Saffra, Konstantin Astafurov
A 61-year-old Caucasian male with severe plaque psoriasis without joint involvement was initiated on adalimumab therapy. Shortly thereafter he presented to the emergency room with acute loss of vision in the right eye. A comprehensive systemic workup was instituted which included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with and without gadolinium of the brain and orbits. MRI revealed findings that were consistent with CNS demyelination and retrobulbar optic neuritis. Immediate cessation of adalimumab was instituted without any other systemic therapy...
January 2017: Case Reports in Dermatology
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