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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092430/optimal-reactivity-and-improved-self-healing-capability-of-structurally-dynamic-polymers-grafted-on-janus-nanoparticles-governed-by-chain-stiffness-and-spatial-organization
#1
Guoxi Xu, Zihan Huang, Pengyu Chen, Tianqi Cui, Xinghua Zhang, Bing Miao, Li-Tang Yan
Structurally dynamic polymers are recognized as a key potential to revolutionize technologies ranging from design of self-healing materials to numerous biomedical applications. Despite intense research in this area, optimizing reactivity and thereby improving self-healing ability at the most fundamental level pose urgent issue for wider applications of such emerging materials. Here, the authors report the first mechanistic investigation of the fundamental principle for the dependence of reactivity and self-healing capabilities on the properties inherent to dynamic polymers by combining large-scale computer simulation, theoretical analysis, and experimental discussion...
January 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092053/sh2-domain-based-fret-biosensor-for-measuring-bcr-abl-activity-in-living-cml-cells
#2
Mari Fujioka, Yumi Asano, Shigeyuki Nakada, Yusuke Ohba
Fluorescent proteins (FPs) displaying distinct spectra have shed their light on a wide range of biological functions. Moreover, sophisticated biosensors engineered to contain single or multiple FPs, including Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, spatiotemporally reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying a variety of pathophysiological processes. However, their usefulness for applied life sciences has yet to be fully explored. Recently, our research group has begun to expand the potential of FPs from basic biological research to the clinic...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091952/nanometric-cutting-of-silicon-with-an-amorphous-crystalline-layered-structure-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#3
Jinshi Wang, Fengzhou Fang, Xiaodong Zhang
Materials with specific nanometric layers are of great value in both theoretical and applied research. The nanometric layer could have a significant influence on the response to the mechanical loading. In this paper, the nanometric cutting on the layered systems of silicon has been studied by molecular dynamics. This kind of composite structure with amorphous layer and crystalline substrate is important for nanomachining. Material deformation, stress status, and chip formation, which are the key issues in nano-cutting, are analyzed...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090771/differential-adhesive-bioactive-properties-of-polymeric-surface-coated-with-graphene-oxide-thin-film
#4
Sudhin Thampi, A Maya Nandkumar, Vignesh Muthuvijayan, Ramesh Parameswaran
Surface engineering of implantable devices involving polymeric biomaterials has become an essential aspect for medical implants. Surface enhancement technique can provide an array of unique surface properties that improves its biocompatibility and functionality as an implant. Polyurethane based implants that have found extensively acclaimed usage as an implant in biomedical applications, especially in the area of cardiovascular devices still lacks any mechanism to ward off bacterial or platelet adhesion. To bring out such a defense mechanism we are proposing a surface modification technique...
January 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090699/modelling-irf8-deficient-human-hematopoiesis-and-dendritic-cell-development-with-engineered-ips-cells
#5
Stephanie Sontag, Malrun Förster, Jie Qin, Paul Wanek, Saskia Mitzka, Herdit M Schüler, Steffen Koschmieder, Stefan Rose-John, Kristin Seré, Martin Zenke
Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, including hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny. Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is a transcription factor, which acts in hematopoiesis as lineage determining factor for myeloid cells, including dendritic cells (DC). Autosomal recessive or dominant IRF8 mutations occurring in patients cause severe monocytic and DC immunodeficiency. To study IRF8 in human hematopoiesis we generated human IRF8-/- iPS cells and IRF8-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells using RNA guided CRISPR/Cas9n genome editing...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089447/networks-of-dynamic-allostery-regulate-enzyme-function
#6
Michael Joseph Holliday, Carlo Camilloni, Geoffrey Stuart Armstrong, Michele Vendruscolo, Elan Zohar Eisenmesser
Many protein systems rely on coupled dynamic networks to allosterically regulate function. However, the broad conformational space sampled by non-coherently dynamic systems has precluded detailed analysis of their communication mechanisms. Here, we have developed a methodology that combines the high sensitivity afforded by nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation techniques and single-site multiple mutations, termed RASSMM, to identify two allosterically coupled dynamic networks within the non-coherently dynamic enzyme cyclophilin A...
December 27, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089422/low-magnitude-mechanical-signals-and-the-spine-a-review-of-current-and-future-applications
#7
REVIEW
Martin H Pham, Zorica Buser, Jeffrey C Wang, Frank L Acosta
Animal and human studies demonstrate the anabolic properties of low-magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) in its ability to improve bone formation by enhancing the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells and their subsequent commitment down an osteoblastic lineage. Response to mechanical strains as low as 10μɛ have been seen, illustrating the sensitivity of mechanosensory cells to mechanotransduction pathways. Applications to the spine include treatment of osteoporosis in preparation for instrumented fusion, fracture reduction in spinal cord injury patients to slow bone mineral density loss, and bone tissue engineering and enhancement of bone-implant osseointegration for pseudarthrosis and hardware failure...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089234/oncogenic-kras-induced-increase-in-fluid-phase-endocytosis-is-dependent-on-n-wasp-and-is-required-for-the-formation-of-pancreatic-preneoplastic-lesions
#8
Clara Lubeseder-Martellato, Katharina Alexandrow, Ana Hidalgo-Sastre, Irina Heid, Sophie Luise Boos, Thomas Briel, Roland M Schmid, Jens T Siveke
Fluid-phase endocytosis is a homeostatic process with an unknown role in tumor initiation. The driver mutation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is constitutively active KRas(G12D), which induces neoplastic transformation of acinar cells through acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). We have previously shown that KRas(G12D)-induced ADM is dependent on RAC1 and EGF receptor (EGFR) by a not fully clarified mechanism. Using three-dimensional mouse and human acinar tissue cultures and genetically engineered mouse models, we provide evidence that (i) KRas(G12D) leads to EGFR-dependent sustained fluid-phase endocytosis (FPE) during acinar metaplasia; (ii) variations in plasma membrane tension increase FPE and lead to ADM in vitro independently of EGFR; and (iii) that RAC1 regulates ADM formation partially through actin-dependent regulation of FPE...
December 24, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088667/cell-laden-hydrogels-for-osteochondral-and-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#9
REVIEW
Jingzhou Yang, Yu Shrike Zhang, Kan Yue, Ali Khademhosseini
: Despite tremendous advances in the field of regenerative medicine, it still remains challenging to repair the osteochondral interface and full-thickness articular cartilage defects. This inefficiency largely originates from the lack of appropriate tissue engineered artificial matrices that can replace the damaged regions and promote tissue regeneration. Hydrogels are emerging as a promising class of biomaterials for both soft and hard tissue regeneration. Many critical properties of hydrogels, such as mechanical stiffness, elasticity, water content, bioactivity, and degradation, can be rationally designed and conveniently tuned by proper selection of the material and chemistry...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088484/optimal-trajectories-of-brain-state-transitions
#10
Shi Gu, Richard F Betzel, Marcelo G Mattar, Matthew Cieslak, Philip R Delio, Scott T Grafton, Fabio Pasqualetti, Danielle S Bassett
The complexity of neural dynamics stems in part from the complexity of the underlying anatomy. Yet how white matter structure constrains how the brain transitions from one cognitive state to another remains unknown. Here we address this question by drawing on recent advances in network control theory to model the underlying mechanisms of brain state transitions as elicited by the collective control of region sets. We find that previously identified attention and executive control systems are poised to affect a broad array of state transitions that cannot easily be classified by traditional engineering-based notions of control...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088100/exploiting-molecular-motors-as-nanomachines-the-mechanisms-of-de-novo-and-re-engineered-cytoskeletal-motors
#11
REVIEW
Nicole V DelRosso, Nathan D Derr
Cytoskeletal molecular motors provide exciting proof that nanoscale transporters can be highly efficient, moving for microns along filamentous tracks by hydrolyzing ATP to fuel nanometer-size steps. For nanotechnology, such conversion of chemical energy into productive work serves as an enticing platform for re-purposing and re-engineering. It also provides a roadmap for successful molecular mechanisms that can be mimicked to create de novo molecular motors for nanotechnology applications. Here we focus specifically on how the mechanisms of molecular motors are being re-engineered for greater control over their transport parameters...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088091/solar-to-chemical-and-solar-to-fuel-production-from-co2-by-metabolically-engineered-microorganisms
#12
REVIEW
Han Min Woo
Recent development of carbon capture utilization (CCU) for reduction of greenhouse gas emission are reviewed. In the case of CO2 utilization, I describe development of solar-to-chemical and solar-to-fuel technology that refers to the use of solar energy to convert CO2 to desired chemicals and fuels. Photoautotrophic cyanobacterial platforms have been extensively developed on this principle, producing a diverse range of alcohols, organic acids, and isoprenoids directly from CO2. Recent breakthroughs in the metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria were reviewed...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088060/life-cycle-analysis-of-mitigation-methodologies-for-railway-rolling-noise-and-groundbourne-vibration
#13
Mariana Valente Tuler, Sakdirat Kaewunruen
Negative outcomes such as noise and vibration generated by railways have become a challenge for both industry and academia in order to guarantee that the railway system can accomplish its purposes and at the same time provide comfort for users and people living in the neighbourhood along the railway corridor. The research interest on this field has been increasing and the advancement in noise and vibration mitigation methodologies can be observed using various engineering techniques that are constantly put into test to solve such effects...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087448/fabrication-and-characterization-of-electrospun-cellulose-nano-hydroxyapatite-nanofibers-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#14
Chenghong Ao, Yan Niu, Ximu Zhang, Xu He, Wei Zhang, Canhui Lu
Nanofibrous scaffolds from cotton cellulose and nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) were electrospun for bone tissue engineering. The solution properties of cellulose/nano-HA spinning dopes and their associated electrospinnability were characterized. Morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of the electrospun cellulose/nano-HA nanocomposite nanofibers (ECHNN) were measured and the biocompatibility of ECHNN with human dental follicle cells (HDFCs) was evaluated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images indicated that the average diameter of ECHNN increased with a higher nano-HA loading and the fiber diameter distributions were well within the range of natural ECM (extra cellular matrix) fibers (50-500nm)...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087352/engineering-hot-melt-extruded-solid-dispersion-for-controlled-release-of-hydrophilic-drugs
#15
Shuli Zhang, Xuan Meng, Zheng Wang, Aiping Fan, Guocheng Wang, Yanjun Zhao, Yu Tang
It is often challenging to precisely manipulate the release behavior of hydrophilic drugs that is believed to be crucial for a satisfactory therapeutic outcome. The aim of this work was to regulate the dissolution of hydrophilic drug from hot-melt extruded solid dispersion via rational screening of the pore-forming agents. Venlafaxine hydrochloride and Compritol® 888 ATO was selected as the model drug and carrier excipient, respectively. Hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) and polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP K30) were chosen as the transient pore-forming agents...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081143/engineered-aedes-aegypti-jak-stat-pathway-mediated-immunity-to-dengue-virus
#16
Natapong Jupatanakul, Shuzhen Sim, Yesseinia I Angleró-Rodríguez, Jayme Souza-Neto, Suchismita Das, Kristin E Poti, Shannan L Rossi, Nicholas Bergren, Nikos Vasilakis, George Dimopoulos
We have developed genetically modified Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that activate the conserved antiviral JAK/STAT pathway in the fat body tissue, by overexpressing either the receptor Dome or the Janus kinase Hop by the blood feeding-induced vitellogenin (Vg) promoter. Transgene expression inhibits infection with several dengue virus (DENV) serotypes in the midgut as well as systemically and in the salivary glands. The impact of the transgenes Dome and Hop on mosquito longevity was minimal, but it resulted in a compromised fecundity when compared to wild-type mosquitoes...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081005/mechanical-properties-and-failure-behavior-of-phosphorene-with-grain-boundaries
#17
V Sorkin, Y W Zhang
Using the density-functional tight-binding method, we studied the effect of grain boundaries on the mechanical properties and failure behavior of phosphorene. We found that the high-angle tilt boundaries with a higher density of (5∣7) defect pairs (oriented along the armchair direction) are stronger than the low-angle tilt boundaries with a lower defect density, and similarly the high-angle boundaries with a higher density of (4∣8) defect pairs (oriented along the zigzag direction) are stronger than the low-angle boundaries with a lower defect density...
January 12, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080206/probiotics-d-lactic-acidosis-oxidative-stress-and-strain-specificity
#18
Luis Vitetta, Samantha Coulson, Michael Thomsen, Tony Nguyen, Sean Hall
1. The existence of an implicit living microscopic world, composed primarily of bacteria, has been known for centuries. The exact mechanisms that govern the contribution of bacteria to human health and disease have only recently become the subject of intense research efforts. Within this very evident shift in paradigms, the rational design of probiotic formulations has led to the creation of an industry that seeks to progress the engineering of probiotic bacteria that produce metabolites that may enhance human host health and prevent disease...
January 12, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078338/dual-physically-crosslinked-double-network-hydrogels-with-high-toughness-and-self-healing-properties
#19
Xuefeng Li, Qian Yang, Youjiao Zhao, Shijun Long, Jie Zheng
Toughness and self-healing properties are desirable characteristics in engineered hydrogels used for many practical applications. However, it is still challenging to develop hydrogels exhibiting both of these attractive properties in a single material. In this work, we present the fabrication of fully physically-linked Agar/PAAc-Fe(3+) DN gels. These hydrogels exhibited dual physical crosslinking through a hydrogen bonded crosslinked agar network firstly, and a physically linked PAAc-Fe(3+) network via Fe(3+) coordination interactions secondly...
January 12, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#20
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stefen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, onJune 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealedthe basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver diseaseas well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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