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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458125/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-uncovering-the-role-of-mitochondria-in-human-brain-function-and-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Annika Zink, Josef Priller, Alessandro Prigione
Mitochondrial dysfunctions are a known pathogenetic mechanism of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. At the same time, mutations in genes encoding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain cause mitochondrial diseases, which commonly exhibit neurological symptoms. Mitochondria are therefore critical for the functionality of the human nervous system. The importance of mitochondria stems from their key roles in cellular metabolism, calcium handling, redox and protein homeostasis, and overall cellular homeostasis through their dynamic network...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457788/scn5a-the-greatest-hits-collection
#2
David S Park, Glenn I Fishman
Heart failure (HF) has been referred to as the cardiovascular epidemic of our time. Understanding the molecular determinants of HF disease progression and mortality risk is of utmost importance. In this issue of the JCI, Zhang et al. uncover an important link between clinical HF mortality risk and a common variant that regulates SCN5A expression through microRNA-dependent (miR-dependent)mechanisms. They also demonstrate that haploinsufficiency of SCN5A is associated with increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a genetically engineered murine model...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457597/injectable-collagen-rgd-systems-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#3
Fu-Chen Kung
Imbalance crosslink density and polymer concentration gradient is formed within the traditional alginate hydrogel using calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent in external gelation for instantaneously process. In this studying, type I collagen (Col I) blended calcium salt form of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γCaPGA) was mixing with RGD-modified alginate with convenient gelation process and suitable for practical use. The hydrophilicity of the resulting hydrogels was evaluated through swelling tests, water retention capacity tests, and water vapor permeation tests...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457234/community-engagement-and-field-trials-of-genetically-modified-insects-and-animals
#4
Carolyn P Neuhaus
New techniques for the genetic modification of organisms are creating new strategies for addressing persistent public health challenges. For example, the company Oxitec has conducted field trials internationally-and has attempted to conduct field trials in the United States-of a genetically modified mosquito that can be used to control dengue, Zika, and some other mosquito-borne diseases. In 2016, a report commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine discussed the potential benefits and risks of another strategy, using gene drives...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456878/non-destructive-two-photon-excited-fluorescence-imaging-identifies-early-nodules-in-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#5
Lauren M Baugh, Zhiyi Liu, Kyle P Quinn, Sam Osseiran, Conor L Evans, Gordon S Huggins, Philip W Hinds, Lauren D Black, Irene Georgakoudi
Calcifications occur during the development of healthy bone, and at the onset of calcific aortic-valve disease (CAVD) and many other pathologies. Although the mechanisms regulating early calcium deposition are not fully understood, they may provide targets for new treatments and for early interventions. Here, we show that two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) can provide quantitative and sensitive readouts of calcific nodule formation, in particular in the context of CAVD. Specifically, by means of the decomposition of TPEF spectral images from excised human CAVD valves and from rat bone prior to and following demineralization, as well as from calcific nodules formed within engineered gels, we identified an endogenous fluorophore that correlates with the level of mineralization in the samples...
November 2017: Nature Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456740/an-obligatory-anaerobic-salmonella-typhimurium-strain-redirects-m2-macrophages-to-the-m1-phenotype
#6
Mei Yang, Juan Xu, Qi Wang, An-Qin Zhang, Kun Wang
A genetically engineered Salmonella typhimurium strain that may be applied in the medically useful therapeutic strategy of using bacterial agents to target breast cancer in a tumor-bearing nude mouse model has been previously reported. Furthermore, immune cell accumulation in breast tumor types has been observed, particularly distributed in regions surrounding the bacteria. M2 macrophages are associated with breast cancer aggressiveness, whereas M1 macrophages are prone to devouring bacteria and killing cancer cells...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456464/three-dimensional-multiscale-multistable-and-geometrically-diverse-microstructures-with-tunable-vibrational-dynamics-assembled-by-compressive-buckling
#7
Xin Ning, Heling Wang, Xinge Yu, Julio A N T Soares, Zheng Yan, Kewang Nan, Gabriel Velarde, Yeguang Xue, Rujie Sun, Qiyi Dong, Haiwen Luan, Chan Mi Lee, Aditya Chempakasseril, Mengdi Han, Yiqi Wang, Luming Li, Yonggang Huang, Yihui Zhang, John Rogers
Microelectromechanical systems remain an area of significant interest in fundamental and applied research due to their wide ranging applications. Most device designs, however, are largely two-dimensional and constrained to only a few simple geometries. Achieving tunable resonant frequencies or broad operational bandwidths requires complex components and/or fabrication processes. The work presented here reports unusual classes of three-dimensional (3D) micromechanical systems in the form of vibratory platforms assembled by controlled compressive buckling...
April 11, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455619/shaping-cell-fate-influence-of-topographical-substratum-properties-on-embryonic-stem-cells
#8
Sarita Kumari, Steven Vermeulen, Ben van der Veer, Aurélie Carlier, Jan de Boer, Deepa Subramanyam
Development of multicellular organisms is a highly orchestrated process, with cells responding to factors and features present in the extracellular milieu. Changes in the surrounding environment help decide the fate of cells at various stages of development. This review highlights recent research that details the effects of mechanical properties of the surrounding environment and extracellular matrix and the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate the behaviour of embryonic stem cells. Here, we review the role of mechanical properties during embryogenesis and discuss the effect of engineered micro-topographies on embryonic stem cell pluripotency...
February 17, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455244/rotation-of-intramedullary-alignment-rods-affects-distal-femoral-cutting-plane-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#9
Günther Maderbacher, Jan Matussek, Armin Keshmiri, Felix Greimel, Clemens Baier, Joachim Grifka, Hermann Maderbacher
PURPOSE: Intramedullary rods are widely used to align the distal femoral cut in total knee arthroplasty. We hypothesised that both coronal (varus/valgus) and sagittal (extension/flexion) cutting plane are affected by rotational changes of intramedullary femoral alignment guides. METHODS: Distal femoral cuts using intramedullary alignment rods were simulated by means of a computer-aided engineering software in 4°, 6°, 8°, 10°, and 12° of valgus in relation to the femoral anatomical axis and 4° extension, neutral, as well as 4°, 8°, and 12° of flexion in relation to the femoral mechanical axis...
February 17, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455069/photo-crosslinkable-injectable-sericin-hydrogel-as-3d-biomimetic-extracellular-matrix-for-minimally-invasive-repairing-cartilage
#10
Chao Qi, Jia Liu, Yang Jin, Luming Xu, Guobin Wang, Zheng Wang, Lin Wang
Millions of patients worldwide suffer from cartilage injury and age/disease-related cartilage degeneration. However, cartilage, such as articular cartilage, is poor at self-regeneration. Current treatments are often invasive with limited efficacy. Developing minimal invasive strategies for effective cartilage repair is highly desired. Here, we report an injectable, photo-crosslinkable sericin hydrogel as a biomimetic extracellular matrix for minimal invasively repairing cartilage. Sericin was functionalized to be sericin methacryloyl (SerMA), which formed an in situ hydrogel upon UV light irradiation via photo-crosslinking...
February 9, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454879/application-of-genetically-encoded-redox-biosensors-to-measure-dynamic-changes-in-the-glutathione-bacillithiol-and-mycothiol-redox-potentials-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#11
REVIEW
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453529/toxicity-assessment-in-the-nanoparticle-era
#12
Valeria De Matteis, Rosaria Rinaldi
The wide use of engineered nanomaterials in many fields, ranging from biomedical, agriculture, environment, cosmetic, urged the scientific community to understand the processes behind their potential toxicity, in order to develop new strategies for human safety. As a matter of fact, there is a big discrepancy between the increased classes of nanoparticles and the consequent applications versus their toxicity assessment. Nanotoxicology is defined as the science that studies the effects of engineered nanodevices and nanostructures in living organisms...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453389/toxicity-classification-of-oxide-nanomaterials-effects-of-data-gap-filling-and-pchem-score-based-screening-approaches
#13
My Kieu Ha, Tung Xuan Trinh, Jang Sik Choi, Desy Maulina, Hyung Gi Byun, Tae Hyun Yoon
Development of nanotoxicity prediction models is becoming increasingly important in the risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials. However, it has significant obstacles caused by the wide heterogeneities of published literature in terms of data completeness and quality. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of 216 published articles on oxide nanoparticles using 14 attributes of physicochemical, toxicological and quantum-mechanical properties. Particularly, to improve completeness and quality of the extracted dataset, we adapted two preprocessing approaches: data gap-filling and physicochemical property based scoring...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453347/reversing-coffee-ring-effect-by-laser-induced-differential-evaporation
#14
Tony M Yen, Xin Fu, Tao Wei, Roshan U Nayak, Yuesong Shi, Yu-Hwa Lo
The coffee-ring effect, ubiquitously present in the drying process of aqueous droplets, impedes the performance of a myriad of applications involving precipitation of particle suspensions in evaporating liquids on solid surfaces, such as liquid biopsy combinational analysis, microarray fabrication, and ink-jet printing, to name a few. We invented the methodology of laser-induced differential evaporation to remove the coffee-ring effect. Without any additives to the liquid or any morphology modifications of the solid surface the liquid rests on, we have eliminated the coffee-ring effect by engineering the liquid evaporation profile with a CO 2 laser irradiating the apex of the droplets...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453175/solubilization-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-with-phenol-in-coking-wastewater-treatment-system-interaction-and-engineering-significance
#15
Qiaoping Kong, Haizhen Wu, Lei Liu, Fengzhen Zhang, Sergei Preis, Shuang Zhu, Chaohai Wei
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are accumulated in the sludge collected from the coking wastewater treatment. Phenol with its efficient degradation observed in biological treatment promotes the solubility of PAHs in aqueous phase. The interaction mechanism of phenol and PAHs in aqueous and sludge phases was systematically studied in two full-scale engineering projects composed of anaerobic-oxic-oxic (A-O 1 -O 2 ) and anaerobic-oxic-hydrolytic-oxic (A-O 1 -H-O 2 ) sequences. The results showed that reasonable use of phenol facilitates solubilization of PAHs alleviating their emission problems...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453143/structure-and-physico-mechanical-properties-of-low-temperature-plasma-treated-electrospun-nanofibrous-scaffolds-examined-with-atomic-force-microscopy
#16
Adrian Chlanda, Ewa Kijeńska, Chiara Rinoldi, Michał Tarnowski, Tadeusz Wierzchoń, Wojciech Swieszkowski
Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds are willingly used in tissue engineering applications due to their tunable mechanical, chemical and physical properties. Additionally, their complex openworked architecture is similar to the native extracellular matrix of living tissue. After implantation such scaffolds should provide sufficient mechanical support for cells. Moreover, it is of crucial importance to ensure sterility and hydrophilicity of the scaffold. For this purpose, a low temperature surface plasma treatment can be applied...
February 8, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453106/regionalized-and-vectorial-charges-transferring-of-cd-1-x-zn-x-s-twin-nanocrystal-homojunctions-for-visible-light-driven-photocatalytic-applications
#17
Wanyue Dong, Yutang Liu, Guangming Zeng, Shuqu Zhang, Tao Cai, Jili Yuan, Hui Chen, Jing Gao, Chengbin Liu
In photocatalyst designing, quick recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs in the bulk or on the surface of semiconductors is a major limiting factor in achieving high photocatalytic efficiency, which is one of the most knotty scientific issues. For this purpose, a series of Cd 1-x Zn x S twin nanocrystal (NC) zinc blende/wurtzite (ZB/WZ) homojunctions photocatalysts were synthesized by a facile solvothermal route and innovatively employed in photocatalytic degradation. In sample Cd 0.6 Zn 0.4 S, ZB and WZ phases have the largest distribution and closest interconnection at atomic level...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452946/time-responsive-osteogenic-niche-of-stem-cells-a-sequentially-triggered-dual-peptide-loaded-alginate-hybrid-system-for-promoting-cell-activity-and-osteo-differentiation
#18
Zuyuan Luo, Siqi Zhang, Jijia Pan, Rui Shi, Hao Liu, Yalin Lyu, Xiao Han, Yan Li, Yue Yang, Zhixiu Xu, Yi Sui, En Luo, Yuanyuan Zhang, Shicheng Wei
The efficacy of stem cell-based bone tissue engineering has been hampered by cell death and limited fate control. A smart cell culture system with the capability of sequentially delivering multiple factors in specific growth stages, like the mechanism of the natural extracellular matrix modulating tissue formation, is attractive for enhancing cell activity and controlling cell fate. Here, a bone forming peptide-1 (BFP-1)-laden mesoporous silica nanoparticles (pep@MSNs) incorporated adhesion peptide, containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) domain, modified alginate hydrogel (RA) system (pep@MSNs-RA) was developed to promote the activity and stimulate osteo-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in sequence...
February 10, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452455/complex-hur-function-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan R Brody, Dan A Dixon
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers with dismal patient outcomes. The underlying core genetic drivers of disease have been identified in human tumor specimens and described in genetically engineered mouse models. These genetic drivers of PDAC include KRAS signaling, TP53 mutations, and genetic loss of the SMAD4 tumor suppressor protein. Beyond the known mutational landscape of PDAC genomes, alternative disrupted targets that extend beyond conventional genetic mutations have been elusive and understudied in the context of PDAC cell therapeutic resistance and survival...
February 16, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452273/3d-bioprinted-functional-and-contractile-cardiac-tissue-constructs
#20
Zhan Wang, Sang Jin Lee, Heng-Jie Cheng, James J Yoo, Anthony Atala
Bioengineering of a functional cardiac tissue composed of primary cardiomyocytes has great potential for myocardial regeneration and in vitro tissue modeling. However, its applications remain limited because the cardiac tissue is a highly organized structure with unique physiologic, biomechanical, and electrical properties. In this study, we undertook a proof-of-concept study to develop a contractile cardiac tissue with cellular organization, uniformity, and scalability by using three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategy...
February 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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