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Mechanical engineering

Amretendu Mukhopadhyay, Dibyendu Chatterjee, Chandan Mondal, Sony Punnose, K Gopinath
The high temperature strength of directionally solidified Ni-base super alloy CM 247LC strongly depends on the morphology, volume fraction, size and size distribution of γ' precipitate (Ni3 Al) in the FCC γ matrix. The microstructure of the alloy is engineered to achieve the right combination of these parameters that provides the required high temperature strength and creep resistance. The alloy contains high volume fraction of coherent γ' precipitates having near cubic shape. High temperature exposure of gas turbine components made out of the alloy leads to coarsening of the γ' precipitates and broadening of the γ matrix channel...
May 16, 2018: Ultrasonics
Simon Maccracken Stump, Evan Curtis Johnson, Christopher A Klausmeier
Cooperative cross-feeding, a resource-exchange mutualism between microbes, is ubiquitous; however, models suggest it should be susceptible to cheating. Recent work suggested two novel mechanisms that could allow cross-feeders to exclude cheaters, even in the absence of tight coupling between cooperative organisms. The first is pattern formation, where cross-feeders form regular patterns so that their their resources are separated and cheaters cannot obtain both. The second mechanism is neighbor uncertainty, where demographic stochasticity separates resources so cheaters cannot obtain both...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Chen Xu, Hao Zhang, Wei Gu, Huiqiao Wu, Yuanyuan Chen, Wenchao Zhou, Baifeng Sun, Xiaolong Shen, Zicheng Zhang, Yue Wang, Yang Liu, Wen Yuan
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) presents as pathological heterotopic ossification of the spinal ligaments. However, its underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. Our previous findings suggested that altered microRNA regulatory network are critical for the development of OPLL. Here, we set out to unveiling the detailed mechanism of those altered OPLL-specific microRNAs. We screened a set of differentially expressed OPLL-specific microRNAs from the previous sequencing data and showed that microRNA-10a actively modulates the ossification of posterior ligament cells in vitro...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Soojung Lee, Trine V Axelsen, Nicolai Jessen, Stine F Pedersen, Pernille Vahl, Ebbe Boedtkjer
Metabolic acid production challenges cellular pH homeostasis in solid cancer tissue, and mechanisms of net acid extrusion represent promising new targets for breast cancer therapy. Here, we used genetically engineered mice to investigate the contribution of the Na+ ,HCO3 - -cotransporter NBCn1 (Slc4a7) to intracellular acid-base regulation in ErbB2-induced breast cancer tissue and the consequences of NBCn1 knockout for breast tumor development and growth. We demonstrate an approximately 2-fold increase of NBCn1 protein abundance in ErbB2-induced breast cancer tissue compared to normal breast tissue despite a 4-fold decrease in the NBCn1 mRNA level...
June 15, 2018: Oncogene
Kalyanasundaram Subramanian, Artur Góra, Ruud Spruijt, Karolina Mitusińska, Maria Suarez-Diez, Vitor Martins Dos Santos, Peter J Schaap
D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) degrades D-amino acids to produce α-ketoacids, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. DAAO has often been investigated and engineered for industrial and clinical applications. We combined information from literature with a detailed analysis of the structure to engineer mammalian DAAOs. The structural analysis was complemented with molecular dynamics simulations to characterize solvent accessibility and product release mechanisms. We identified non-obvious residues located on the loops on the border between the active site and the secondary binding pocket essential for pig and human DAAO substrate specificity and activity...
2018: PloS One
Aleš Hrabec, Viola Křižáková, Stefania Pizzini, João Sampaio, André Thiaville, Stanislas Rohart, Jan Vogel
Magnetic domain walls are objects whose dynamics is inseparably connected to their structure. In this Letter, we investigate magnetic bilayers, which are engineered such that a coupled pair of domain walls, one in each layer, is stabilized by a cooperation of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and flux-closing mechanism. The dipolar field mediating the interaction between the two domain walls links not only their position but also their structure. We show that this link has a direct impact on their magnetic-field-induced dynamics...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Swantje Seifert, Susanne Brakmann
In nature, a multitude of mechanisms have emerged for regulating biological processes and, specifically, protein activity. Light as a natural regulatory element is of outstanding interest for studying and modulating protein activity because it can be precisely applied with regard to a site of action, instant of time, or intensity. Naturally occuring photoresponsive proteins, predominantly those containing a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain, have been characterized structurally and mechanistically and also conjugated to various proteins of interest...
June 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Simon Müller, Patrick Pietsch, Ben-Elias Brandt, Paul Baade, Vincent De Andrade, Francesco De Carlo, Vanessa Wood
Capacity fade in lithium-ion battery electrodes can result from a degradation mechanism in which the carbon black-binder network detaches from the active material. Here we present two approaches to visualize and quantify this detachment and use the experimental results to develop and validate a model that considers how the active particle size, the viscoelastic parameters of the composite electrode, the adhesion between the active particle and the carbon black-binder domain, and the solid electrolyte interphase growth rate impact detachment and capacity fade...
June 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Matthew Bratkowski, Xin Yang, Xin Liu
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) mediates trimethylation of histone H3K27 (H3K27me3), an epigenetic hallmark for repressed chromatin. Overactive mutants of the histone lysine methyltransferase subunit of PRC2, Ezh2, are found in various types of cancers. Pyridone-containing inhibitors such as GSK126 compete with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) for Ezh2 binding and effectively inhibit PRC2 activity. PRC2 from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum (ct) is functionally similar to the human version in several regards and has the added advantage of producing high-resolution crystal structures, although inhibitor-bound structures of human or human/chameleon PRC2 are also available at up to 2...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexander T Baker, Carmen Aguirre-Hernández, Gunnel Halldén, Alan L Parker
The licensing of talimogene laherparepvec (T-Vec) represented a landmark moment for oncolytic virotherapy, since it provided unequivocal evidence for the long-touted potential of genetically modified replicating viruses as anti-cancer agents. Whilst T-Vec is promising as a locally delivered virotherapy, especially in combination with immune-checkpoint inhibitors, the quest continues for a virus capable of specific tumour cell killing via systemic administration. One candidate is oncolytic adenovirus (Ad); it’s double stranded DNA genome is easily manipulated and a wide range of strategies and technologies have been employed to empower the vector with improved pharmacokinetics and tumour targeting ability...
June 14, 2018: Cancers
Maxime M Mahe
The utilization of human pluripotent stem cells holds great promise in elucidating principles of developmental biology and applications in personalized and regenerative medicine. Breakthroughs from the last decade have allowed the scientific community to better understand and successfully manipulate human pluripotent stem cells using distinct differentiation strategies into a variety of target tissues. This manipulation relies solely on our understanding of developmental processes occurring in model organisms...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
Adriana Gilarska, Joanna Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Wojciech Horak, Maria Nowakowska
Studies on synthesis, physico-chemical and biological properties of novel biomimetic materials, potentially useful as injectable hydrogels are presented. These materials are in situ prepared chemically crosslinked collagen/chitosan/hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels exhibiting potential for tissue regeneration. Optimization of hydrogels involved testing the effect of various concentration of crosslinking agent (genipin) as well as different ratios of biopolymers used on their properties. The changes in the content of hyaluronic acid and in the genipin concentration used have been shown to be crucial...
June 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Xiaowei Hong, Ramkumar T Annamalai, Tyler S Kemerer, Cheri X Deng, Jan P Stegemann
Both static and time-dependent mechanical factors can have a profound impact on cell and tissue function, but it is challenging to measure the mechanical properties of soft materials at the scale which cells sense. Multimode ultrasound viscoelastography (MUVE) uses focused ultrasound pulses to both generate and image deformations within soft hydrogels non-invasively, at sub-millimeter resolution, and in 3D. The deformation and strain over time data are used to extract quantitative parameters that describe both the elastic and viscoelastic properties of the material...
June 2, 2018: Biomaterials
Jun Yin, Yichuan Lin, Chunquan Zhang, Jing Li, Nanfeng Zheng
Perovskite based solar cells have been developed intensively in recent years due to their attractive applications in next generation photovoltaics with low cost and high efficiency. However, the fabrication processes need to be further improved to meet the requirement in actual industrial production with reliable process and scalable fabrication. Here, thermal / solvent engineering coordinately enhanced rapid crystallization strategy is reported to realize the fast and robust preparation of perovskite films...
June 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaodong Yan, Mupeng Zheng, Shengjun Sun, Mankang Zhu, Yudong Hou
In this study, (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 (BCTZ) lead-free ceramics with enhanced energy density were prepared by two-step sintering. All ceramics fall into the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase boundary near room temperature, and a dense microstructure with an intermediate grain size was observed. The enhanced piezoelectric and energy harvesting properties were attained over a wide grain size range of 10-15 μm, benefiting from the construction of the R-O-T phase boundary. Most interestingly, the maximum values of d33 and d33 × g33 (530 pC N-1 and 9720 × 10-15 m2 N-1) can be achieved at 1500/1350 °C with a grain size of 13...
June 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Temitope M John, Joke A Badejo, Segun I Popoola, David O Omole, Jonathan A Odukoya, Priscilla O Ajayi, Mary Aboyade, Aderemi A Atayero
This data article presents data of academic performances of undergraduate students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines in Covenant University, Nigeria. The data shows academic performances of Male and Female students who graduated from 2010 to 2014. The total population of samples in the observation is 3046 undergraduates mined from Biochemistry (BCH), Building technology (BLD), Computer Engineering (CEN), Chemical Engineering (CHE), Industrial Chemistry (CHM), Computer Science (CIS), Civil Engineering (CVE), Electrical and Electronics Engineering (EEE), Information and Communication Engineering (ICE), Mathematics (MAT), Microbiology (MCB), Mechanical Engineering (MCE), Management and Information System (MIS), Petroleum Engineering (PET), Industrial Physics-Electronics and IT Applications (PHYE), Industrial Physics-Applied Geophysics (PHYG) and Industrial Physics-Renewable Energy (PHYR)...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Milija Šimleša, Jérôme Guegan, Edouard Blanchard, Franck Tarpin-Bernard, Stéphanie Buisine
Flow is a well-known concept in the fields of positive and applied psychology. Examination of a large body of flow literature suggests there is a need for a conceptual model rooted in a cognitive approach to explain how this psychological phenomenon works. In this paper, we propose the Flow Engine Framework, a theoretical model explaining dynamic interactions between rearranged flow components and fundamental cognitive processes. Using an IPO framework (Inputs - Processes - Outputs) including a feedback process, we organize flow characteristics into three logically related categories: inputs (requirements for flow), mediating and moderating cognitive processes (attentional and motivational mechanisms) and outputs (subjective and objective outcomes), describing the process of the flow...
March 2018: Europe's Journal of Psychology
Moritz Hunkeler, Anna Hagmann, Edward Stuttfeld, Mohamed Chami, Yakir Guri, Henning Stahlberg, Timm Maier
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyses the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA, a rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis1,2 . Eukaryotic acetyl-CoA carboxylases are large, homodimeric multienzymes. Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase occurs in two isoforms: the metabolic, cytosolic ACC1, and ACC2, which is anchored to the outer mitochondrial membrane and controls fatty acid β-oxidation1,3 . ACC1 is regulated by a complex interplay of phosphorylation, binding of allosteric regulators and protein-protein interactions, which is further linked to filament formation1,4-8 ...
June 13, 2018: Nature
Feng Yan, Lili Liu, Tiffany R Walsh, Yu Gong, Patrick Z El-Khoury, Yanyan Zhang, Zihua Zhu, James J De Yoreo, Mark H Engelhard, Xin Zhang, Chun-Long Chen
In nature, specific biomolecules interacting with mineral precursors are responsible for the precise production of nanostructured inorganic materials that exhibit complex morphologies and superior performance. Despite advances in developing biomimetic approaches, the design rules for creating sequence-defined molecules that lead to the synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials with predictable complex morphologies are unknown. Herein we report the design of sequence-defined peptoids for controlled synthesis of highly branched plasmonic gold particles...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Julian Lange, Eugenia Münch, Jan Müller, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski, Ralf Takors, Bastian Blombach
Zero-growth processes are a promising strategy for the production of reduced molecules and depict a steady transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions. To investigate the adaptation of Corynebacterium glutamicum to altering oxygen availabilities, we conceived a triple-phase fermentation process that describes a gradual reduction of dissolved oxygen with a shift from aerobiosis via microaerobiosis to anaerobiosis. The distinct process phases were clearly bordered by the bacteria’s physiologic response such as reduced growth rate, biomass substrate yield and altered yield of fermentation products...
June 13, 2018: Genes
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