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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049925/omics-tools-new-challenges-in-aquatic-nanotoxicology
#1
REVIEW
Messika Revel, Amélie Châtel, Catherine Mouneyrac
In recent years, the implication of genomics into ecotoxicological studies has been studied closely to allow a better understanding of organism's responses to environmental contaminants including engineering nanomaterials (ENMs). ENMs are increasingly produced for various applications including cosmetics, electronics, sports equipment, biomedicine and agriculture. Because of their small size, ENMs possess chemical or physical characteristics improved compared to the corresponding macro-sized material. As their application expend, the release of manufactured ENMs into the environment is likely to increase and concern over impacts for the aquatic ecosystem is growing...
October 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049869/collagen-vitrigels-with-low-fibril-density-enhance-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-maturation
#2
Xiaokun Wang, Julien Maruotti, Shoumyo Majumdar, Jose Roman, Hai-Quan Mao, Donald Zack, Jennifer Elisseeff
Structural and biochemical cues of extracellular matrix can substantially influence the differentiation and maturation of cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). In this study, thin collagen vitrigels were engineered to create collagen nanofibrillar structures of different fibril densities in an effort to evaluate the maturation of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells (hESC-RPE). The ultrastructure of the different collagen vitrigels was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, and the mechanical properties was evaluated by tensile testing...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048904/ultra-high-elastic-strain-energy-storage-in-metal-oxide-infiltrated-patterned-hybrid-polymer-nanocomposites
#3
Keith Dusoe, Xinyi Ye, Kim Kisslinger, Aaron Stein, Seok-Woo Lee, Chang-Yong Nam
Modulus of resilience, the measure of a material's ability to store and release elastic strain energy, is critical for realizing advanced mechanical actuation technologies in micro/nanoelectromechanical systems. In general, engineering the modulus of resilience is difficult because it requires asymmetrically increasing yield strength and Young's modulus against their mutual scaling behavior. This task becomes further challenging if it needs to be carried out at the nanometer scale. Here, we demonstrate organic-inorganic hybrid composite nanopillars with one of the highest modulus of resilience per density, by utilizing vapor-phase aluminum oxide infiltration in lithographically patterned negative photoresist SU-8...
October 19, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048241/nanofibrous-electrospun-hdecm-based-hybrid-scaffold-as-wound-dressing-for-reducing-scarring
#4
Tae Hee Kim, Youngmee Jung, Soo Hyun Kim
Produced via electrospinning, poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) membranes, which have a porous structure and are biodegradable, are of interest in various medical fields. The porous-structured electrospun membrane is particularly interesting because of several favorable properties: it exudes fluid from the wound, does not build up under the wound covering, and does not cause wound desiccation. Moreover, extracellular matrix (ECM)-based structures derived by tissue decellularization have application as engineered tissue scaffolds and as supports for cellular regeneration...
October 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047037/diesel-exhaust-particles-and-the-induction-of-macrophage-activation-and-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Akeem O Lawal
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are an important component of air particulate matter, generated from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuel in diesel engines. Several epidemiological and experimental data have shown the ability of DEP to induce oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response as mechanisms in macrophage activation and dysfunction. Macrophages are very important to immunity and immune response due to their ability to phagocyte microbes and parasites. They also respond to toxic chemicals, such as DEP, in the environment and studies have shown that their functions may be impaired by their exposure to DEP...
October 19, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046717/designing-of-pla-scaffolds-for-bone-tissue-replacement-fabricated-by-ordinary-commercial-3d-printer
#6
Aleš Gregor, Eva Filová, Martin Novák, Jakub Kronek, Hynek Chlup, Matěj Buzgo, Veronika Blahnová, Věra Lukášová, Martin Bartoš, Alois Nečas, Jan Hošek
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of Tissue engineering is a regeneration or replacement of tissues or organs damaged by disease, injury, or congenital anomalies. At present, Tissue engineering repairs damaged tissues and organs with artificial supporting structures called scaffolds. These are used for attachment and subsequent growth of appropriate cells. During the cell growth gradual biodegradation of the scaffold occurs and the final product is a new tissue with the desired shape and properties...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046448/in-vitro-neutralization-is-not-predictive-of-prophylactic-efficacy-of-broadly-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibodies-cr6261-and-cr9114-against-lethal-h2-influenza-virus-challenge-in-mice
#7
Troy C Sutton, Elaine W Lamirande, Kevin W Bock, Ian N Moore, Wouter Koudstaal, Muniza Rehman, Gerrit Jan Weverling, Jaap Goudsmit, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza viruses of the H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes have caused previous pandemics. H2 influenza viruses represent a pandemic threat due to continued circulation in wild birds and limited immunity in the human population. In the event of a pandemic, anti-viral agents are the mainstay for treatment, but broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may be a viable alternative for short-term prophylaxis or treatment. The hemagglutinin stem binding bNAbs CR6261 and CR9114 have been shown to protect mice from severe disease following challenge with H1N1 and H5N1, and H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B viruses, respectively...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046163/application-of-hydrogels-in-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#8
Ximu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Maobin Yang
Cartilage has limited ability for self-repairing, prompting the search for cartilage substitutes that can repair cartilage defects. Hydrogels have attracted attention as cartilage substitutes, since their mechanical properties, swelling ability and lubricating behavior are similar to extracellular matrix of articular cartilage. Hydrogels can be of natural, synthetic or hybrid origin, and hydrogels can encapsulate stem cells and/or be loaded with growth factors to promote cell differentiation into a chondrogenic phenotype...
October 17, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046144/purine-and-pyrimidine-phosphoribosytransferases-a-versatile-tool-for-enzymatic-synthesis-of-nucleoside-5-monophosphates
#9
J Del Arco, J Fernández-Lucas
BACKGROUND: In recent years, enzymatic methods have shown to be an efficient and sustainable alternative for the synthesis of nucleosides and nucleoside-5'-monophosphates (NMPs) to the traditional multistep chemical methods, since chemical glycosylation reactions include several protection-deprotection steps and the use of chemical reagents and organic solvents that are expensive and environmentally harmful. RESULTS: In this mini-review, we want to illustrate the application of phosphoribosyltransferases (PRTs) in enzymatic synthesis of NMPs...
October 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045881/confocal-rheology-probes-the-structure-and-mechanics-of-collagen-through-the-sol-gel-transition
#10
Khanh-Hoa Tran-Ba, Daniel J Lee, Jieling Zhu, Keewook Paeng, Laura J Kaufman
Fibrillar type I collagen-based hydrogels are commonly used in tissue engineering and as matrices for biophysical studies. Mechanical and structural properties of these gels are known to be governed by the conditions under which fibrillogenesis occurs, exhibiting variation as a function of protein concentration, temperature, pH, and ionic strength. Deeper understanding of how macroscopic structure affects viscoelastic properties of collagen gels over the course of fibrillogenesis provides fundamental insight into biopolymer gel properties and promises enhanced control over the properties of such gels...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045878/homodimeric-kinesin-2-kif3cc-promotes-microtubule-dynamics
#11
Stephanie Guzik-Lendrum, Ivan Rayment, Susan P Gilbert
KIF3C is one subunit of the functional microtubule-based kinesin-2 KIF3AC motor, an anterograde cargo transporter in neurons. However, KIF3C has also been implicated as an injury-specific kinesin that is a key regulator of axonal growth and regeneration by promoting microtubule dynamics for reorganization at the neuronal growth cone. To test its potential role as a modulator of microtubule dynamics in vitro, an engineered homodimeric KIF3CC was incorporated into a dynamic microtubule assay and examined by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045872/the-detection-of-nanoscale-membrane-bending-with-polarized-localization-microscopy
#12
Abir M Kabbani, Christopher V Kelly
The curvature of biological membranes at the nanometer scale is critically important for vesicle trafficking, organelle morphology, and disease propagation. The initiation of membrane bending occurs at a length scale that is irresolvable by most superresolution optical microscopy methods. Here, we report the development of polarized localization microscopy (PLM), a pointillist optical imaging technique for the detection of nanoscale membrane curvature in correlation with single-molecule dynamics and molecular sorting...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045831/usp7-is-a-tumor-specific-wnt-activator-for-apc-mutated-colorectal-cancer-by-mediating-%C3%AE-catenin-deubiquitination
#13
Laura Novellasdemunt, Valentina Foglizzo, Laura Cuadrado, Pedro Antas, Anna Kucharska, Vesela Encheva, Ambrosius P Snijders, Vivian S W Li
The tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is mutated in most colorectal cancers (CRCs), resulting in constitutive Wnt activation. To understand the Wnt-activating mechanism of the APC mutation, we applied CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer various APC-truncated isogenic lines. We find that the β-catenin inhibitory domain (CID) in APC represents the threshold for pathological levels of Wnt activation and tumor transformation. Mechanistically, CID-deleted APC truncation promotes β-catenin deubiquitination through reverse binding of β-TrCP and USP7 to the destruction complex...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045803/chitosan-based-trilayer-scaffold-for-multitissue-periodontal-regeneration
#14
E M Varoni, S Vijayakumar, E Canciani, A Cochis, L De Nardo, G Lodi, L Rimondini, M Cerruti
Periodontal regeneration is still a challenge for periodontists and tissue engineers, as it requires the simultaneous restoration of different tissues-namely, cementum, gingiva, bone, and periodontal ligament (PDL). Here, we synthetized a chitosan (CH)-based trilayer porous scaffold to achieve periodontal regeneration driven by multitissue simultaneous healing. We produced 2 porous compartments for bone and gingiva regeneration by cross-linking with genipin either medium molecular weight (MMW) or low molecular weight (LMW) CH and freeze-drying the resulting scaffolds...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045156/probing-the-interaction-mechanism-between-air-bubbles-and-bitumen-surfaces-in-aqueous-media-using-bubble-probe-afm
#15
Lei Xie, Chen Shi, Xin Cui, Jun Huang, Jingyi Wang, Qi Liu, Hongbo Zeng
Surface interactions involving deformable air bubbles have attracted tremendous interest in a wide range of engineering applications, such as mineral flotation and bitumen extraction. In this work, for the first time, the interaction forces between air bubbles and bitumen surfaces in complex aqueous media of varying pH, salinity and salts were directly measured using a bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) technique. The AFM topographic imaging reveals that bitumen surface tends to be rougher and form distinct domains at high NaCl concentration or under strongly alkaline environment...
October 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045134/effects-of-the-ph-on-the-formation-and-doping-mechanisms-of-zno-nanowires-using-aluminum-nitrate-and-ammonia
#16
Claire Verrier, Estelle Appert, Odette Chaix-Pluchery, Laetitia Rapenne, Quentin Rafhay, Anne Kaminski-Cachopo, Vincent Consonni
The elucidation of the fundamental processes in aqueous solution during the chemical bath deposition of ZnO nanowires (NWs) using zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine is of great significance: however, their extrinsic doping by foreign elements for monitoring their optical and electrical properties is still challenging. By combining thermodynamic simulations yielding theoretical solubility plots and speciation diagrams with in situ pH measurements and structural, chemical, and optical analyses, we report an in-depth understanding of the pH effects on the formation and aluminum doping mechanisms of ZnO NWs...
October 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044984/3d-printed-calcium-phosphate-and-poly-caprolactone-composites-with-improved-mechanical-properties-and-preserved-microstructure
#17
Joseph B Vella, Ryan P Trombetta, Michael D Hoffman, Jason Inzana, Hani Awad, Danielle S W Benoit
Biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds formed via 3D printing technology to exhibit porosity and chemical resorbability to promote osseointegration often lack the strength and toughness required to withstand loading in bone tissue engineering applications. Herein, sintering and CaP:poly(caprolactone) (PCL) composite formation were explored to improve 3D printed scaffold strength and toughness. Hydroxyapatite and α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) biphasic calcium powders were printed using phosphoric acid binder, which generated monetite and hydroxyapatite scaffolds...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044260/molecular-engineering-of-organic-electroactive-materials-for-redox-flow-batteries
#18
REVIEW
Yu Ding, Changkun Zhang, Leyuan Zhang, Yangen Zhou, Guihua Yu
With high scalability and independent control over energy and power, redox flow batteries (RFBs) stand out as an important large-scale energy storage system. However, the widespread application of conventional RFBs is limited by the uncompetitive performance, as well as the high cost and environmental concerns associated with the use of metal-based redox species. In consideration of advantageous features such as potentially low cost, vast molecular diversity, and highly tailorable properties, organic and organometallic molecules emerge as promising alternative electroactive species for building sustainable RFBs...
October 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043637/assays-to-study-repair-of-inducible-dna-double-strand-breaks-at-telomeres
#19
Roxanne Oshidari, Karim Mekhail
The ends of linear chromosomes are constituted of repetitive DNA sequences called telomeres. Telomeres, nearby regions called subtelomeres, and their associated factors prevent chromosome erosion over cycles of DNA replication and prevent chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). This raises the question of how cells repair DSBs that actually occur near chromosome ends. One approach is to edit the genome and engineer cells harboring inducible DSB sites within the subtelomeric region of different chromosome ends...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043499/open-circuit-respirometry-a-historical-review-of-portable-gas-analysis-systems
#20
REVIEW
Duncan J Macfarlane
Scientists such as physiologists, engineers, and nutritionists have often sought to estimate human metabolic strain during daily activities and physical pursuits. The measurement of human metabolism can involve direct calorimetry as well as indirect calorimetry using both closed-circuit respirometry and open-circuit methods that can include diluted flow chambers and laboratory-based gas analysis systems. For field studies, methods involving questionnaires, pedometry, accelerometery, heart rate telemetry, and doubly labelled water exist, yet portable metabolic gas analysis remains the gold standard for most field studies on energy expenditure...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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