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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329028/non-equilibrium-assembly-of-microtubules-from-molecules-to-autonomous-chemical-robots
#1
REVIEW
H Hess, Jennifer L Ross
Biological systems have evolved to harness non-equilibrium processes from the molecular to the macro scale. It is currently a grand challenge of chemistry, materials science, and engineering to understand and mimic biological systems that have the ability to autonomously sense stimuli, process these inputs, and respond by performing mechanical work. New chemical systems are responding to the challenge and form the basis for future responsive, adaptive, and active materials. In this article, we describe a particular biochemical-biomechanical network based on the microtubule cytoskeletal filament - itself a non-equilibrium chemical system...
March 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328541/molecular-engineering-of-two-photon-fluorescent-probes-for-bioimaging-applications
#2
Hong-Wen Liu, Yongchao Liu, Peng Wang, Xiao-Bing Zhang
During the past two decades, two-photon microscopy (TPM), which utilizes two near-infrared photons as the excitation source, has emerged as a novel, attractive imaging tool for biological research. Compared with one-photon microscopy, TPM offers several advantages, such as lowering background fluorescence in living cells and tissues, reducing photodamage to biosamples, and a photobleaching phenomenon, offering better 3D spatial localization, and increasing penetration depth. Small-molecule-based two-photon fluorescent probes have been well developed for the detection and imaging of various analytes in biological systems...
March 22, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326769/octadecyltrichlorosilane-deposition-on-mica-surfaces-the-insight-interface-interaction-mechanism
#3
Jun Huang, Xiaokong Liu, Xiaoyong Qiu, Lei Xie, Bin Yan, Xiaogang Wang, Qingxue Huang, Hongbo Zeng
Surface functionalization by alkylsilanes has been widely used in many engineering applications. In this work, a systematic investigation was conducted on the deposition behaviors of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTCS) on freshly cleaved mica surfaces that possess low density of reactive sites (i.e., silanol groups) via a vapor deposition method. The deposition of OTCS molecules on mica was found to follow a two-stage process, as monitored by measuring the surface morphology using atomic force microscope (AFM) and wettability of the samples obtained at different deposition times...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326054/dynamical-constants-and-time-universals-a-first-step-toward-a-metrical-definition-of-ordered-and-abnormal-cognition
#4
REVIEW
Mark A Elliott, Naomi du Bois
From the point of view of the cognitive dynamicist the organization of brain circuitry into assemblies defined by their synchrony at particular (and precise) oscillation frequencies is important for the correct correlation of all independent cortical responses to the different aspects of a given complex thought or object. From the point of view of anyone operating complex mechanical systems, i.e., those comprising independent components that are required to interact precisely in time, it follows that the precise timing of such a system is essential - not only essential but measurable, and scalable...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325702/construction-of-an-interim-storage-field-using-recovered-municipal-solid-waste-incineration-bottom-ash-field-performance-study
#5
Laura Annika Sormunen, Pauli Kolisoja
The leaching of hazardous substances from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) has been studied in many different scales for several years. Less attention has been given to the mechanical performance of MSWI BA in actual civil engineering structures. The durability of structures built with this waste derived material can have major influence on the functional properties of such structures and also the potential leaching of hazardous substances in the long term. Hence, it is necessary to properly evaluate in which type of structures MSWI BA can be safely used in a similar way as natural and crushed rock aggregates...
March 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325683/biomimetic-scaffolds-with-three-dimensional-undulated-microtopographies
#6
Jonelle Z Yu, Emrullah Korkmaz, Monica I Berg, Philip R LeDuc, O Burak Ozdoganlar
Many human and animal tissues naturally possess three-dimensional (3D) micro-scale geometries enabling certain physiological functions. Absence of these microgeometries in engineered tissues may undermine the effectiveness of corresponding tissue repair and regeneration. This paper introduces a novel approach to create tissue scaffolds with biomimetic 3D undulated microtopographies. The mechanical micromilling technology is used for precise and reproducible fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) master molds with 3D undulated microtopographies...
February 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325445/nonlinear-model-on-pulsatile-flow-of-blood-through-a-porous-bifurcated-arterial-stenosis-in-the-presence-of-magnetic-field-and-periodic-body-acceleration
#7
R Ponalagusamy, S Priyadharshini
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Background and Objective: The motivation of cardiovascular modeling is to understand the haemodynamic and mechanical factors in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Several investigations have been carried out by many authors to understand the flow properties of blood in modelling blood flows in the circulatory system. In the present article, the pulsatile flow of Herschel-Bulkley fluid through a bifurcated arterial stenosis in a porous medium with magnetic field and periodic body acceleration has been investigated in view of understanding the role of rheological behaviour of blood, stenotic height, bifurcation angle, magnetic field and porosity of wall in the initiation and proliferation of cardiovascular diseases...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325316/removal-of-dye-by-carboxymethyl-cellulose-acrylamide-and-graphene-oxide-via-a-free-radical-polymerization-process
#8
Kokkarachedu Varaprasad, Tippabattini Jayaramudu, Emmanuel Rotimi Sadiku
Carboxymethyl cellulose has been used for the design of novel engineered hydrogels in order to obtain effective three-dimensional structures for industrial applications. In this work, dye removal carboxymethyl cellulose-acrylamide-graphene oxide (CMC-AM-GO) hydrogels were prepared by a free-radical polymerization method. The GO was developed by the modified Hummers method. The CMC-AM-GO and GO were characterized by FTIR, XRD and SEM. The swelling and swelling kinetics were calculated using gravimetric process...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322949/polysaccharide-based-bionanocomposite-hydrogels-reinforced-with-cellulose-nanocrystals-drug-release-and-biocompatibility-analyses
#9
Kummara Madhusudana Rao, Anuj Kumar, Sung Soo Han
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) reinforced, bionanocomposite (BNC) has shown great potential in tissue engineering applications due to the low toxicity, low density, and high aspect ratio. In this work, BNC hydrogels reinforced with CNCs were fabricated from xanthan (XG) solutions and chitosan (CS) in presence of green acidifying agent through electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. As developed BNC hydrogels were characterized for complex formation, morphology, and mechanical behavior. The mechanical performance of BNC hydrogels was improved significantly as increased CNC content (from 2-10wt%)...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322510/rational-design-of-a-conductive-collagen-heart-patch
#10
Peter C Sherrell, Artur Cieślar-Pobuda, Malin Silverå Ejneby, Laura Sammalisto, Amy Gelmi, Ebo de Muinck, Johan Brask, Marek J Łos, Mehrdad Rafat
Cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality globally. Tissue engineering is a key emerging treatment method for supporting and repairing the cardiac scar tissue caused by myocardial infarction. Creating cell supportive scaffolds that can be directly implanted on a myocardial infarct is an attractive solution. Hydrogels made of collagen are highly biocompatible materials that can be molded into a range of shapes suitable for cardiac patch applications...
March 21, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322472/molecular-chemistry-and-engineering-of-boron-modified-polyorganosilazanes-as-new-processable-and-functional-sibcn-precursors
#11
Samuel Bernard, Antoine Viard, Diane Fonblanc, Marion Schmidt, Abhijeet Lale, Chrystelle Salameh, Anne Soleilhavoup, Mélanie Wynn, Philippe Champagne, Sophie Cerneaux, Florence Babonneau, Georges Chollon, Fabrice Rossignol, Christel Gervais
A series of boron-modified polyorganosilazanes was synthesized from a poly(vinylmethyl-co-methyl)silazane and controlled borane dimethyl sulfide amounts. The role of the chemistry behind their syntheses has been studied in details by solid-state NMR, FT-IR and elemental analyses. Then, the intimate relationship between the chemistry and the processability of these polymers was discussed. Polymers with low boron contents display the appropriate requirements for facile processing in solution such as impregnation of host carbon materials resulting in the design of mesoporous monoliths with high specific surface area after pyrolysis...
March 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322040/design-and-fabrication-of-a-thin-walled-freeform-scaffold-on-the-basis-of-medical-image-data-and-a-3d-printed-template-potential-use-in-bile-duct-regeneration
#12
Suk Hee Park, Bo-Kyeong Kang, Ji Eun Lee, Seung Woo Chun, Kiseok Jang, Youn Hwan Kim, Mi Ae Jeong, Yohan Kim, Kyo Jin Kang, Nak Kyu Lee, Dongho Choi, Han Joon Kim
Three-dimensional (3D) printing, combined with medical imaging technologies, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has shown great potential in patient-specific tissue regeneration. Here, we successfully fabricated an ultrathin tubular freeform structure that has a wall thickness of several tens of micrometers and is capable of providing sufficient mechanical flexibility. Such a thin geometry cannot easily be achieved by 3D printing alone; therefore, it was realized through a serial combination of processes that included the 3D printing of a sacrificial template, the dip-coating of the biomaterial, and the removal of the inner template...
March 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320976/a-study-on-the-efficacy-of-the-recombinant-yersinia-adhesin-a-vaccine-against-yersiniosis-in-the-early-phase
#13
Kosuke Tsugo, Shin/Ichi Nakamura, Hiroko Yamanaka, Yumi Une
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Y. ptb) is a zoonotic pathogenic bacterial species of the family Enterobacteriaceae and causes yersiniosis, an acute intestinal infection in humans and animals. Y. ptb is often implicated in lethal epidemics in zoo animals and reductions in the breeding population, but a valid prevention method has not been established. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a vaccine for yersiniosis control. The immunogenicity of one of the adhesion factors involved in pathogenic mechanisms of Y...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320967/self-identity-reprogrammed-by-a-single-residue-switch-in-a-cell-surface-receptor-of-a-social-bacterium
#14
Pengbo Cao, Daniel Wall
The ability to recognize close kin confers survival benefits on single-celled microbes that live in complex and changing environments. Microbial kinship detection relies on perceptible cues that reflect relatedness between individuals, although the mechanisms underlying recognition in natural populations remain poorly understood. In myxobacteria, cells identify related individuals through a polymorphic cell surface receptor, TraA. Recognition of compatible receptors leads to outer membrane exchange among clonemates and fitness consequences...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320939/decoupling-local-mechanics-from-large-scale-structure-in-modular-metamaterials
#15
Nan Yang, Jesse L Silverberg
A defining feature of mechanical metamaterials is that their properties are determined by the organization of internal structure instead of the raw fabrication materials. This shift of attention to engineering internal degrees of freedom has coaxed relatively simple materials into exhibiting a wide range of remarkable mechanical properties. For practical applications to be realized, however, this nascent understanding of metamaterial design must be translated into a capacity for engineering large-scale structures with prescribed mechanical functionality...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324650/genome-engineering-of-virulent-lactococcal-phages-using-crispr-cas9
#16
Marie-Laurence Lemay, Denise M Tremblay, Sylvain Moineau
Phages are biological entities found in every ecosystem. Although much has been learned about them in past decades, significant knowledge gaps remain. Manipulating virulent phage genomes is challenging. To date, no efficient gene-editing tools exist for engineering virulent lactococcal phages. Lactococcus lactis is a bacterium extensively used as a starter culture in various milk fermentation processes and its phage sensitivity poses a constant risk to the cheese industry. The lactococcal phage p2 is one of the best-studied models for these virulent phages...
March 21, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324506/induction-of-site-specific-oxidative-damage-at-telomeres-by-killerred-fused-shelretin-proteins
#17
Rong Tan, Li Lan
Chronic oxidative stress is the major endogenous metabolic stress and contributes directly to telomere shortening and senescence. Understanding the dysfunction of telomeres under oxidative stress will greatly facilitate healthy aging and advance the treatment of aging-related diseases. Here, we describe the KR-TEL (KillerRed induced DNA damage at telomeres) system that induces site-specific oxidative damage at telomeres. We have developed the KR-TEL system by fusing killerred with the shelterin component TRF1 (KR-TRF1) or other shelterin proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324486/mitopho8%C3%AE-60-assay-as-a-tool-to-quantitatively-measure-mitophagy-activity
#18
Zhiyuan Yao, Xu Liu, Daniel J Klionsky
Mitophagy, a selective type of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy), specifically mediates the vacuole/lysosome-dependent degradation of damaged or surplus mitochondria. Because this process regulates the number and quality of mitochondria, it is vital for proper cellular homeostasis. Mitophagy also plays critical roles in the clearance of paternal mitochondria in C. elegans embryos, in erythroid cell maturation, and in the prevention of neurodegenerative disease and cancer. In order to study the molecular mechanism and regulation of mitophagy, sensitive assays are necessary to quantitatively measure mitophagy activity...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324469/stem-cells-in-cardiovascular-medicine-the-road-to-regenerative-therapies
#19
REVIEW
Christopher W Anderson, Nicole Boardman, Jiesi Luo, Jinkyu Park, Yibing Qyang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of current trends in stem cell research and its applications in cardiovascular medicine. Researches on different stem cell sources, their inherent characteristics, and the limitations they have in medical applications are discussed. Additionally, uses of stem cells for both modeling and treating cardiovascular disease are discussed, taking note of the obstacles these engineered interventions must overcome to be clinically viable...
April 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324111/arap1-deficiency-causes-photoreceptor-degeneration-in-mice
#20
Ala Moshiri, Devin Humpal, Brian C Leonard, Denise M Imai, Addy Tham, Lynette Bower, Dave Clary, Thomas M Glaser, K C Kent Lloyd, Christopher J Murphy
Purpose: Small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) regulate membrane traffic and actin reorganization under the control of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Arap1 is an Arf-directed GAP that inhibits the trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to the early endosome, but the diversity of its functions is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Arap1 in the mammalian retina. Methods: Genetically engineered Arap1 knockout mice were screened for ocular abnormalities in the National Institutes of Health Knockout Mouse Production and Phenotyping (KOMP2) Project...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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