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Sevcan A Bakkaloğlu, Yesim Özdemir Atikel, Fabio Paglialonga, Constantinos J Stefanidis, Varvara Askiti, Enrico Vidal, Gema Ariceta, Engin Melek, Enrico Verrina, Nikoleta Printza, Karel Vondrak, Aleksandra Zurowska, Ilona Zagozdzon, Mesiha Ekim, Elif Nursel Özmert, Stephanie Dufek, Augustina Jankauskiene, Claus Peter Schmitt, Eszter Lévai, Johan Vande Walle, Nur Canpolat, Tuula Holtta, Michel Fischbach, Guenter Klaus, Christoph Aufricht, Rukshana Shroff, Alberto Edefonti
BACKGROUND: Data on the immunization practices in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current vaccination practices for children on dialysis across European pediatric nephrology centers. METHODS: A total of 18 tertiary pediatric nephrology centers from 12 European countries were included in the study. The data on universal national immunization programs and immunization practices for children with chronic disease or risk were recorded from European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization...
December 12, 2017: Nephron
Sandra Ortega Ugalde, Rosa A Luirink, Daan P Geerke, Nico P E Vermeulen, Wilbert Bitter, Jan N M Commandeur
CYP130 belongs to the subset of cytochrome P450s from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that have been structurally characterized. Despite several efforts for its functional characterization, CYP130 is still considered an orphan enzyme for which no endogenous or exogenous substrate has been identified. In addition, functional redox-partners for CYP130 have not been clearly established yet, hampering the elucidation of its physiological role. In the present study, a catalytically active fusion protein involving CYP130 and the NADPH reductase-domain of CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium was created...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Shaoying Wang, Zhengyi Zhao, Farzin Haque, Peixuan Guo
Biological systems contain highly-ordered structures performing diverse functions. The elegant structures of biomachines have inspired the development of nanopores as single molecule sensors. Over the years, the utility of nanopores for detecting a wide variety of analytes have rapidly emerged for sensing, sequencing and diagnostic applications. Several protein channels with diverse shapes and sizes, such as motor channels from bacteriophage Phi29, SPP1, T3, and T4, as well as α-hemolysin, MspA, aerolysin, FluA, OmpF/G, CsgG, ClyA, have been continually investigated and developed as nanopores...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Bin Xia, Qi Sui, Xuemei Sun, Qian Han, Bijuan Chen, Lin Zhu, Keming Qu
Concerns about the environmental effects of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on marine ecosystems are increasing. Meanwhile, ocean acidification (OA) has become a global environmental problem. However, the combined effects of NPs and OA on marine organisms are still not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of OA (pH values of 7.77 and 7.47) on the bioavailability and toxicity of TiO2 NPs to the marine microalga Chlorella vulgaris. The results showed that OA enhanced the growth inhibition of algal cells caused by TiO2 NPs...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Thaddaus R Huber, Eli C McPherson, Carolyn E Keating, Christopher D Snow
Protein crystals are porous self-assembling materials that can be rapidly evolved by mutagenesis. We aimed to develop scaffold assisted crystallography techniques in an engineered protein crystal with large pores (>13 nm). Guest molecules were installed via a single covalent bond to attempt to reduce the conformational freedom and achieve high occupancy structures. We used 4 different conjugation strategies to attach guest molecules to 3 different cysteine sites within pre-existing protein crystals. In all but one case, the presence of the adduct was obvious in the electron density...
December 12, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Thomas Krieg, Anne Sydow, Sonja Faust, Ina Huth, Dirk Holtmann
Herein, we demonstrate that CO2 can be converted by an engineered "Knallgas" bacterium (Cupriavidus necator) to the terpene α-humulene. Heterologous expression of the mevalonate pathway and α-humulene synthase resulted in a production of approx. 10 mg α-humulene per gram cell dry mass (CDM) under heterotrophic conditions. This first example of chemolithoautotrophic production of a terpene from carbon dioxide, hydrogen and oxygen is a promising starting point for the production of different high value terpene compounds from abundant and simple raw materials...
December 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Johanna Espin, Sebastian Palmas, Farah Carrasco-Rueda, Kristina Riemer, Pablo E Allen, Nathan Berkebile, Kirsten A Hecht, Kay Kastner-Wilcox, Mauricio M Núñez-Regueiro, Candice Prince, Constanza Rios, Erica Ross, Bhagatveer Sangha, Tia Tyler, Judit Ungvari-Martin, Mariana Villegas, Tara T Cataldo, Emilio M Bruna
The scholars comprising journal editorial boards play a critical role in defining the trajectory of knowledge in their field. Nevertheless, studies of editorial board composition remain rare, especially those focusing on journals publishing research in the increasingly globalized fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Using metrics for quantifying the diversity of ecological communities, we quantified international representation on the 1985-2014 editorial boards of 24 environmental biology journals...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
Christian F W Becker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
Andrea L Bredemeyer, Bruce S Edwards, Mark K Haynes, Abigail J Morales, Yinan Wang, Oleg Ursu, Anna Waller, Larry A Sklar, Barry P Sleckman
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired primarily by homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Compounds that modulate HR have shown promise as cancer therapeutics. The V(D)J recombination reaction, which assembles antigen receptor genes in lymphocytes, is initiated by the introduction of DNA DSBs at two recombining gene segments by the RAG endonuclease, followed by the NHEJ-mediated repair of these DSBs. Here, using HyperCyt automated flow cytometry, we develop a robust high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for NHEJ that utilizes engineered pre-B-cell lines where the V(D)J recombination reaction can be induced and monitored at a single-cell level...
December 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
Zhoutong Sun, Lian Wu, Marco Bocola, H C Stephen Chan, Richard Lonsdale, Xu-Dong Kong, Shuguang Yuan, Jiahai Zhou, Manfred T Reetz
Directed evolution of limonene epoxide hydrolase (LEH), which catalyzes the hydrolytic desymmetrization reactions of cyclopentene oxide and cyclohexene oxide, results in (R,R)- and (S,S)-selective mutants. Their crystal structures combined with extensive theoretical computations shed light on the mechanistic intricacies of this widely used enzyme. From the computed activation energies of various pathways, we discover the underlying stereochemistry for favorable reactions. Surprisingly, some of the most enantioselective mutants that rapidly convert cyclohexene oxide do not catalyze the analogous transformation of the structurally similar cyclopentene oxide, as shown by additional X-ray structures of the variants harboring this slightly smaller substrate...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hui Duan, Ya-Xia Yin, Yang Shi, Peng-Fei Wang, Xu-Dong Zhang, Chun-Peng Yang, Ji-Lei Shi, Rui Wen, Yu-Guo Guo, Li-Jun Wan
The key bottleneck troubling the application of solid electrolyte is the contradictory requirements from Li-metal and cathode, which need high modulus to block Li-dendrite penetration and flexibility to enable low interface resistance, respectively. This study describes a thin asymmetrical design of solid electrolyte to address these shortcomings. In this architecture, a rigid ceramic-layer modified with an ultrathin polymer is toward Li-metal to accomplish dendrite-suppression of Li-anode, and a soft polymer-layer spreads over the exterior and interior of cathode to endow connected interface simultaneously...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Cheng Jin, Xiaojing Liu, Huarong Bai, Ruowen Wang, Jie Tan, Xuehui Peng, Weihong Tan
Because of their facile preparation, small size (<100 nm), programmable design and biocompatibility, lipid-based DNA micelles show enormous potential as a tool to monitor biological events and treat human diseases. However, their structural stability in biological matrices suffers from spatiotemporal variability, thus limiting their in vivo use. Herein, we have engineered stability-tunable DNA micelleflares using photocontrollable dissociation of intermolecular G-quadruplexes, which confers DNA micelleflares with robust structural stability against disruption by serum albumin...
December 12, 2017: ACS Nano
Isabel Kerschgens, Karl Gademann
Chemical cell surface engineering is a valuable tool for modifying and altering cellular functions. Herein we report the introduction of an antibiotic phenotype to the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by chemically modifying its cell surface. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies demonstrated that a hybrid of the antibiotic vancomycin and a 4-hydroxyproline oligomer binds reversibly to the cell wall without affecting the viability and motility of the cells. The modified cells were used to inhibit bacterial growth of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis cultures...
December 12, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Jianbin Su, Benjamin J Spears, Sang Hee Kim, Walter Gassmann
Unlike animals, plants do not have an adaptive immune system and have instead evolved sophisticated and multi-layered innate immune mechanisms. To overcome plant immunity, pathogens secrete a diverse array of effectors into the apoplast and virtually all cellular compartments in order to dampen immune signaling and interfere with plant functions. Here we describe the scope of the arms race throughout the cell and summarize various strategies used by both plants and pathogens. Through studying the ongoing evolutionary battle between plants and key pathogens, we may yet uncover potential ways to achieve the ultimate goal of engineering broad-spectrum resistant crops without affecting food quality or productivity...
December 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jia Fang, Yudong Wei, Xin Teng, Shanting Zhao, Jinlian Hua
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are proven to provide good effects in numerous tissue engineering application and other cell-based therapies. However, the difficulty in the proliferation of ADSCs, known as the "Hayflick limit" in vitro, limits their clinical application. Here, we immortalized canine ADSCs (cADSCs) with SV40 gene and transplanted them into busulfan-induced seminiferous tubules of infertile mice. The proliferation of these immortalized cells was improved significantly. Then, cellular differentiation assays showed that the immortalized cADSCs could differentiate into three-germ-layer cells, osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis phenotypes, and primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Liu Cui, Sanqiang Shi, Gaosheng Wei, Xiaoze Du
Graphene-based materials exhibit intriguing phononic and thermal properties. In this paper, we have investigated the heat conductance in graphene sheets under shear-strain-induced wrinkling deformation, using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. A significant orientation dependence of the thermal conductivity of graphene wrinkles (GWs) is observed. The directional dependence of the thermal conductivity of GWs stems from the anisotropy of phonon group velocities as revealed by the G-band broadening of the phonon density of states (DOS), the anisotropy of thermal resistance as evidenced by the G-band peak mismatch of the phonon DOS, and the anisotropy of phonon relaxation times as a direct result of the double-exponential-fitting of the heat current autocorrelation function...
December 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shan-Bin Sun, Yuan-Yuan He, Si-Da Zhou, Zhen-Jiang Yue
Measurement of dynamic responses plays an important role in structural health monitoring, damage detection and other fields of research. However, in aerospace engineering, the physical sensors are limited in the operational conditions of spacecraft, due to the severe environment in outer space. This paper proposes a virtual sensor model with partial vibration measurements using a convolutional neural network. The transmissibility function is employed as prior knowledge. A four-layer neural network with two convolutional layers, one fully connected layer, and an output layer is proposed as the predicting model...
December 12, 2017: Sensors
Tomasz Deptuch, Hanna Dams-Kozlowska
The great mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability of silk-based materials make them applicable to the biomedical field. Genetic engineering enables the construction of synthetic equivalents of natural silks. Knowledge about the relationship between the structure and function of silk proteins enables the design of bioengineered silks that can serve as the foundation of new biomaterials. Furthermore, in order to better address the needs of modern biomedicine, genetic engineering can be used to obtain silk-based materials with new functionalities...
December 12, 2017: Materials
Mathias Pickl, Christoph K Winkler, Silvia M Glueck, Marco W Fraaije, Kurt Faber
The oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl or carboxyl compounds represents a convenient strategy for the selective introduction of electrophilic carbon centres into carbohydrate-based starting materials. The O₂-dependent oxidation of prim-alcohols by flavin-containing alcohol oxidases often yields mixtures of aldehyde and carboxylic acid, which is due to "over-oxidation" of the aldehyde hydrate intermediate. In order to directly convert alcohols into carboxylic acids, rational engineering of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural oxidase was performed...
December 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rossella Dorati, Antonella DeTrizio, Tiziana Modena, Bice Conti, Francesco Benazzo, Giulia Gastaldi, Ida Genta
A great deal of research is ongoing in the area of tissue engineering (TE) for bone regeneration. A possible improvement in restoring damaged tissues involves the loading of drugs such as proteins, genes, growth factors, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory drugs into scaffolds for tissue regeneration. This mini-review is focused on the combination of the local delivery of antibiotic agents with bone regenerative therapy for the treatment of a severe bone infection such as osteomyelitis. The review includes a brief explanation of scaffolds for bone regeneration including scaffolds characteristics and types, a focus on severe bone infections (especially osteomyelitis and its treatment), and a literature review of local antibiotic delivery by the combination of scaffolds and drug-delivery systems...
December 12, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
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