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Pablo Gella, Margarita Salas, Mario Mencía
Many different DNA delivery vehicles have been developed and tested, all with their advantages and disadvantages. The bacteriophage phi29 terminal protein (TP) is covalently linked to the 5' ends of the phage genome during the DNA replication process. Our approach is to utilize this TP as a platform to incorporate different protein or peptide modules that can target the DNA to the interior of the cell, to the nucleus, or even to subcellular compartments. In order to be able to insert different peptide modules on the TP sequence to endow it with desired functions and/or eliminate unwanted regions of the protein, we have carried out a transposition screening to detect insertion-permissive points on the sequence of the TP...
2016: PloS One
Maria V Cicinelli, Adriano Carnevali, Alessandro Rabiolo, Lea Querques, Ilaria Zucchiatti, Vincenzo Scorcia, Francesco Bandello, Giuseppe Querques
PURPOSE: To describe macular-foveal capillaries (MFC) by means of optical coherence tomography angiography and to identify the clinical spectrum of this angiographic feature. METHODS: Patients with MFC presenting at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele in Milan were recruited. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination that included slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, measurement of best-corrected visual acuity, fundus autofluorescence, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis HRA + OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany)...
July 12, 2016: Retina
Mehrdad Namdari, Ali Eatemadi
Heart valves are currently under thorough investigation in tissue engineering (TE) research. Mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses which are recently used have several shortcomings. While allogenic and xenogenic biological prostheses are related to graft rejection, degeneration and thrombosis, resulting in a high rate of reoperation. Mechanical prostheses on the other hand are based on metallic, carbon, and polymeric components, and require continuous treatment with anticoagulant, which result in adverse reactions, e...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jacqueline E Gonzalez, Maciek R Antoniewicz
Engineered microbes offer a practical and sustainable alternative to traditional industrial approaches. To increase the economic feasibility of biological processes, microbial isolates are engineered to take up inexpensive feedstocks (including lignocellulosic biomass, syngas, methane, and carbon dioxide), and convert them into substrates of central metabolism and further into value-added products. To trace the metabolism of these feedstocks into products, isotopic tracers are applied together with isotopomer analysis techniques such as (13)C-metabolic flux analysis to provide a detailed picture of pathway utilization...
October 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Alejandro Garbino, Derek M Nusbaum, Daniel M Buckland, Anil S Menon, Jonathan B Clark, Erik L Antonsen
The Stratex Project is a high altitude balloon flight that culminated in a freefall from 41,422 m (135,890 ft), breaking the record for the highest freefall to date. Crew recovery operations required an innovative approach due to the unique nature of the event as well as the equipment involved. The parachutist donned a custom space suit similar to a NASA Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with life support system mounted to the front and a parachute on the back. This space suit had a metal structure around the torso, which, in conjunction with the parachute and life support assembly, created a significant barrier to extraction from the suit in the event of a medical emergency...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Hellen J Amuguni, Melissa Mazan, Robert Kibuuka
Infectious diseases of grave concern to human health are emerging from wildlife and livestock populations in multiple regions of the world. Responding effectively to these emerging pandemics requires engagement of multidisciplinary groups of professionals. Using a One Health approach, One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA), a network of seven schools of public health and seven veterinary schools, with the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), has engaged in curriculum review with the aim of building the skills of multidisciplinary groups of professionals to improve their capacity to respond to emerging infectious diseases...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Fumiaki Shima, Hirokazu Narita, Ayami Hiura, Hiroshi Shimoda, Mitsuru Akashi
There is considerable global demand for three-dimensional (3D) functional tissues which mimic our native organs and tissues for use as in vitro drug screening systems and in regenerative medicine. In particular, there has been an increasing number of patients who suffer from arterial diseases such as arteriosclerosis. As such, in vitro 3D arterial wall models that can evaluate the effects of novel medicines and a novel artificial graft for the treatment are required. In our previous study, we reported the rapid construction of 3D tissues by employing a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique and revealed their potential applications in the pharmaceutical fields and tissue engineering...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Anurag Mishra, Yuanyuan Jiang, Sheryl Roberts, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Gil Gregor Westmeyer
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an attractive imaging modality that can volumetrically map the distribution of photoabsorbing molecules with deeper tissue penetration than multiphoton microscopy. To enable dynamic sensing of divalent cations via PAI, we have engineered a new reversible near infrared probe that is more sensitive to calcium as compared to other biologically relevant cations. The metallochromic compound showed a strong reduction of its peak absorbance at 765 nm upon addition of calcium ions that was translated into robust signal changes in photoacoustic images...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Chayanon Ngambenjawong, Julio Marco B Pineda, Suzie H Pun
Peptide cyclization is a strategy used to improve stability and/or activity of peptides. The most commonly used cyclization method is disulfide bridge formation of cysteine-containing peptides as typically found in nature. Over the years, an increasing number of alternative chemistries for peptide cyclization with improved efficiency, kinetics, orthogonality, and stability have been reported. However, there has been less appreciation for the opportunity to fine-tune peptide activity via the diverse chemical entities introduced at the site of linkage by different cyclization strategies...
October 25, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Fengbo Zhu, Libo Cheng, Jun Yin, Ziliang Wu, Jin Qian, Jianzhong Fu, Qiang Zheng
Polyion complex (PIC) hydrogels have been proposed as promising engineered soft materials due to their high toughness and good processibility. In this work, we reported manufacturing of complex structures with tough PIC hydrogels based on three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. The strategy relies on the distinct strength of ionic bonding in PIC hydrogels at different stages of printing. In concentrated saline solution, PIC forms viscous solution, which can be directly extruded out of a nozzle into water, where dialyzing out of salt and counterions results in sol-gel transition to form tough physical PIC gel with intricate structures...
October 25, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrea Venturato, Gillian MacFarlane, Jin Geng, Mark Bradley
The development of polymeric materials with cell adhesion abilities requires an understanding of cell-surface interactions which vary with cell type. To investigate the correlation between cell attachment and the nature of the polymer, a series of random and block copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate are synthesized through single electron transfer living radical polymerization. The polymers are synthesized with highly defined and controlled monomer compositions and exhibited narrow polydispersity indices...
October 25, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Massimo Alfano, Manuela Nebuloni, Raffaele Allevi, Pietro Zerbi, Erika Longhi, Roberta Lucianò, Irene Locatelli, Angela Pecoraro, Marco Indrieri, Chantal Speziali, Claudio Doglioni, Paolo Milani, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
In the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering simulating the native microenvironment is of utmost importance. As a major component of the microenvironment, the extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to tissue homeostasis, whereas modifications of native features are associated with pathological conditions. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) geometry is an important feature of synthetic scaffolds favoring cell stemness, maintenance and differentiation. We analyzed the 3D structure, geometrical measurements and anisotropy of the ECM isolated from (i) human bladder mucosa (basal lamina and lamina propria) and muscularis propria; and, (ii) bladder carcinoma (BC)...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
J J Brown, N C Moore, O D Supekar, J C Gertsch, V M Bright
The recent development of low-temperature (<200 °C) atomic layer deposition (ALD) for fabrication of freestanding nanostructures has enabled consideration of active device design based on engineered ultrathin films. This paper explores audible sound production from thermoacoustic loudspeakers fabricated from suspended tungsten nanobridges formed by ALD. Additionally, this paper develops an approach to lumped-element modeling for design of thermoacoustic nanodevices and relates the near-field plane wave model of individual transducer beams to the far-field spherical wave sound pressure that can be measured with standard experimental techniques...
November 25, 2016: Nanotechnology
Maria Giovanna Sabbieti, Alessandra Dubbini, Fulvio Laus, Emanuele Paggi, Andrea Marchegiani, Melania Capitani, Luigi Marchetti, Fabrizio Dini, Tina Vermonden, Piera Di Martino, Dimitrios Agas, Roberta Censi
The present study reports on the biocompatibility in vivo after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in Balb/c mice of vinyl sulphone bearing p(HPMAm-lac1-2)-PEG-p(HPMAm-lac1-2)/thiolated hyaluronic acid hydrogels, designed as novel injectable biomaterials for potential application in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Ultrasonography, used as a method to study hydrogel gelation and residence time in vivo, showed that, upon injection, the biomaterial efficiently formed a hydrogel by simultaneous thermal gelation and Michael Addition cross-linking forming a viscoelastic spherical depot at the injection site...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Shalev Gihaz, Diána Weiser, Adi Dror, Péter Sátorhelyi, Moran Jerabek-Willemsen, László Poppe, Ayelet Fishman
Two ternary sol-gel matrices, an octyltriethoxysilane-based aliphatic matrix and a phenyltriethoxysilane (PTEOS)-based aromatic matrix, were used to immobilize a methanol-stable variant of lipase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6 for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste oil. Superior thermal stability of the mutant versus the wildtype in methanol was confirmed by intrinsic protein fluorescence measurements. The influence of skim milk and soluble E. coli lysate proteins as bulking and stabilizing agents in conjunction with sol-gel entrapment were investigated...
October 25, 2016: ChemSusChem
I Stefani, M A Asnaghi, J J Cooper-White, S Mantero
Cardiovascular diseases represent a major global health burden, with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Autologous grafts are commonly used to replace damaged or failing blood vessels, however such approaches are hampered by the scarcity of suitable graft tissue, donor site morbidity and poor long-term stability. Tissue engineering has been investigated as a means by which exogenous vessel grafts can be produced, with varying levels of success to date, a result of mismatched mechanical properties of these vessel substitutes and inadequate ex vivo vessel tissue genesis...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Inge A E W van Loosdregt, Sylvia Dekker, Patrick W Alford, Cees W J Oomens, Sandra Loerakker, Carlijn V C Bouten
Understanding cell contractility is of fundamental importance for cardiovascular tissue engineering, due to its major impact on the tissue's mechanical properties as well as the development of permanent dimensional changes, e.g., by contraction or dilatation of the tissue. Previous attempts to quantify contractile cellular stresses mostly used strongly aligned monolayers of cells, which might not represent the actual organization in engineered cardiovascular tissues such as heart valves. In the present study, therefore, we investigated whether differences in organization affect the magnitude of intrinsic stress generated by individual myofibroblasts, a frequently used cell source for in vitro engineered heart valves...
October 24, 2016: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Yohannes Yihdego, Len Drury
Analytical and empirical solution coupled with water balance method were used to predict the ground water inflow to a mine pit excavated below the water table, final pit lake level/recovery and radius of influence, through long-term and time variant simulations. The solution considers the effect of decreased saturated thickness near the pit walls, distributed recharge to the water table and upward flow through the pit bottom. The approach is flexible to accommodate the anisotropy/heterogeneity of the real world...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Gisela Reinfeldt Engberg, Clara Ibel Chamorro, Agneta Nordenskjöld, Magdalena Fossum
In order to develop autologous tissue engineering of the whole wall in the urinary excretory system, we studied the regenerative capacity of the muscular bladder wall. Smooth muscle cell expansion on minced detrusor muscle in vitro and in vivo with or without urothelial tissue was studied. Porcine minced detrusor muscle and urothelium were cultured in vitro under standard culture conditions for evaluation of the explant technique and in collagen for tissue sectioning and histology. Autografts of minced detrusor muscle with or without minced urothelium were expanded on 3D cylinder moulds by grafting into the subcutaneous fat of the pig abdominal wall...
2016: BioMed Research International
Shahid Manzoor, Anna Schnürer, Erik Bongcam-Rudloff, Bettina Müller
Methanoculleus bourgensis strain MAB1 has been identified as the hydrogenotrophic partner of mesophilic acetate-oxidising bacteria, a syntrophic relationship operating close to the thermodynamic equilibrium and of considerable importance in ammonia-rich engineered biogas processes. Methanoculleus bourgensis strain MAB1 belongs to the order Methanomicrobiales, family Methanomicrobiaceae, within the phylum Euryarchaeota. The genome shows a total size of 2,859,299 bp encoding 3450 predicted protein-encoding genes, of which only 1472 (43 %) have been assigned tentative functions...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
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