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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092803/ox40-structure-and-function-what-questions-remain
#1
REVIEW
Jane Willoughby, Jordana Griffiths, Ivo Tews, Mark S Cragg
OX40 is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein, reported nearly 30 years ago as a cell surface antigen expressed on activated T cells. Since its discovery, it has been validated as a bone fide costimulatory molecule for T cells and member of the TNF receptor family. However, many questions still remain relating to its function on different T cell sub-sets and with recent interest in its utility as a target for antibody-mediated immunotherapy, there is a growing need to gain a better understanding of its biology...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086903/negative-immune-factors-might-predominate-local-tumor-immune-status-and-promote-carcinogenesis-in-cervical-carcinoma
#2
Minyi Zhao, Yang Li, Xing Wei, Qian Zhang, Hongran Jia, Shimin Quan, Di Cao, Li Wang, Ting Yang, Juan Zhao, Meili Pei, Sijuan Tian, Yang Yu, Yanping Guo, Xiaofeng Yang
BACKGROUND: The disequilibrium of local immune microenvironment is an essential element during tumorigenesis. METHOD: By conducting real-time polymerase chain reaction, we identified the mRNA level of immune factors, FoxP3 (forkhead box protein P3), CCL22/CCR4 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22/CC chemokine receptor 4), OX40L/OX40 (tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 4/tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4) and Smad3 (SMAD family member 3) in neoplastic foci and its periphery tissues from 30 cases of squamous cervical carcinoma and 20 cases of normal cervix...
January 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069723/a-novel-murine-gitr-ligand-fusion-protein-induces-antitumor-activity-as-a-monotherapy-which-is-further-enhanced-in-combination-with-an-ox40-agonist
#3
Rebecca Leyland, Amanda Watkins, Kathy Mulgrew, Nicholas Holoweckyj, Lisa Bamber, Natalie J Tigue, Emily Offer, John Andrews, Li Yan, Stefanie Mullins, Michael D Oberst, Jane Coates Ulrichsen, David A Leinster, Kelly A McGlinchey, Lesley Young, Michelle Morrow, Scott A Hammond, Philip R Mallinder, Athula Herath, Ching Ching Leow, Robert W Wilkinson, Ross Stewart
PURPOSE: To generate and characterize a murine GITR ligand fusion protein (mGITRL-FP) designed to maximize valency and the potential to agonize the GITR receptor for cancer immunotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The EC50 value of the mGITRL-FP was compared to an anti-GITR antibody in an in vitro agonistic cell based reporter assay. We assessed the impact of dose, schedule and Fc isotype on antitumor activity and T-cell modulation in the CT26 tumor model. The activity of the mGITRL-FP was compared to an agonistic murine OX40L-FP targeting OX40, in CT26 and B16F10-Luc2 tumor models...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053236/cd8-t-cells-that-coexpress-ror%C3%AE-t-and-t-bet-are-functionally-impaired-and-expand-in-patients-with-distal-bile-duct-cancer
#4
Stalin Chellappa, Harald Hugenschmidt, Morten Hagness, Saranya Subramani, Espen Melum, Pål Dag Line, Knut-Jørgen Labori, Gro Wiedswang, Kjetil Taskén, Einar Martin Aandahl
CD8(+) T cells that express retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt (TC17 cells) have been shown to promote procarcinogenic inflammation and contribute to a tolerogenic microenvironment in tumors. We investigated their phenotype and functional properties in relationship to the pathogenesis of human distal bile duct cancer (DBDC). DBDC patients had an elevated level of type 17 immune responses and the frequency of CD8(+)RORγt(+) T cells (TC17 cells) was increased in peripheral blood. The CD8(+)RORγt(+) T cells represented a highly activated subset and produced IL-17A in equal amount as CD4(+)RORγt(+) T cells (TH17 cells)...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045060/soluble-ox40l-and-jag1-induce-selective-proliferation-of-functional-regulatory-t-cells-independent-of-canonical-tcr-signaling
#5
Prabhakaran Kumar, Khaled Alharshawi, Palash Bhattacharya, Alejandra Marinelarena, Christine Haddad, Zuoming Sun, Shigeru Chiba, Alan L Epstein, Bellur S Prabhakar
Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) play a pivotal role in maintaining peripheral tolerance. Increasing Treg numbers/functions has been shown to ameliorate autoimmune diseases. However, common Treg expansion approaches use T-Cell Receptor (TCR)-mediated stimulation which also causes proliferation of effector T-cells (Teff). To overcome this limitation, purified patient-specific Tregs are expanded ex vivo and transfused. Although promising, this approach is not suitable for routine clinical use. Therefore, an alternative approach to selectively expand functional Tregs in vivo is highly desired...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018344/adjunct-strategies-for-tuberculosis-vaccines-modulating-key-immune-cell-regulatory-mechanisms-to-potentiate-vaccination
#6
REVIEW
Lakshmi Jayashankar, Richard Hafner
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health threat of alarming proportions, resulting in 1.5 million deaths worldwide. The only available licensed vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, does not confer lifelong protection against active TB. To date, development of an effective vaccine against TB has proven to be elusive, and devising newer approaches for improved vaccination outcomes is an essential goal. Insights gained over the last several years have revealed multiple mechanisms of immune manipulation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in infected macrophages and dendritic cells that support disease progression and block development of protective immunity...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012172/mhc-class-ii-alleles-associated-with-th1-rather-than-th17-type-immunity-drive-the-onset-of-early-arthritis-in-a-rat-model-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Jonatan Tuncel, Sabrina Haag, Rikard Holmdahl
Polymorphisms in the MHC class II (MHCII) genes are strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis, supporting the importance of autoreactive T helper (Th) cells for the development of this disease. Here, we used pristane-induced arthritis (PIA), induced by the non-antigenic hydrocarbon pristane, to study the impact of different MHCII alleles on T-cell activation and differentiation. In MHCII-congenic rats with disease-promoting MHCII alleles, pristane primarily induced activation of Th1 cells, whereas activated T cells were Th17 biased in rats with protective MHCII alleles...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000531/cytokines-and-metabolic-factors-regulate-tumoricidal-t-cell-function-during-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
Adam J Adler, Payal Mittal, Joseph M Ryan, Beiyan Zhou, Jeffrey S Wasser, Anthony T Vella
Recent advances in cancer biology and genetics have fostered precision therapies targeting tumor-specific attributes. Immune-based therapies that elicit cytolytic T cells (CTL) specific for tumor antigens can provide therapeutic benefit to cancer patients, however, cure rates are typically low. This largely results from immunosuppressive mechanisms operating within the tumor microenvironment, many of which inflict metabolic stresses upon CTL. Conversely, immunotherapies can mitigate specific metabolic stressors...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941004/optimization-of-peptide-vaccines-to-induce-robust-antitumor-cd4-t-cell-responses
#9
Takumi Kumai, Sujin Lee, Hyun-Il Cho, Hussein Sultan, Hiroya Kobayashi, Yasuaki Harabuchi, Esteban Celis
Substantial evidence indicates that immunotherapy is a feasible and effective approach for the treatment of numerous types of cancer. Among various immunotherapy options, peptide vaccines to generate antitumor T cells appear as promising candidates, because of their cost effectiveness and ease of implementation. Nevertheless, most peptide vaccines are notorious for being weekly immunogenic and, thus, optimization of the vaccination strategy is essential to achieve therapeutic effectiveness. In addition, effective peptide vaccines must stimulate both CD8 cytotoxic and CD4 helper T lymphocytes...
January 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895177/ox40-cooperates-with-icos-to-amplify-follicular-th-cell-development-and-germinal-center-reactions-during-infection
#10
Vikas Tahiliani, Tarun E Hutchinson, Georges Abboud, Michael Croft, Shahram Salek-Ardakani
Cognate interactions between T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and B cells are essential for promoting protective Ab responses. Whereas costimulatory receptors such as ICOS are accepted as being important for the induction of Tfh cell fate decision, other molecules may play key roles in amplifying or maintaining the Tfh phenotype. In this study, with vaccinia virus infection in mice, we show that OX40 was expressed on Tfh cells that accumulated at the T/B borders in the white pulp of the spleen and that OX40-dependent signals directly shaped the magnitude and quality of the their response to viral Ags...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878248/immunomodulatory-effects-of-ox40ig-gene-modified-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-rat-kidney-transplantation
#11
Tao Liu, Yue Zhang, Zhongyang Shen, Xunfeng Zou, Xiaobo Chen, Li Chen, Yuliang Wang
Recent studies have suggested that adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) therapy and OX40 costimulation blockade are two immunomodulatory strategies used to suppress the immune response to alloantigens. However, relatively little has been reported regarding the immunomodulatory potential of the abilityof these two strategies to synergize. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to investigate OX40-Ig fusion protein (OX40Ig) expression in ADSCs and to validate their more potent immunosuppressive activity in preventing renal allograft rejection...
January 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874054/combinational-immunotherapy-with-allo-dribble-vaccines-and-anti-ox40-co-stimulation-leads-to-generation-of-cross-reactive-effector-t-cells-and-tumor-regression
#12
Guangjie Yu, Yuhuan Li, Zhihua Cui, Nicholas P Morris, Andrew D Weinberg, Bernard A Fox, Walter J Urba, Lixin Wang, Hong-Ming Hu
It is well-known that vaccines comprising of irradiated whole tumor cells or tumor-derived heat shock proteins can generate tumor-specific immune responses. In contrast, we showed recently that vaccines composed of autophagosomes (DRibbles) derived from syngeneic sarcomas could induce cross-reactive T-cell responses and cross-protection against the tumor. This unusual property of DRibbles was related to the selective recruitment of defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) and other short-lived proteins (SLiPs) into autophagosomes via sequestosome (SQSTM1, p62) mediated association of ubiquitinated SLiPs to the autophagy gene product LC3...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856634/fc-engineering-approaches-to-enhance-the-agonism-and-effector-functions-of-an-anti-ox40-antibody
#13
Di Zhang, Monica V Goldberg, Mark L Chiu
Agonistic antibodies directed against immunostimulatory receptors belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily are emerging as promising cancer immunotherapies. Several Fc engineering approaches discovered recently can augment the anti-tumor activities of TNFR antibodies by enhancing their agonistic activities and/or effector functions. In this study, we compared these approaches for their effects on an anti-OX40 antibody. Both S267E/L328F and V12 mutations facilitated enhanced binding to FcγRIIB and thus increased FcγRIIB cross-linking mediated agonist activity...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843539/regulatory-and-activated-effector-t-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-relation-to-autoimmunity
#14
Hanan Fouad, Maissa El Raziky, Eman Medhat Hassan, Ghada Mahmoud Abdel Aziz, Samar K Darweesh, Ahmed Reda Sayed
AIM: To investigate how Tregs are regulated in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients via assessment of Tregs markers (granzyme 2, CD69 and FoxP3), Teffs markers [TNFRSF4 (OX40), INFG] and CD4, CD25 genes. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 120 subjects divided into 4 groups: Group I (n = 30) treatment naïve chronic HCV patients; Group II (n = 30) chronic HCV treated with Peg/Riba; Group III (n = 30) chronic HCV associated with non-organ specific autoantibody and Group IV (n = 30) healthy persons as a control group...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827885/is-there-still-room-for-cancer-vaccines-at-the-era-of-checkpoint-inhibitors
#15
REVIEW
Soumaya Karaki, Marie Anson, Thi Tran, Delphine Giusti, Charlotte Blanc, Stephane Oudard, Eric Tartour
Checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) blockade is considered to be a revolution in cancer therapy, although most patients (70%-80%) remain resistant to this therapy. It has been hypothesized that only tumors with high mutation rates generate a natural antitumor T cell response, which could be revigorated by this therapy. In patients with no pre-existing antitumor T cells, a vaccine-induced T cell response is a rational option to counteract clinical resistance. This hypothesis has been validated in preclinical models using various cancer vaccines combined with inhibitory pathway blockade (PD-1-PDL1-2, CTLA-4-CD80-CD86)...
November 3, 2016: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826331/the-roles-of-cd137-signaling-in-atherosclerosis
#16
REVIEW
In-Hyuk Jung, Goo Taeg Oh
The tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), which includes CD40, LIGHT, and OX40, plays important roles in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases, involving atherosclerosis. CD137, a member of TNFRSF, is a well-known activation-induced T cell co-stimulatory molecule and has been reported to be expressed in human atherosclerotic plaque lesions, and plays pivotal roles in mediating disease processes. In this review, we focus on and summarize recent advances in mouse studies on the involvement of CD137 signaling in the pathogenesis and plaque stability of atherosclerosis, thereby highlighting a valuable therapeutic target in atherosclerosis...
November 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825407/aberrant-expressions-of-immune-factors-facilitate-the-disequilibrium-of-br-immune-status-in-cervical-cancer
#17
Min-Yi Zhao, Juan Zhao, Ting Yang, Li Wang, Mei-Li Pei, Si-Juan Tian, Yang Yu, Xiao-Feng Yang
Objective To explore the expressions and co-relationship of immune factors forkhead box p3 (FoxP3),chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 (CCL22),tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 40(OX40),and SMAD family member 3 (Smad3) in cervical carcinoma and investigate their immunomodulatory roles in cervical carcinogenesis.Methods Totally 30 cases of cervical carcinoma with adjacent tissues and 20 cases of normal cervix were collected in this study. FoxP3,CCL22,OX40,and Smad3 mRNA expressions were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
October 10, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753891/ish-nia-os-06-putative-mechanisms-for-cerebrovascular-remodelling-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-shr-using-transcriptomics
#18
Dawid Walas, Karol Nowicki-Osuch, Dominic Alibhai, Julian Paton
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular remodeling in the SHR may be causative to the known brainstem hypoperfusion. Using RNA sequencing, we examined age-related processes that may govern remodeling of the cerebral arteries in the SHR. DESIGN AND METHOD: In SHR and their progenitor (normotensive) control (Wistar Kyoto, WKY), RNA-seq was performed at three ages: 5, 9, 13 weeks old. Cerebral arteries were flushed and peeled off the brain, stripped of meninges, snap frozen and RNA extracted...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703035/cd4-t-cells-coexpressing-cd134-ox40-harbor-significantly-increased-levels-of-human-herpesvirus-6b-dna-following-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation
#19
Joshua C Pritchett, Jaime S Green, Angela M Thomm, Konstance K Knox, Michael R Verneris, Troy C Lund
Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) commonly reactivates after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) and is associated with delayed engraftment, fever, rash, and central nervous system dysfunction. Recently, CD134 (OX40) has been implicated as a potential viral entry receptor. We evaluated CD4(+)CD134(+)/(neg-lo) and CD8(+)CD134(+)/(neg-lo) cells at day 28 after UCBT in 20 subjects with previously documented HHV-6 reactivation and persistent viremia. Analysis of CD4(+)CD134(+) cells as compared to CD4(+)CD134(neg-lo) cells showed 0...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643237/ish-nia-os-06-putative-mechanisms-for-cerebrovascular-remodelling-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-shr-using-transcriptomics
#20
Dawid Walas, Karol Nowicki-Osuch, Dominic Alibhai, Julian Paton
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular remodeling in the SHR may be causative to the known brainstem hypoperfusion. Using RNA sequencing, we examined age-related processes that may govern remodeling of the cerebral arteries in the SHR. DESIGN AND METHOD: In SHR and their progenitor (normotensive) control (Wistar Kyoto, WKY), RNA-seq was performed at three ages: 5, 9, 13 weeks old. Cerebral arteries were flushed and peeled off the brain, stripped of meninges, snap frozen and RNA extracted...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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