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Farhad Shahsavar, Shaghayegh Mapar, Seyyed Amir Yasin Ahmadi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease in which we can recognize destruction of the myelin that is around nerve cells of brain and spinal cord called as oligodendrocytes. Both genetic and environmental factors play roles in MS. One of these genes is the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) which expressed on surface of natural killer cells (NKs). These genes have loci (not locus) in human genome, so they inherit as haplotypes. The results of previous studies show that different genes of KIR may affect both susceptibility and resistance to such autoimmune disorders that their pathogenesis in MS is still unclear...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Daria L Ivanova, Rida Fatima, Jason P Gigley
Conventional natural killer (cNK) cells, members of group 1 innate lymphoid cells, are a diverse cell subpopulation based on surface receptor expression, maturation, and functional potential. cNK cells are critical for early immunity to Toxoplasma gondii via IFNγ production. Acute cNK cell responses to infection with different strains of T. gondii have not yet been characterized in detail. Here, we comprehensively performed this analysis with Type I virulent RH, Type II avirulent ME49, and fully attenuated Type I cps1-1 strains...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Mariella Della Chiesa, Silvia Pesce, Letizia Muccio, Simona Carlomagno, Simona Sivori, Alessandro Moretta, Emanuela Marcenaro
Human NK cells are distinguished into CD56(bright)CD16(-) cells and CD56(dim)CD16(+) cells. These two subsets are conventionally associated with differential functional outcomes and are heterogeneous with respect to the expression of KIR and CD94/NKG2 heterodimers that represent the two major types of HLA-class I-specific receptors. Recent studies indicated that immature CD56(bright) NK cells, homogeneously expressing the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptor, are precursors of CD56(dim) NK cells that, in turn, during their process of differentiation, lose expression of CD94/NKG2A and subsequentially acquire inhibitory KIRs and LIR-1...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Elisabetta Cariani, Massimo Pilli, Valeria Barili, Emanuela Porro, Elisabetta Biasini, Andrea Olivani, Raffaele Dalla Valle, Tommaso Trenti, Carlo Ferrari, Gabriele Missale
NK-cell number and function have been associated with cancer progression. A detailed analysis of phenotypic and functional characteristics of NK-cells in HCC is still lacking. NK-cell function is regulated by activating and inhibitory receptors determined by genetic factors and engagement with cognate ligands on transformed or infected cells. We evaluated phenotypic and functional characteristic of NK-cells in HCC patients undergoing curative treatment in relation to clinical outcome. NK-cells from 70 HCC patients undergoing resection or ablative treatment, 18 healthy volunteers and 12 cirrhotic patients with HCV-infection (controls) were phenotypically characterized...
August 2016: Oncoimmunology
Marion Depla, Sandy Pelletier, Nathalie Bédard, Camille Brunaud, Julie Bruneau, Naglaa H Shoukry
INTRODUCTION: Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN-λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN-λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. METHODS: We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Barbara Seliger, Simon Jasinski-Bergner, Dagmar Quandt, Christine Stoehr, Juergen Bukur, Sven Wach, Wolfgang Legal, Helge Taubert, Bernd Wullich, Arndt Hartmann
The non-classical human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) expression is frequently overexpressed in tumor diseases, transplants and virus-infected cells and represents an immunomodulatory molecule by binding to the receptors CD94/NKG2A, -B and -C on NK and T cells. Due to its immune suppressive features HLA-E expression might represent an important mechanism of tumors to escape immune surveillance. While an aberrant expression of the non-classical HLA-G antigen in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been demonstrated to be associated with a worse outcome of patients and reduced sensitivity to immune effector cell-mediated cytotoxicity, the expression and function of HLA-E has not yet been analyzed in this tumor entity...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
Lutz Walter, Beatrix Petersen
The killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) as well as their MHC class I ligands display enormous genetic diversity and polymorphism in macaque species. Signals resulting from interaction between KIR or CD94/NKG2 receptors and their cognate MHC class I proteins essentially regulate the activity of natural killer (NK) cells. Macaque and human KIR share many features, such as clonal expression patterns, gene copy number variations, specificity for particular MHC class I allotypes, or epistasis between KIR and MHC class I genes that influence susceptibility and resistance to immunodeficiency virus infection...
August 27, 2016: Immunology
Eun-Mi Kim, Eun-Hee Lee, Hwa-Yeon Lee, Ha-Rim Choi, Kon-Young Ji, Su-Man Kim, Kwang Dong Kim, Hyung-Sik Kang
Natural killer (NK) cells have been well known to play a critical role in innate immunity, but they are also capable of regulating adaptive immunity through the induction of T cell-mediated memory response and B cell-mediated autoimmune response. NK cells are differentiated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow (BM), and a series of surface molecules are expressed on NK cells in a differentiation stage-specific manner. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is originally identified as homeostatic regulators for antigen-presenting cells, and its ligand, growth-arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), has been reported to promote cell survival, proliferation, and migration, but their regulatory role in the development and effector function of NK cells is not yet fully understood...
August 22, 2016: Protoplasma
Maryam Fotoohi, Nasrin Ghasemi, Seyed Ali Mirghanizadeh, Mahmood Vakili, Morteza Samadi
BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E)is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens which expressed on extra villous cytotrophoblast, which interacts with NKG2A, is an inhibitory receptor on natural killer (NK) cells and leading to down regulation of immune response in the maternal-fetal interface and provides maternal immune tolerance of the fetus. OBJECTIVE: This study was designated to investigate the gene frequencies of E0101 and E0103 in HLA-E gene in Iranian women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA)...
July 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Mir Munir A Rahim, Andrew Wight, Ahmad Bakur Mahmoud, Oscar A Aguilar, Seung-Hwan Lee, Silvia M Vidal, James R Carlyle, Andrew P Makrigiannis
NK cells play a major role in immune defense against human and murine CMV (MCMV) infection. Although the MCMV genome encodes for MHC class I-homologous decoy ligands for inhibitory NK cell receptors to evade detection, some mouse strains have evolved activating receptors, such as Ly49H, to recognize these ligands and initiate an immune response. In this study, we demonstrate that approximately half of the Ly49H-expressing (Ly49H(+)) NK cells in the spleen and liver of C57BL/6 mice also express the inhibitory NKR-P1B receptor...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Irene Lisovsky, Gamze Isitman, Alexandra Tremblay-McLean, Rujun Song, Sandrina DaFonnseca, Bertrand Lebouchẻ, Jean-Pierre Routy, Julie Bruneau, Nicole F Bernard
Carriage of certain inhibitory NK cell receptor (iNKR)/HLA ligand pairs is associated with protection from infection and slow time to AIDS implicating NK cells in HIV control. NK cells acquire functional potential through education, which requires the engagement of iNKRs by their HLA ligands. HIV infection downregulates cell surface HLA-A/B, but not HLA-C/E. We investigated how NK cell populations expressing combinations of the iNKRs NKG2A, KIR2DL3 (2DL3) and KIR3DL1 (3DL1) responded to autologous HIV infected CD4 (iCD4) cells...
August 10, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Peter D Krueger, Sowmya Narayanan, Fionna A Surette, Michael G Brown, Sun-Sang J Sung, Young S Hahn
The liver contains 2 transcriptionally distinct group 1 ILC subsets: CD49a(+) ILC1s and CD49b(+) NK cells. However, little is known about how group 1 ILCs contribute to hepatic immune responses. Therefore, we characterized murine liver-resident group 1 ILCs and found that CD49a(+) ILC1s express high levels of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A and localize near DCs in perivascular spaces surrounding the portal triads. Upon hepatic viral infection, NKG2A signaling in group 1 ILCs, especially in CD49a(+) ILC1s, inhibits CXCL9 expression required for robust accumulation of IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) NK cells...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Yong Zou, Zhi-Xing Song, Ying Lu, Xiao-Li Liang, Qing Yuan, Si-Hong Liao, Jun-Jie Bao
Accumulating evidence has shown that allogeneic blood transfusions can induce significant immunosuppression in recipients, and thereby increase the risk of postoperative infection and/or tumor relapse. Although it is well known that natural killer (NK) cells are responsible for the immunodepression effects of transfusion, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, we investigated the role of NK cells in transfusion-induced immunodepression in β-thalassemia major. The proportion of circulating NK cells and the expression of NK receptors (NKG2A, CD158a, NKP30, NKP46 and NKG2D) as well as CD107a were detected by multicolor flow cytometry...
August 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Z Zou, D Zuo, J Yang, H Fan
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises when intestinal immune homeostasis is broken, the maintenance of such homeostasis is principally controlled by cross talk between commensal bacteria, mucosal immune cells and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). IECs can prevent the contact between luminal bacteria with immune cells through the formation of a physical barrier and the expression of antimicrobial peptides to maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. During Colitis the IECs can express increased ANXA1, which is important for regeneration of intestinal mucosa and function as a potent anti-inflammatory protein...
September 9, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Silvia Pesce, Marco Greppi, Giovanna Tabellini, Fabio Rampinelli, Silvia Parolini, Daniel Olive, Lorenzo Moretta, Alessandro Moretta, Emanuela Marcenaro
BACKGROUND: Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is an immunologic checkpoint that limits immune responses by delivering potent inhibitory signals to T cells on interaction with specific ligands expressed on tumor/virus-infected cells, thus contributing to immune escape mechanisms. Therapeutic PD-1 blockade has been shown to mediate tumor eradication with impressive clinical results. Little is known about the expression/function of PD-1 on human natural killer (NK) cells. OBJECTIVE: We sought to clarify whether human NK cells can express PD-1 and analyze their phenotypic/functional features...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Stephanie Gerstner, Wolfgang Köhler, Gordon Heidkamp, Ariawan Purbojo, Shizuka Uchida, Arif B Ekici, Lukas Heger, Merlin Luetke-Eversloh, Ralf Schubert, Peter Bader, Thomas Klingebiel, Ulrike Koehl, Andreas Mackensen, Chiara Romagnani, Robert Cesnjevar, Diana Dudziak, Evelyn Ullrich
Whereas innate immune cells, such as NK and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), have been characterized in different human tissues, knowledge on the thymic CD56-expressing cell subsets is limited. In this study, the rare subpopulations of thymic CD56(+)CD3(-) cells from samples of >100 patients have been successfully analyzed. The results revealed fundamental differences between thymic and peripheral blood (PB) CD56(+)CD3(-) cells. Thymic tissues lacked immunoregulatory CD56(high)CD16(dim) NK cells but showed two Eomes(+)CD56(dim) subsets on which common NK cell markers were significantly altered...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Angélica Cuapio, Mirte Post, Sabine Cerny-Reiterer, Karoline V Gleixner, Gabriele Stefanzl, Jose Basilio, Susanne Herndlhofer, Wolfgang R Sperr, Nicolaas H C Brons, Emilio Casanova, Jacques Zimmer, Peter Valent, Erhard Hofer
Histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) plus IL-2 has been proposed as a novel maintenance-immunotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We analyzed the immunophenotype and function of natural killer (NK) cells in blood of AML patients treated after chemotherapy with HDC plus IL-2. The treatment caused a striking expansion of CD56(bright)CD16(neg) and CD56(bright)CD16(low) NK cell subpopulations. A reduced NK cell fraction recovered and high proportions of cells expressed the activating receptors NKG2D, NKp30, and NKp46...
June 21, 2016: Oncotarget
J-Y Shao, W-W Yin, Q-F Zhang, Q Liu, M-L Peng, H-D Hu, P Hu, H Ren, D-Z Zhang
Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-7 (Siglec-7) is an inhibitory receptor expressed on natural killer (NK) cells. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Siglec-7 expression and NK cell functions. Siglec-7 was highly expressed on NK cells and was preferentially expressed by mature NK cells from peripheral blood of healthy adults. Siglec-7(+) NK cells displayed higher levels of activating receptors CD38, CD16, DNAM1, NKp30 and NKp46, but lower levels of inhibitory receptors such as NKG2A and CD158b, compared with Siglec-7(-) NK cells...
September 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Mohamed M Abdelrahman, Injie O Fawzy, Aya A Bassiouni, Asmaa I Gomaa, Gamal Esmat, Imam Waked, Ahmed I Abdelaziz
BACKGROUND AND AIM: NK-cells are the principle defense line against different malignancies. Their activation status is determined by the balance between activating and inhibitory receptors such as NKG2D and NKG2A, respectively. MicroRNAs are crucial post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, playing key roles in modulating NK-cell development and function. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miRNAs in regulating the activation and cytotoxic function of NK-cells in HCC...
August 2016: Human Immunology
Eric T T L Tjwa, Roeland Zoutendijk, Gertine W van Oord, Lauke L Boeijen, Jurrien G P Reijnders, Margo J H van Campenhout, Robert J de Knegt, Harry L A Janssen, Andrea M Woltman, Andre Boonstra
BACKGROUND: Currently, much effort is directed at further improving treatment for chronic hepatitis B patients by assessing the effect of immunomodulatory agents during therapy with nucleotide analogues (NUC). Although there are some reports on the effect of NUC therapy on peripheral natural killer (NK) cells, no studies investigated the long-term effects of NUC treatment on intrahepatic NK cells of chronic HBV patients. We aimed to prospectively investigate cell frequencies, phenotype, and activation status of intrahepatic NK cells of CHB patients on prolonged treatment with TDF...
August 2016: Antiviral Research
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