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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533995/crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis-show-unique-cytokine-profiles
#1
Zoltan H Nemeth, Dorian A Bogdanovski, Patricia Barratt-Stopper, Samantha R Paglinco, Luca Antonioli, Rolando H Rolandelli
INTRODUCTION: Networks of cytokines have been implicated in both forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). While CD has associated with T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune responses, UC shows Th2 patterns. Recent studies reported that the inflamed intestinal regions in both CD and UC are significantly infiltrated with a newly described set of T helper, the Th17 cells. These cells have unique cytokine responses. These findings prompted us to further explore the cytokine profiles of CD and UC with a special focus on the Th2 and Th17 related mediators...
April 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533109/lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-chronically-infected-by-schistosoma-mansoni
#2
Amanda Esteves Rocha Pereira, Maria Ângela Rodrigues, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Ivo Santana Caldas, Raquel Lopes Martins Souza, Alessandro Antônio Costa Pereira
We used a murine model of Schistosoma mansoni (SM) infection and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxicity to investigate if these conditions can interact to modify the pathological manifestations typically observed in each condition. Swiss mice were randomized into four groups: SAL, uninfected; SM, infected; LPS, uninfected + LPS; and SM + LPS, infected + LPS. S. mansoni infection developed over 120 days, after which blood samples and lungs were collected, peritoneal leukocytes were isolated and cultivated for 6 and 24 h after LPS inoculation (1 mL/kg)...
May 19, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532656/the-il-33-st2-axis-is-crucial-in-type-2-airway-responses-induced-by-the-staphylococcus-aureus-protease-spld
#3
Andrea R Teufelberger, Maria Nordengrün, Harald Braun, Tania Maes, Katrien De Grove, Gabriele Holtappels, Clara O'Brien, Sharen Provoost, Hamida Hammad, Amanda Gonçalves, Rudi Beyaert, Wim Declercq, Peter Vandenabeele, Dmitri V Krysko, Barbara M Bröker, Claus Bachert, Olga Krysko
BACKGROUND: Chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and asthma showed increased nasal Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization. Serine protease like protein D (SplD) and other closely related proteases secreted by S. aureus have recently been identified as inducers of allergic asthma in humans and mice but their mechanism of action is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of recombinant SplD in driving Th2-biased responses and IgE formation in a murine model of allergic asthma...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531919/bupleurum-chinense-extract-ameliorates-an-ova-induced-murine-allergic-asthma-through-the-reduction-of-the-th2-and-th17-cytokines-production-by-inactivation-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#4
Thi Tho Bui, Chun Hua Piao, Chang Ho Song, Hee Soon Shin, Ok Hee Chai
Bupleurum chinense belongs to the Bupleurum spp. family that has been used in traditional herbal medicine for over thousand years. It has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-fibrotic and immunomodulatory effect. However, the effect of B. Chinense on allergic asthma remains unclear. This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of B. Chinense extracts (BCE) on airway inflammation in asthmatic mice model. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model, we evaluated the number of total cells, differential inflammatory cells and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung homogenate as well as histological structure...
May 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527688/clinical-development-of-a-var2csa-based-placental-malaria-vaccine-pamvac-quantifying-vaccine-antigen-specific-memory-b-t-cell-activity-in-beninese-primigravidae
#5
Komi Gbédandé, Nadine Fievet, Firmine Viwami, Sem Ezinmegnon, Saadou Issifou, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Yannelle Dossou, Kabirou Moutairou, Achille Massougbodji, Nicaise Ndam, Willem Adriaan de Jongh, T Max M Søgaard, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen, Meral Esen, Benjamin Mordmüller, Philippe Deloron, Adrian J F Luty
BACKGROUND: The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC's clinical development, we quantified naturally acquired vaccine antigen-specific memory B and T cell responses in Beninese primigravidae recruited at the beginning of pregnancy and followed up to delivery and beyond...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526278/biotherapeutics-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-and-without-nasal-polyps
#6
Claus Bachert, Philippe Gevaert, Peter Hellings
In western countries, 85% of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp disease reveals a type 2 inflammatory pattern with expression of IL-4, -5, and -13 as well as increased concentrations of IgE, whereas chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps merely expresses these biomarkers. The degree of type 2 inflammation furthermore is associated with disease severity, asthma comorbidity, and recurrence of disease after surgery. Therefore, these biomarkers also form the targets for innovative therapeutic approaches such as monoclonal antibodies directed against IgE, IL-5, and IL-4 receptor alpha, blocking the activity of IL-4 and -13...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518224/t-helper-1-related-molecules-as-well-as-il-15-are-hyperexpressed-in-the-skin-lesions-of-patients-with-pyoderma-gangrenosum
#7
Emiliano Antiga, Roberto Maglie, Walter Volpi, Beatrice Bianchi, Emilio Berti, Angelo Valerio Marzano, Marzia Caproni
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare, immune-mediated skin disease classified into the group of neutrophilic dermatoses. Whether a number of studies confirmed the central role of innate immunity, only few studies investigated the possible contributing role of acquired immunity. In particular, no reports about Th1 and Th2 cells are available yet. Therefore, 15 patients with PG, 5 with Sweet's syndrome (SS) and 9 skin specimens from healthy controls (HC) were investigated, evaluating the expression of Th1-related markers IL-12, IFN-γ, CXCR3, CCR5, of the Th2 related molecules IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and CCR3, of the co-stimulatory axis CD40/CD40L, of IL-15 and the NK cell marker CD56 in skin lesions by immunohistochemistry...
May 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516208/safety-and-efficiency-of-active-immunization-with-detoxified-antigen-against-scorpion-venom-side-effect-evaluation
#8
Nassrine Bachsais, Lila Boussag-Abib, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
OBJECTIVE: The efficiency and safety of vaccine are the most important properties, however, as any medication, it can induce side effects. This prophylactic therapy could be used to prevent the lethal and pathophysiological effects induced after scorpion envenomation. METHODS: In this study, detoxified venom associated to alum adjuvant (V*alum) is used as a vaccine against scorpion venom for immunization of mice. We evaluate the safety and the inflammatory response of this vaccine...
May 17, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514189/effects-of-vaccination-with-the-c-strain-vaccine-on-immune-cells-and-cytokines-of-pigs-against-classical-swine-fever-virus
#9
Lu Xu, Xue-Zheng Fan, Qi-Zu Zhao, Zheng-Xing Zhang, Kai Chen, Yi-Bao Ning, Qian-Yi Zhang, Xing-Qi Zou, Yuan-Yuan Zhu, Cui Li, Yu-Jie Zhang, Qin Wang
The attenuated C-strain vaccine against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is one of the safest and most effective attenuated vaccines. However, little is known of the host immune response after vaccination with the C-strain vaccine. Blood samples from vaccinated pigs were collected to evaluate the number of immune cells, the level of specific CSFV antibody, and related cytokines induced by the vaccination of C-strain vaccine. The C-strain nucleic acid was gradually removed and specific antibody to vaccine kept increasing; the amount of the lymphocyte, Tc cell, and Th cell increased; some inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α mainly showed downregulated trends, but IL-6 and IL-8 were upregulated greatly; IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12p40, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-I, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) kept high expression level after 28 days postvaccination (dpv); IFN-γ was upregulated slightly at 5 and 9 dpv, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513592/ifn-%C3%AE-increases-susceptibility-to-influenza-a-infection-through-suppression-of-group-ii-innate-lymphoid-cells
#10
D Califano, Y Furuya, S Roberts, D Avram, A N J McKenzie, D W Metzger
Increased levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) are routinely observed in the respiratory tract following influenza virus infection, yet its potential role remains unclear. We now demonstrate that influenza-induced IFN-γ restricts protective innate lymphoid cell group II (ILC2) function in the lung following challenge with the pandemic H1N1 A/CA/04/2009 (CA04) influenza virus. Specifically, IFN-γ deficiency resulted in enhanced ILC2 activity, characterized by increased production of interleukin (IL)-5 and amphiregulin, and improved tissue integrity, yet no change in ILC2 numbers, viral load or clearance...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506902/ski3301-a-purified-herbal-extract-from-sophora-tonkinensis-inhibited-airway-inflammation-and-bronchospasm-in-allergic-asthma-animal-models-in-vivo
#11
Hunseung Yoo, Minseok Kang, Sungsoo Pyo, Hee-Sung Chae, Keun Ho Ryu, Jinwoong Kim, Young-Won Chin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora tonkinensis (Leguminosae, ST) is a traditional herbal plant in Korea and China. Its roots and rhizomes have been used to dissipate heat, to clear toxic material and to treat acute pharyngolaryngeal infections and sore throats. AIM OF STUDY: In this study, we tried to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects of a purified extract (SKI3301) from Sophora tonkinensis using in vitro enzyme assay models and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma animal models...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505356/distinct-th1-and-th2-cellular-responses-associated-with-malaria-protection-and-risk-in-rts-s-as01e-vaccinees
#12
Gemma Moncunill, Maxmillian Mpina, Augusto J Nhabomba, Ruth Aguilar, Aintzane Ayestaran, Héctor Sanz, Joseph J Campo, Chenjerai Jairoce, Diana Barrios, Yan Dong, Núria Díez-Padrisa, José F Fernandes, Salim Abdulla, Jahit Sacarlal, Nana A Williams, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Benjamin Mordmüller, Selidji T Agnandji, John J Aponte, Claudia Daubenberger, Clarissa Valim, Carlota Dobaño
Background.: The RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine has moderate efficacy, lower in infants than children. Current efforts to enhance RTS,S/AS01E efficacy would benefit from learning about the vaccine-induced immunity and identifying correlates of malaria protection, which could, for instance, inform the choice of adjuvants. Here, we sought cellular immunity-based correlates of malaria protection and risk associated with RTS,S/AS01E vaccination. Methods.: We performed a matched case-control study nested within the multicenter African RTS,S/AS01E Phase III trial...
May 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502824/human-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-do-not-express-the-il-5-receptor
#13
Adam K A Wright, Cathryn Weston, Batika M J Rana, Christopher E Brightling, David J Cousins
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are upstream regulators of IL-5-dependent eosinophil function in asthma. We've shown that ILC2s do not express the IL-5R and thus IL-5R-dependent therapeutic interventions (e.g. Benralizumab) are unlikely to be mediated directly on ILC2s.
May 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497923/ccr3-monoclonal-antibody-inhibits-eosinophilic-inflammation-and-mucosal-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-eosinophilic-gastroenteritis
#14
Dae Jin Song, Mun Hee Shim, Nahyun Lee, Young Yoo, Ji Tae Choung
PURPOSE: Although the role of eosinophils in eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is not fully understood, they are believed to be a principal effector cell. Previous studies have demonstrated that eotaxin and its specific receptor, cysteine-cysteine chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3), play a central role in eosinophil trafficking into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Thus, we examined the targeting of CCR3 as a potential therapeutic intervention for EGE in a mouse model. METHODS: Eight- to 10-week-old BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized and intragastrically challenged with ovalbumin (OVA)...
July 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497916/emerging-endotypes-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-its-application-to-precision-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Dae Woo Kim, Seong H Cho
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease with various underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms which translate to endotypes, in contrast to clinical phenotypes or histological subtypes. Defining endotypes can help clinicians predict disease prognosis, select subjects suitable for a specific therapy, and assess risks for comorbid conditions, including asthma. Therefore, with recent advancement of biologicals in CRS clinical trials, endotyping can be a breakthrough in treating recalcitrant CRS...
July 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497614/broad-th2-neutralization-and-anti-inflammatory-action-of-pentosan-polysulfate-sodium-in-experimental-allergic-rhinitis
#16
Caroline Sanden, Michiko Mori, Prajakta Jogdand, Jimmie Jönsson, Ravi Krishnan, Xiangdong Wang, Jonas S Erjefält
BACKGROUND: Th2 cytokines like interleukin-4, -5, and -13 are regarded as important drivers of the immunopathology underlying allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. The present study explores the capacity of pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), a semi-synthetic heparin-like macromolecular carbohydrate, to bind Th2 cytokines and exert biological neutralization in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory actions in vivo. METHODOLOGY: The capacity of PPS to bind recombinant Th2 cytokines was tested with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology and biological Th2 neutralization was assessed by Th2-dependent proliferation assays...
May 12, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495853/transgenerational-transmission-of-asthma-risk-after-exposure-to-environmental-particles-during-pregnancy
#17
David J Gregory, Lester Kobzik, Zhiping Yang, Connor C McGuire, Alexey V Fedulov
Exposure to environmental particles during pregnancy increases asthma susceptibility of the offspring. We tested the hypothesis that this transmission continues to F2 and F3 generations and occurs via epigenetic mechanisms. We compared allergic susceptibility of three generations of BALB/c offspring after a single maternal exposure during pregnancy to diesel exhaust particles or concentrated urban air particles. After pregnant dams received intranasal instillations of particle suspensions or control, their F1, F2 and F3 offspring were tested in a low-dose ovalbumin protocol for allergy sensitivity...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494786/compositionally-and-functionally-distinct-sinus-microbiota-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients-have-immunological-and-clinically-divergent-consequences
#18
Emily K Cope, Andrew N Goldberg, Steven D Pletcher, Susan V Lynch
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by persistent sinonasal inflammation and sinus microbiome dysbiosis. The basis of this heterogeneity is poorly understood. We sought to address the hypothesis that a limited number of compositionally distinct pathogenic bacterial microbiota exist in CRS patients and invoke discrete immune responses and clinical phenotypes in CRS patients. RESULTS: Sinus brushings from patients with CRS (n = 59) and healthy individuals (n = 10) collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, predicted metagenomics, and RNA profiling of the mucosal immune response...
May 12, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490401/immunopathologic-characteristics-of-nasal-polyps-in-adult-koreans-a-single-center-study
#19
Seung-Heon Shin, Yee-Hyuk Kim, Mi-Kyung Ye, Sung-Yong Choi
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (NP) (CRSwNP) is classified into eosinophilic and noneosinophilic types based on the level of tissue eosinophilia. The immunopathologic features of Western and Asian CRSwNP differ. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunopathologic characteristics of Korean patients with eosinophilic NP versus noneosinophilic NP and those with atopic NP versus nonatopic NP. METHODS: Tissue samples were collected from 81 patients with NP and 24 controls...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489854/functional-and-phenotypic-evaluation-of-eosinophils-from-patients-with-the-acute-form-of-paracoccidioidomycosis
#20
Fernanda Gambogi Braga, Luciana Pereira Ruas, Ricardo Mendes Pereira, Xinaida Taligare Lima, Edson Antunes, Ronei Luciano Mamoni, Maria Heloisa Souza Lima Blotta
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilia is a typical finding of the acute/juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. This clinical form is characterized by depressed cellular immune response and production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, it has been shown that the increased number of eosinophils in peripheral blood of patients returns to normal values after antifungal treatment. However, the role of eosinophils in PCM has never been evaluated. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic and functional characteristics of eosinophils in PCM...
May 10, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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