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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346294/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-vestibular-neuritis-neuronitis-or-peripheral-vestibulopathy-pvp-open-questions-and-possible-answers
#1
Stefan C A Hegemann, Angela Wenzel
The acute vestibular syndrome is a clinically defined entity consisting of vertigo or dizziness that develops acutely over minutes to hours and is accompanied by nausea/vomiting, gait instability, head motion intolerance, and nystagmus, while persisting over a day or more. When it is caused by a peripheral vestibular lesion and is not associated with clinically manifest auditory deficits, it is mostly labeled vestibular neuritis/neuronitis/neuropathy or sometimes peripheral vestibulopathy. Here, we propose hypotheses and discuss current research advances on viral or vascular factors in the pathogenesis, the recurrence, the site of lesion, old and new treatment options, contraindicated measures, the differential diagnosis, and the prognosis of vestibular neuritis/neuronitis/neuropathy or vestibulopathy...
March 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344529/clinical-evaluation-after-peripheral-nerve-repair-with-caprolactone-neurotube
#2
Gabriel Costa Serrão de Araújo, Bernardo Couto Neto, Renato Harley Santos Botelho, Marcio Carpi Malta
Background: Peripheral nerve injuries with substance loss are challenges to surgeons because direct suture repair may result in malfunction due to nerve suture tension. Autologous nerve grafts are alternatives for treating those lesions; however, harvesting grafts adds morbidity at donor sites. Synthetic substitutes are options to bridge the gaps in these situations. The caprolactone neurotubes are used to assist nerve regeneration, but the literature lacks studies that evaluate their results. Methods: This research was designed to clinically evaluate patients undergoing repair of peripheral nerves with that conduit...
March 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341636/relief-from-neuropathic-pain-by-blocking-of-the-platelet-activating-factor-pain-loop
#3
Hideo Shindou, Seiji Shiraishi, Suzumi M Tokuoka, Yoshikazu Takahashi, Takeshi Harayama, Takaya Abe, Kana Bando, Kanako Miyano, Yoshihiro Kita, Yasuhito Uezono, Takao Shimizu
Neuropathic pain resulting from peripheral neuronal damage is largely resistant to treatment with currently available analgesic drugs. Recently, ATP, lysophosphatidic acid, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) have been reported to play important inductive roles in neuropathic pain. In the present study, we found that pain-like behaviors resulting from partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL) were largely attenuated by deficiency of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT)2, which is one of the PAF biosynthetic enzymes...
March 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341230/intraoperative-cryoanalgesia-for-managing-pain-after-the-nuss-procedure
#4
Claire Graves, Olajire Idowu, Sang Lee, Benjamin Padilla, Sunghoon Kim
BACKGROUND: Cryoanalgesia prevents pain by freezing the affected peripheral nerve. We report the use of intraoperative cryoanalgesia during the Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum and describe our initial experience, modifications of technique, and lessons learned. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who received cryoanalgesia during the Nuss procedure between June 1, 2015, and April 30, 2016, at our institutions and analyzed modifications in surgical technique during this early adoption period...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339448/efficacious-dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation-for-painful-small-fiber-neuropathy-a-case-report
#5
Paolo Maino, Eva Koetsier, Alain Kaelin-Lang, Claudio Gobbi, Roberto Perez
Small fiber neuropathy is a disorder of the peripheral nerves with typical symptoms of burning, sharp, and shooting pain and sensory disturbances in the feet. Pain treatment depends principally on the underlying etiology with concurrent administration of antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, and topical treatments like capsaicin and local anesthetics. However, treatments for pain relief in these patients frequently fail. We describe the first case of intractable painful small fiber neuropathy of the foot successfully treated with spinal cord stimulation of the left L5 dorsal root ganglion...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339447/chronic-localized-back-pain-due-to-posterior-cutaneous-nerve-entrapment-syndrome-pocnes-a-new-diagnosis
#6
Oliver B Boelens, Robert C Maatman, Marc R Scheltinga, Kees van Laarhoven, Rudi M Roumen
Most patients with chronic back pain suffer from degenerative thoracolumbovertebral disease. However, the following case illustrates that a localized peripheral nerve entrapment must be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic back pain. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman with continuous excruciating pain in the lower back area. Previous treatment for nephroptosis was to no avail. On physical examination the pain was present in a 2 x 2 cm area overlying the twelfth rib some 4 cm lateral to the spinal process...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338768/integrative-blood-pressure-response-to-upright-tilt-post-renal-denervation
#7
Erin J Howden, Cara East, Justin S Lawley, Abigail S L Stickford, Myrthe Verhees, Qi Fu, Benjamin D Levine
BACKGROUND: Whether renal denervation (RDN) in patients with resistant hypertension normalizes blood pressure (BP) regulation in response to routine cardiovascular stimuli such as upright posture is unknown. We conducted an integrative study of BP regulation in patients with resistant hypertension who had received RDN to characterize autonomic circulatory control. METHODS: Twelve patients (60 ± 9 [SD] years, n = 10 males) who participated in the Symplicity HTN-3 trial were studied and compared to 2 age-matched normotensive (Norm) and hypertensive (unmedicated, HTN) control groups...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337860/clinical-features-and-long-term-outcomes-of-105-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-patients-a-single-center-experience-from-north-india
#8
Aman Sharma, Godasi S R S N K Naidu, Manish Rathi, Roshan Verma, Manish Modi, Benzeeta Pinto, Kusum Sharma, Varun Dhir, Manphool Singhal, Mahesh Prakash, Ritambhra Nada, Naresh K Panda, Ranjana W Minz
AIM: To describe the clinical features, treatment and long-term outcomes in north Indian patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). METHODS: Clinical details, Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS-v3), laboratory data, histopathology findings, treatment details and outcomes of all consecutive patients diagnosed as having GPA between April 2005 and April 2016 were retrieved. European Vasculitis Study Group definitions were used to classify patients into localized, early systemic, generalized, severe and refractory categories...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336086/incretin-hormones-regulate-microglia-oxidative-stress-survival-and-expression-of-trophic-factors
#9
Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are primarily known for their metabolic function in the periphery. GLP-1 and GIP are secreted by intestinal endocrine cells in response to ingested nutrients. Both GLP-1 and GIP stimulate the production and release of insulin from pancreatic β cells as well as exhibit several growth-regulating effects on peripheral tissues. GLP-1 and GIP are also present in the brain, where they provide modulatory and anti-apoptotic signals to neurons...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332276/dual-ccr2-ccr5-antagonist-treatment-attenuates-adipose-inflammation-but-not-microvascular-complications-in-ob-ob-mice
#10
Phillipe D O'Brien, Lucy M Hinder, Sebastian D Parlee, John M Hayes, Carey Backus, Hongyu Zhang, Lijun Ma, Stacey A Sakowski, Frank C Brosius, Eva L Feldman
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) are common diabetic complications with limited treatment options. Experimental studies show that targeting inflammation using chemokine receptor (CCR) antagonists ameliorates DKD, presumably by reducing macrophage accumulation or activation. As inflammation is implicated in DPN development, we assessed whether CCR2 and CCR5 antagonism could also benefit DPN. Five-week-old ob/ob mice were fed a diet containing MK-0812, a dual CCR2-CCR5 receptor antagonist, for 8 weeks and DPN, DKD, and metabolic phenotyping were then performed to determine the effect of CCR inhibition...
March 23, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328616/borderline-tuberculoid-leprosy-masquerading-as-granuloma-annulare-a-clinical-and-histological-pitfall
#11
Tian Hao Zhu, Faranak Kamangar, Marc Silverstein, Maxwell A Fung
INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an intracellular acid-fast bacillus that tends to infect the skin and peripheral nerves. Because of the wide array of cutaneous manifestation, diagnosis is not always straightforward, especially in nonendemic regions of the world such as the United States. CASE REPORT: The authors report an unusual case of borderline tuberculoid leprosy in an 80-year-old white woman from California...
April 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326946/polyamidoamine-dendrimer-conjugated-triamcinolone-acetonide-attenuates-nerve-injury-induced-spinal-cord-microglia-activation-and-mechanical-allodynia
#12
Hwisung Kim, Boomin Choi, Hyoungsub Lim, Hyunjung Min, Jae Hoon Oh, Sunghyun Choi, Joung Goo Cho, Jong-Sang Park, Sung Joong Lee
Background Accumulating evidence on the causal role of spinal cord microglia activation in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury suggests that microglial activation inhibitors might be useful analgesics for neuropathic pain. Studies also have shown that polyamidoamine dendrimer may function as a drug delivery vehicle to microglia in the central nervous system. In this regard, we developed polyamidoamine dendrimer-conjugated triamcinolone acetonide, a previously identified microglial activation inhibitor, and tested its analgesic efficacy in a mouse peripheral nerve injury model...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326552/biogenesis-assembly-and-trafficking-of-acetylcholinesterase
#13
REVIEW
Richard L Rotundo
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is expressed as several homomeric and heterooligomeric forms in a wide variety of tissues such as neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems and their targets including skeletal muscle, endocrine and exocrine glands. In addition, glycolipid-anchored forms are expressed in erythropoietic and lymphopoietic cells. While transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation is important for determining which AChE oligomeric forms are expressed in a given tissue, translational and post-translational regulatory mechanisms at the level of protein folding, assembly and sorting play equally important roles in assuring that the AChE molecules reach their intended sites on the cell surface in the appropriate numbers...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323640/a-micro-scale-printable-nanoclip-for-electrical-stimulation-and-recording-in-small-nerves
#14
Charles A Lissandrello, Winthrop F Gillis, Jun Shen, Ben W Pearre, Flavia Vitale, Matteo Pasquali, Bradley J Holinski, Daniel J Chew, Alice E White, Timothy J Gardner
OBJECTIVE: The vision of bioelectronic medicine is to treat disease by modulating the signaling of visceral nerves near various end organs. In small animal models, the nerves of interest can have small diameters and limited surgical access. New high-resolution methods for building nerve interfaces are desirable. In this study, we present a novel nerve interface and demonstrate its use for stimulation and recording in small nerves. APPROACH: We design and fabricate micro-scale electrode-laden nanoclips capable of interfacing with nerves as small as 50 µm in diameter...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323403/discovery-of-potent-antiallodynic-agents-for-neuropathic-pain-targeting-p2x3-receptors
#15
Young-Hwan Jung, Yong-Chul Kim, Yeo Ok Kim, Hai Lin, Joong-Heui Cho, Jin-Hee Park, So-Deok Lee, Jinsu Bae, Koon Mook Kang, Yoon Gyoon Kim, Ae Nim Pae, Hyojin Ko, Chul-Seung Park, Myung Ha Yoon
Antagonism of the P2X3 receptor is one of the potential therapeutic strategies for the management of neuropathic pain because P2X3 receptors are predominantly localized on small to medium diameter C- and Aδ-fiber primary afferent neurons, which are related to the pain-sensing system. In this study, 5-hydroxy pyridine derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro biological activities by two-electrode voltage clamp assay at hP2X3 receptors. Among the novel hP2X3 receptor antagonists, intrathecal treatment of compound 29 showed parallel efficacy with pregabalin (calcium channel modulator) and higher efficacy than AF353 (P2X3 receptor antagonist) in the evaluation of its antiallodynic effects in spinal nerve ligation rats...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#16
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321335/quantitative-thermal-testing-profiles-as-a-predictor-of-treatment-response-to-topical-capsaicin-in-patients-with-localized-neuropathic-pain
#17
A Serrano, D Torres, M Veciana, C Caro, J Montero, V Mayoral
There are no reliable predictors of response to treatment with capsaicin. Given that capsaicin application causes heat sensation, differences in quantitative thermal testing (QTT) profiles may predict treatment response. The aim of this study was to determine whether different QTT profiles could predict treatment outcomes in patients with localized peripheral neuropathic pain (PeLNP). We obtained from medical records QTT results and treatment outcomes of 55 patients treated between 2010 and 2013. Warm sensation threshold (WST) and heat pain threshold (HPT) values were assessed at baseline at the treatment site and in the asymptomatic, contralateral area...
2017: Pain Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319106/a-systematic-review-on-the-impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-the-ocular-surface
#18
REVIEW
K Co Shih, K S-L Lam, L Tong
Diabetes mellitus is associated with extensive morbidity and mortality in any human community. It is well understood that the burden of diabetes is attributed to chronic progressive damage in major end-organs, but it is underappreciated that the most superficial and transparent organ affected by diabetes is the cornea. Different corneal components (epithelium, nerves, immune cells and endothelium) underpin specific systemic complications of diabetes. Just as diabetic retinopathy is a marker of more generalized microvascular disease, corneal nerve changes can predict peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, providing a window of opportunity for early treatment...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316120/synergistic-effects-of-g-csf-and-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-on-nerve-regeneration-with-acellular-nerve-xenografts
#19
Hua Jia, Ying Wang, Tao Wang, Yi Dong, Wei-Li Li, Jun-Ping Li, Wen-Zhi Ma, Xiao-Jie Tong, Zhong-Yi He
Peripheral nerve defects result in severe denervation presenting sensory and motor functional incapacitation. Currently, a satisfactory therapeutic treatment promoting the repair of injured nerves is not available. As shown in our previous study, acellular nerve xenografts (ANX) implanted with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) replaced allografts and promoted nerve regeneration. Additionally, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been proven to mobilize supplemental cells and enhance vascularization in the niche...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315678/protective-effect-of-co-administration-of-curcumin-and-sildenafil-in-alcohol-induced-neuropathy-in-rats
#20
Maninder Kaur, Amarjeet Singh, Bimlesh Kumar, Sachin Kumar Singh, Amit Bhatia, Monica Gulati, T Prakash, Palak Bawa, Adil Hussain Malik
Neuropathic pain associated with chronic alcohol consumption is a medico-socioeconomical problem that affects both central and peripheral nervous system and has no satisfactory treatment till date. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of co-administration of curcumin and sildenafil on alcohol induced neuropathic pain in rats. In order to carry out this, ethanol (35% v/v, 10g/kg, p.o.) was administered for 10 weeks to induce neuropathic pain. Curcumin (30 and 60mg/kg, i.p.) and sildenafil (5 and 10mg/kg, i...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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