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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647886/wnt-signaling-in-ewing-sarcoma-osteosarcoma-and-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors
#1
REVIEW
Matthew G Pridgeon, Patrick J Grohar, Matthew R Steensma, Bart O Williams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Wnt signaling plays a central role in development and homeostasis, and its dysregulation is a common event in many types of human cancer. Here we explore in detail the contributions of Wnt signaling to the initiation and maintenance of three types of saroma: Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. This review provides an overview of the Wnt signaling pathway and explores in detail the current knowledge about its role in the initiation or maintenance of three tumor types: Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors...
June 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647116/peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors-of-the-breast
#2
REVIEW
Vivek Charu, Ashley Cimino-Mathews
Benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors can involve the breast, presenting as masses in the dermis, deep breast parenchyma or axillary soft tissue. Although the histologic features are frequently characteristic, diagnosis can be challenging on core needle biopsy, and the differential diagnosis includes a variety of other benign and malignant spindle cell lesions of the breast. Here, we review the key clinical and pathological features of breast schwannoma, neurofibroma, granular cell tumor, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor...
May 27, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646538/a-novel-attr-l32v-mutation-causes-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy-in-a-bolivian-family
#3
P L Martínez-Ulloa, M Vallejo, I Corral, N García-Barragán, A Alcazar, Emma Martínez-Alonso, J Martínez-Poles, H Pian, A Jiménez-Escrig
We report a new transthyretin (ATTR) gene c.272C>G mutation and variant protein, p.Leu32Val, in a kindred of Bolivian origin with a rapid progressive peripheral neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Three individuals from a kindred with peripheral nerve and cardiac amyloidosis were examined. Analysis of the TTR gene was performed by Sanger direct sequencing. Neuropathologic examination was obtained on the index patient with mass spectrometry study of the ATTR deposition. Direct DNA sequence analysis of exons 2, 3 and 4 of the TTR gene demonstrated a c...
June 24, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646510/compound-muscle-action-potential-duration-in-critical-illness-neuromyopathy
#4
Christopher L Kramer, Andrea J Boon, C Michel Harper, Brent P Goodman
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the specificity of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) durations and amplitudes in a large critical illness neuromyopathy (CINM) cohort relative to controls with other neuromuscular conditions. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with CINM seen over a 17-year period were retrospectively studied. Electrodiagnostic findings of the CINM cohort were compared with patients with axonal peripheral neuropathy and myopathy due to other causes...
June 23, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646022/nf1-hematopoietic-cells-accelerate-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-development-without-altering-chemotherapy-response
#5
Rebecca D Dodd, Chang-Lung Lee, Tess Overton, Wesley Huang, William C Eward, Lixia Luo, Yan Ma, Davis R Ingram, Keila E Torres, Diana M Cardona, Alexander Lazar, David G Kirsch
Haploinsufficiency in the tumor suppressor NF1 contributes to the pathobiology of type 1 neurofibromatosis, but a related role has not been established in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) where NF1 mutations also occur. Patients with NF1-associated MPNST appear to have worse outcomes than patients with sporadic MPNST, but the mechanism underlying this correlation is not understood. To define the impact of stromal genetics on the biology of this malignancy, we developed unique mouse models that reflect the genetics of patient-associated MPNST...
June 23, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645526/injury-induced-gp130-cytokine-signaling-in-peripheral-ganglia-is-reduced-in-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Jon P Niemi, Angela R Filous, Alicia DeFrancesco, Jane A Lindborg, Nisha A Malhotra, Gina N Wilson, Bowen Zhou, Samuel D Crish, Richard E Zigmond
Neuropathy is a major diabetic complication. While the mechanism of this neuropathy is not well-understood, it is believed to result in part from deficient nerve regeneration. Work from our laboratory established that gp130 family of cytokines are induced in animals after axonal injury and are involved in the induction of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) and in the conditioning lesion response. Here, we examine whether a reduction of cytokine signaling occurs in diabetes. Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to destroy pancreatic β cells, leading to chronic hyperglycemia...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645309/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infects-the-olfactory-bulb-shortly-following-ocular-infection-and-exhibits-a-long-term-inflammatory-profile-in-the-form-of-effector-and-hsv-1-specific-t-cells
#7
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can result in a life-threatening condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Trafficking patterns by which the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS) following ocular infection are unresolved. We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). Additionally, we have characterized the capacity of HSV-1 to establish latency within OB tissue and profiled the local T lymphocyte response over the course of the acute infection into latency...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645295/identification-of-the-flotillin-1-2-heterocomplex-as-a-target-of-autoantibodies-in-bona-fide-multiple-sclerosis
#8
S Hahn, G Trendelenburg, M Scharf, Y Denno, S Brakopp, B Teegen, C Probst, K P Wandinger, M Buttmann, A Haarmann, F Szabados, M Vom Dahl, T Kümpfel, P Eichhorn, H Gold, F Paul, S Jarius, N Melzer, W Stöcker, L Komorowski
BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies, in particular those against aquaporin-4 and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), aid as biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of demyelination. Here, we report on discovery of autoantibodies against flotillin in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The target antigen was identified by histo-immunoprecipitation using the patients' sera and cryosections of rat or pig cerebellum combined with mass spectrometrical analysis...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644548/repetitive-peripheral-magnetic-stimulation-for-activities-of-daily-living-and-functional-ability-in-people-after-stroke
#9
REVIEW
Ryo Momosaki, Naoki Yamada, Erika Ota, Masahiro Abo
BACKGROUND: Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) is a form of therapy that creates painless stimulation of deep muscle structures to improve motor function in people with physical impairment from brain or nerve disorders. Use of rPMS for people after stroke has been identified as a feasible approach to improve activities of daily living and functional ability. However, no systematic reviews have assessed the findings of available trials. The effect and safety of this intervention for people after stroke currently remain uncertain...
June 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643042/oct-in-alzheimer-s-disease-thinning-of-the-rnfl-and-superior-hemiretina
#10
João Paulo Cunha, Rita Proença, Arnaldo Dias-Santos, Rita Almeida, Helena Águas, Marta Alves, Ana Luísa Papoila, Carlota Louro, António Castanheira-Dinis
BACKGROUND: Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and internal macular layer thinning have been demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies. The purpose of this study is to compare the pRNFL thickness and overall retinal thickness (RT) in AD patients with non-AD patients, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and determine the sectors most characteristically affected in AD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the pRNFL and overall macular RT thicknesses in AD and non-AD patients, attending a tertiary hospital center...
June 22, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642996/central-conduction-abnormalities-in-patients-receiving-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-infusion
#11
Francesco Bove, Marco Luigetti, Lara Gallicchio, Valentina Recchia, Antonella Petruzzellis, Riccardo Di Iorio, Filippo Tamma, Alfonso Fasano
In recent years, several studies have reported a relatively high frequency of polyneuropathy in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), in particular, in patients receiving levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) infusion. In spite of the several patients investigated with nerve conduction studies, no study has prospectively explored a possible central nervous system involvement of patients receiving LCIG infusion. We prospectively evaluated eight PD patients receiving LCIG infusion, who underwent neurophysiological evaluations with nerve conduction studies, visual, somatosensory and motor evoked potentials before LCIG infusion, and 1 and 6 months after...
June 22, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642578/human-endothelial-cells-secrete-neurotropic-factors-to-direct-axonal-growth-of-peripheral-nerves
#12
Jonathan M Grasman, David L Kaplan
Understanding how nerves spontaneously innervate tissues or regenerate small injuries is critical to enhance material-based interventions to regenerate large scale, traumatic injuries. During embryogenesis, neural and vascular tissues form interconnected, complex networks as a result of signaling between these tissue types. Here, we report that human endothelial cells (HUVECs) secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which significantly stimulated axonal growth from chicken or rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs)...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641360/-strategies-on-the-treatment-of-nerve-injuries-accompanied-by-severe-soft-tissue-damage-consensus-statement-of-the-german-speaking-society-for-microsurgery-of-peripheral-nerves-and-vessels
#13
Leila Harhaus, Christoph Hirche, Riccardo E Giunta, Oskar Aszmann, Frank Siemers, U Kneser, Marcus Lehnhardt
Nerve injuries with severe soft tissue damage are rare and demand a complex and individualized treatment approach, in order to limit medical and socioeconomic consequences. Since uniform systematic evidence so far is lacking, inconsistent therapy standards are implemented depending on individual experiences and background of respective microsurgeons.In order to provide best conditions for further healing, basic expert consensus statements were developed in a workshop on the 38th Annual Meeting of the German-speaking Community for Microsurgery of the Peripheral Nerves and Vessels (DAM)...
June 22, 2017: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640893/oroxylin-a-promotes-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-in-a-rat-optic-nerve-crush-model
#14
Shu-Fang Lin, Jia-Ying Chien, Kishan Kapupara, Chi-Ying F Huang, Shun-Ping Huang
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of oroxylin A on the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and the activation of microglial cells in a rat optic nerve (ON) crush model. METHODS: Oroxylin A (15mg/Kg in 0.2ml phosphate-buffered saline) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control) was immediately administered after ON crush once by subcutaneous injection. Rats were euthanized at 2 weeks after the crush injury. The density of RGC was counted by retrograde labeling with FluoroGold and immunostaining of retina flat mounts for Brn3a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638999/osteopontin-and-clusterin-levels-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-differential-association-with-peripheral-autonomic-nerve-function
#15
Raelene E Maser, M James Lenhard, Ryan T Pohlig, P Babu Balagopal
Osteopontin (OPN) and clusterin are secreted glycoproteins potentially associated with nerve function. Sudomotor dysfunction is associated with the development of foot ulcerations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationship of OPN and clusterin with sudomotor function (i.e., autonomic nerves that control sweating) in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sudomotor function was assessed using SUDOSCAN® which measures electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) of the hands and feet...
June 21, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638926/-mechanisms-and-applications-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-in-analgesia
#16
Zheng-Yu Tang, Hui-Quan Wang, Xiao-Lei Xia, Yi Tang, Wei-Wei Peng, Li Hu
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), as a non-pharmacological and non-invasive analgesic therapy with low-cost, has been widely used to relieve pain in various clinical applications, by delivering current pulses to the skin area to activate the peripheral nerve fibers. Nevertheless, analgesia induced by TENS varied in the clinical practice, which could be caused by the fact that TENS with different stimulus parameters has different biological mechanisms in relieving pain. Therefore, to advance our understanding of TENS in various basic and clinical studies, we discussed (1) neurophysiological and biochemical mechanisms of TENS-induced analgesia; (2) relevant factors that may influence analgesic effects of TENS from the perspectives of stimulus parameters, including stimulated position, pulse parameters (current intensity, frequency, and pulse width), stimulus duration and used times in each day; and (3) applications of TENS in relieving clinical pain, including post-operative pain, chronic low back pain and labor pain...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638701/reinnervation-of-denervated-muscle-by-implantation-of-nerve-muscle-endplate-band-graft-to-the-native-motor-zone-of-the-target-muscle
#17
Liancai Mu, Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: Motor endplate reinnervation is critical for restoring motor function of the denervated muscle. We developed a novel surgical technique called nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) for muscle reinnervation. METHODS: Experimentally denervated sternomastoid muscle in the rat was reinnervated by transferring a NMEG from the ipsilateral sternohyoid muscle to the native motor zone (NMZ) of the target muscle. A NMEG pedicle contained a block of muscle (~ 6 × 6 × 3 mm), a nerve branch with axon terminals, and a motor endplate band with numerous neuromuscular junctions...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638473/rapid-fluorescence-imaging-of-spinal-cord-following-epidural-administration-of-a-nerve-highlighting-fluorophore
#18
Wanguo Liu, Rui Gu, Qingsan Zhu, Chunsheng Xiao, Lanfeng Huang, Xinming Zhuang, Jingzhe Zhang, Lidi Liu, Ben Ma, Huailin Yang, Jianchao Ma, Zhipeng Hu, Chenglin Tang, Shuhua Zhao, Xuesi Chen
Iatrogenic spinal cord injury (SCI) is the most devastating complication of spine surgery, which usually results in permanent and serious disabilities of patients. Improvement of the visualization and discrimination of the spinal cord is critical for accuracy and safety during surgery; however, to date, there is no suitable technology to fulfill this clinical need. Here, we first show an efficient and rapid fluorescence imaging of the spinal cord in rabbit by epidural administration of a nerve-highlighting fluorophore, i...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638296/ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-cervical-and-upper-thoracic-sympathetic-chain-neuromodulation-for-upper-extremity-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#19
Samer Narouze, Dmitri Souzdalnitski
BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) comprises a group of conditions characterized by severe, debilitating pain that is disproportionate to any inciting event and is not distributed in a specific nerve distribution or dermatome. CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old female with a 2-year history of right upper extremity CRPS type I refractory to conventional management underwent an ultrasound-guided and fluoroscopy confirmed percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation trial with a lead extending from the C6 to the T3 level to cover the cervical and upper thoracic sympathetic chain...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637788/the-effects-of-neuromodulation-in-a-novel-obese-prone-rat-model-of-detrusor-underactivity
#20
Eric J Gonzalez, Warren M Grill
Obesity is a global epidemic associated with an increased risk for lower urinary tract dysfunction. Inefficient voiding and urinary retention may arise in late-stage obesity when the expulsive force of the detrusor smooth muscle cannot overcome outlet resistance. Detrusor underactivity (DUA) and impaired contractility may contribute to the pathogenesis of non-obstructive urinary retention. We used cystometry and electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves (pudendal and pelvic n.) to characterize and improve bladder function in urethane-anesthetized obese-prone (OP) and obese-resistant (OR) rats following diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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