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Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528196/a-review-of-psychiatric-co-morbidity-described-in-genetic-and-immune-mediated-movement-disorders
#1
REVIEW
K J Peall, M S Lorentzos, I Heyman, M A J Tijssen, M J Owen, R C Dale, M A Kurian
Psychiatric symptoms are an increasingly recognised feature of movement disorders. Recent identification of causative genes and autoantibodies has allowed detailed analysis of aetiologically homogenous subgroups, thereby enabling determination of the spectrum of psychiatric symptoms in these disorders. This review evaluates the incidence and type of psychiatric symptoms encountered in patients with movement disorders. A broad spectrum of psychiatric symptoms was identified across all subtypes of movement disorder, with depression, generalised anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder being most common...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527059/personality-disorders-in-cluster-headache-a-study-using-the-millon-clinical-multiaxial-inventory-iii
#2
Sylvie Hélène Marie Jeanne Piacentini, Lara Draghi, Alberto Proietti Cecchini, Massimo Leone
A great deal of studies suggests that cluster headache (CH) patients are usually comorbid to anxiety-mood spectrum disorders and psychopathological symptoms; however, the personality profiles reported in the literature strictly depend on type of assessment used. Psychiatric comorbidities have been extensively studied in migraine and they are recognized to represent a major risk factor associated with poorer outcome, playing a role in the headache chronification process at once as cause and consequence of it...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498087/an-expert-opinion-on-pandas-pans-highlights-and-controversies
#3
Francesca Chiarello, Silvia Spitoni, Eric Hollander, Marco Matucci Cerinic, Stefano Pallanti
OBJECTIVES: 'Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections' (PANDAS) identified a unique subgroup of patients with abrupt onset of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms clinically related to Streptococcus infection and accompanied by neuropsychological and motor symptoms. After almost 20 years, PANDAS has not been accepted as distinct disorder and new criteria for paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) have been replaced it, highlighting the fact that several agents rather than only Streptococcus might be involved...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471212/hierarchical-structure-of-emotional-disorders-from-individual-symptoms-to-the-spectrum
#4
Monika A Waszczuk, Roman Kotov, Camilo Ruggero, Wakiza Gamez, David Watson
Classification of emotional disorders faces challenges of within-disorder heterogeneity and between-disorder comorbidity. The current study addressed these issues by analyzing all emotional disorder symptoms to identify homogeneous dimensions that characterize this domain. These dimensions were, in turn, used to define coherent syndromes and higher order factors. All of the emotional disorder symptoms specified in diagnostic manuals were assessed by interview in 2 treatment-seeking samples (N = 426 and 305), alongside clinical diagnoses and functioning measures...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#6
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407363/de-novo-unbalanced-translocation-4p-duplication-8p-deletion-in-a-patient-with-autism-ocd-and-overgrowth-syndrome
#7
Angela Sagar, Dalila Pinto, Fedra Najjar, Stephen J Guter, Carol Macmillan, Edwin H Cook
Chromosomal abnormalities, such as unbalanced translocations and copy number variants (CNVs), are found in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) [Sanders et al. () Neuron 70: 863-885]. Many chromosomal abnormalities, including sub microscopic genomic deletions and duplications, are missed by G-banded karyotyping or Fragile X screening alone and are picked up by chromosomal microarrays [Shen et al. () Pediatrics 125: e727-735]. Translocations involving chromosomes 4 and 8 are possibly the second most frequent translocation in humans and are often undetected in routine cytogenetics [Giglio et al...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389841/an-initial-case-series-of-intensive-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Marina Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Joshua M Nadeau, Amaya Ramos, Brian Kay, Bradley C Riemann, Eric A Storch
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is prevalent among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with ASD-specific modifications has support for treating OCD in this population; however, use of intensive CBT in youth with ASD and severe OCD has not been tested. The current study examined the preliminary effectiveness of an individualized intensive CBT protocol for OCD in adolescents with ASD. Nine adolescents (aged 11-17 years) completed a regimen of intensive CBT (range 24-80 daily sessions) incorporating exposure with response prevention (ERP)...
April 7, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374658/the-inner-world-of-overactive-monitoring-neural-markers-of-interoception-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
A Yoris, A M García, L Traiber, H Santamaría-García, M Martorell, F Alifano, R Kichic, J S Moser, M Cetkovich, F Manes, A Ibáñez, L Sedeño
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients typically overmonitor their own behavior, as shown by symptoms of excessive doubt and checking. Although this is well established for the patients' relationship with external stimuli in the environment, no study has explored their monitoring of internal body signals, a process known to be affected in anxiety-related syndromes. Here, we explored this issue through a cardiac interoception task that measures sensing of heartbeats. Our aim was to explore key behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of internal-cue monitoring in OCD, while examining their potential distinctiveness in this condition...
April 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339164/are-schizophrenia-autistic-and-obsessive-spectrum-disorders-dissociable-on-the-basis-of-neuroimaging-morphological-findings-a-voxel-based-meta-analysis
#10
Franco Cauda, Tommaso Costa, Andrea Nani, Luciano Fava, Sara Palermo, Francesca Bianco, Sergio Duca, Karina Tatu, Roberto Keller
Schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD) are considered as three separate psychiatric conditions with, supposedly, different brain alterations patterns. From a neuroimaging perspective, this meta-analytic study aimed to address whether this nosographical differentiation is actually supported by different brain patterns of gray matter (GM) or white matter (WM) morphological alterations. We explored two possibilities: (a) to find out whether GM alterations are specific for SCZD, ASD, and OCSD; and (b) to associate the identified brain alteration patterns with cognitive dysfunctions by means of an analysis of lesion decoding...
March 24, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331571/clinical-evaluation-of-autistic-symptoms-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Heather Westwood, William Mandy, Kate Tchanturia
BACKGROUND: Despite a suggested link between anorexia nervosa (AN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previous studies have used self-report or diagnostic criteria to assess for ASD in AN populations, rather than direct observation of symptom characteristic of ASD. The aim of this study was to use a standardised, clinical assessment of ASD, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd Edition (ADOS-2), to investigate the presence of autistic symptoms in a cross-sectional sample of women with AN...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326752/minimal-role-of-comorbid-personality-disorder-on-the-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-anxiety-spectrum-disorders
#12
Dana Kamaradova, Klara Latalova, Jan Prasko, Ales Grambal, Zuzana Sigmundova, Petra Kasalova, Snezana Cakirpaloglu
OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus on the definition of Quality of life (QoL). It is considered to be comprised of both psychological and somatical well-being. A variety of tools has been developed to measure subjective and objective (QoL). A number of factors, including demographical and medical may have an impact on QoL. The aim of our study was to compare the QoL in selected anxiety disorders and evaluate the influence of comorbid personality disorder. METHOD: We evaluated data from 278 patients suffering from social phobia, panic disorder and/or agoraphobia, adjustment disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder...
January 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301091/shorter-sleep-duration-is-associated-with-social-impairment-and-comorbidities-in-asd
#13
Olivia J Veatch, James S Sutcliffe, Zachary E Warren, Brendan T Keenan, Melissa H Potter, Beth A Malow
Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, disturbed sleep affects core symptoms and other related comorbidities. Understanding the causes and consequences of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is an important step toward mitigating these symptoms. To better understand the connection between sleep duration and ASD severity, we analyzed ASD-related symptoms using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), IQ scores, and parent reports of the average amount of time slept per night that were available in the medical histories of 2,714 children with ASD in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC)...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300008/prevalence-of-suicide-attempt-and-clinical-characteristics-of-suicide-attempters-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-report-from-the-international-college-of-obsessive-compulsive-spectrum-disorders-icocs
#14
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Beatrice Benatti, Chiara Arici, Carlotta Palazzo, A Carlo Altamura, Eric Hollander, Naomi Fineberg, Dan J Stein, Humberto Nicolini, Nuria Lanzagorta, Donatella Marazziti, Stefano Pallanti, Michael van Ameringen, Christine Lochner, Oguz Karamustafalioglu, Luchezar Hranov, Martijn Figee, Lynne Drummond, Carolyn I Rodriguez, John Grant, Damiaan Denys, Jose M Menchon, Joseph Zohar
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with variable risk of suicide and prevalence of suicide attempt (SA). The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of SA and associated sociodemographic and clinical features in a large international sample of OCD patients. METHODS: A total of 425 OCD outpatients, recruited through the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) network, were assessed and categorized in groups with or without a history of SA, and their sociodemographic and clinical features compared through Pearson's chi-squared and t tests...
March 16, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281020/restricted-repetitive-behaviors-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-comparative-review
#15
Marina Jiujias, Elizabeth Kelley, Layla Hall
This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena...
March 9, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262175/a-qualititative-study-of-neurological-soft-signs-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-effect-of-comorbid-psychotic-spectrum-disorders-and-familiality-on-its-expression-in-indian-population
#16
Dr Sonia Malhotra, Dr Pankaj B Borade, Dr Pradeep Sharma, Dr Yogesh Satija, Dr Gunjan
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, with lifetime prevalence of 2%-3% and is known to lie on a spectrum continuous with Schizophrenia and other affective psychosis. Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) have been reported to be higher in both Schizophrenia and affective psychosis, like bipolar disorder, and their first degree relatives but in OCD, the results have been inconsistent. It remains unclear if NSS occur at even higher rates in individuals who have a co-morbidity for OCD and either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, as it might be expected if a broader neurodevelopmental hit underlies the pathophysiology of both OCD and these disorders...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260900/analysis-concerning-nutritional-behaviors-in-the-context-of-the-risk-of-orthorexia
#17
Dominik Olejniczak, Dorota Bugajec, Mariusz Panczyk, Anna Brytek-Matera, Urszula Religioni, Aleksandra Czerw, Aleksandra Grąbczewska, Grzegorz Juszczyk, Karolina Jabłkowska-Górecka, Anna Staniszewska
Orthorexia is recognized as an eating disorder, an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder, or a somatoform disorder. The aim of our research was to analyze nutritional behaviors for the assessment of the risk of orthorexia. The authors developed a questionnaire in which 981 respondents participated and used it as a research method. Both men and women ate mostly 4-5 meals per day (46.30% women versus 34.74% men); however, more men than women ate 1-2 meals daily (18.95% men versus 7.9% women). Both place of birth and field of study did not differ in terms of the number of meals...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242410/the-effect-of-trauma-on-the-severity-of-obsessive-compulsive-spectrum-symptoms-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Michelle L Miller, Rebecca L Brock
It is important to consider trauma-related sequelae in the etiology and maintenance of psychopathology, namely understudied disorders such as those belonging to the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum (OCS). This meta-analysis examined the association between past trauma exposure and current severity of OCS disorder symptoms. A systematic literature search was conducted with 24 (N=4557) articles meeting inclusion criteria. A significant overall effect size was obtained (r=0.20), indicating that exposure to past trauma is associated with a higher severity of OCS symptoms, with a stronger association for females (β=0...
April 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154539/temporal-association-of-certain-neuropsychiatric-disorders-following-vaccination-of-children-and-adolescents-a-pilot-case-control-study
#19
Douglas L Leslie, Robert A Kobre, Brian J Richmand, Selin Aktan Guloksuz, James F Leckman
BACKGROUND: Although the association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines. This study examines whether antecedent vaccinations are associated with increased incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anorexia nervosa (AN), anxiety disorder, chronic tic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder in a national sample of privately insured children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138157/forebrain-specific-ablation-of-phospholipase-c%C3%AE-1-causes-manic-like-behavior
#20
Y R Yang, J H Jung, S-J Kim, K Hamada, A Suzuki, H J Kim, J H Lee, O-B Kwon, Y K Lee, J Kim, E-K Kim, H-J Jang, D-S Kang, J-S Choi, C J Lee, J Marshall, H-Y Koh, C-J Kim, H Seok, S H Kim, J H Choi, Y-B Choi, L Cocco, S H Ryu, J-H Kim, P-G Suh
Manic episodes are one of the major diagnostic symptoms in a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders that include schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder (BD). Despite a possible association between BD and the gene encoding phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCG1), its etiological basis remains unclear. Here, we report that mice lacking phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) in the forebrain (Plcg1(f/f); CaMKII) exhibit hyperactivity, decreased anxiety-like behavior, reduced depressive-related behavior, hyperhedonia, hyperphagia, impaired learning and memory and exaggerated startle responses...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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