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Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705096/autism-spectrum-disorders-in-adult-outpatients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-the-uk
#1
Maheshi Wikramanayake, William Mandy, Sonia Shahper, Sukhwinder Kaur, Sangeetha Kolli, Selma Osman, Jemma Reid, Kiri Jefferies Sewell, Naomi Fineberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently show traits of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is one of the first studies to explore the clinical impact of the overlap between OCD and ASD as a categorical diagnosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in 73 adult outpatients with DSM-IV OCD. Autistic traits were measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). A clinical estimate ASD diagnosis was made by interview using DSM-IV-TR criteria...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686560/-hoarding-disorder-in-dsm-5-clinical-description-and-cognitive-approach
#2
L Kalogeraki, I Michopoulos
Hoarding disorder is characterized by difficulty discarding or parting with possessions regardless their actual value as well as, in most cases, persistent acquisition of objects. Possessions are accumulated in large numbers that fill up and clutter active living space to the extent that its intended use is no longer possible resulting to significant functional impairment and/or distress. Saving and difficulty discarding appear to be associated to subjective beliefs about the instrumental, sentimental or intrinsic value of objects...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680541/understanding-the-cellular-and-molecular-alterations-in-ptsd-brains-the-necessity-of-post-mortem-brain-tissue
#3
EDITORIAL
Geertje M de Lange
The personal, social and economic burden of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high and therapeutic approaches are only partially effective. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the cellular and molecular alterations in PTSD brains in order to design more effective treatment strategies. Although brain imaging strategies have considerably improved our understanding of PTSD, these strategies cannot identify molecular and cellular changes. Post-mortem examination of the brain is a crucial strategy to advance our understanding of the underlying neuropathology, neurochemistry and molecular pathways of PTSD...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678583/lsd-treatment-in-scandinavia-emphasizing-indications-and-short-term-treatment-outcomes-of-151-patients-in-denmark
#4
Jens Knud Larsen
BACKGROUND: New research has suggested the clinical use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin in selected patient populations. However, concerns about the clinical use of LSD were advanced in a large Danish follow-up study that assessed 151 LSD-treated psychiatric patients approximately 25 years after their treatment in the 1960s. AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to give a retrospective account of the short-term outcome of LSD treatment in these 151 Danish psychiatric patients...
July 5, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667830/predictors-of-comorbid-eating-disorders-and-association-with-other-obsessive-compulsive-spectrum-disorders-in-trichotillomania
#5
Erica Greenberg, Jon E Grant, Erin E Curley, Christine Lochner, Douglas W Woods, Esther S Tung, Dan J Stein, Sarah A Redden, Jeremiah M Scharf, Nancy J Keuthen
Trichotillomania (TTM) and eating disorders (ED) share many phenomenological similarities, including ritualized compulsive behaviors. Given this, and that comorbid EDs may represent additional functional burden to hair pullers, we sought to identify factors that predict diagnosis of an ED in a TTM population. Subjects included 555 adult females (age range 18-65) with DSM-IV-TR TTM or chronic hair pullers recruited from multiple sites. 7.2% (N=40) of our TTM subjects met criteria for an ED in their lifetime...
June 21, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647013/autism-spectrum-symptoms-in-a-tourette-s-disorder-sample
#6
Sabrina M Darrow, Marco Grados, Paul Sandor, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Cornelia Illmann, Lisa Osiecki, Yves Dion, Robert King, David Pauls, Cathy L Budman, Danielle C Cath, Erica Greenberg, Gholson J Lyon, William M McMahon, Paul C Lee, Kevin L Delucchi, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews
OBJECTIVE: Tourette's disorder (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical features and possibly an overlapping etiology. The aims of this study were to examine ASD symptom rates in participants with TD, and to characterize the relationships between ASD symptom patterns and TD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Participants with TD (n = 535) and their family members (n =234) recruited for genetic studies reported TD, OCD, and ADHD symptoms and completed the Social Responsiveness Scale Second Edition (SRS), which was used to characterize ASD symptoms...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642831/treatment-of-hypochondriasis-in-two-schizophrenia-patients-using-clozapine
#7
Antonio Tundo, Luca Proietti, Rocco de Filippis
Hypochondriasis (HYPO), an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder, is frequent in patients with schizophrenia (SCH) (20%), especially among those treated with clozapine (36.7%). Treatment options for OCS/OCD in patients under clozapine (CLZ) include combining clozapine with amisulpride/aripiprazole or a mood stabilizer, augmenting clozapine with a serotoninergic reuptake inhibitor, adding cognitive behavioural therapy, and gradually reducing dosage. No treatments have been proposed for HYPO in patients using clozapine so we examine these options in 2 cases and report the results...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641744/polygenic-risk-score-and-heritability-estimates-reveals-a-genetic-relationship-between-asd-and-ocd
#8
W Guo, J F Samuels, Y Wang, H Cao, M Ritter, P S Nestadt, J Krasnow, B D Greenberg, A J Fyer, J T McCracken, D A Geller, D L Murphy, J A Knowles, M A Grados, M A Riddle, S A Rasmussen, N C McLaughlin, E L Nurmi, K D Askland, B A Cullen, J Piacentini, D L Pauls, O J Bienvenu, S E Stewart, F S Goes, B Maher, A E Pulver, D Valle, M Mattheisen, J Qian, G Nestadt, Y Y Shugart
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that conceivably share genetic risk factors. However, the underlying genetic determinants remain largely unknown. In this work, the authors describe a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ASD and OCD. The OCD dataset includes 2998 individuals in nuclear families. The ASD dataset includes 6898 individuals in case-parents trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for potential enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions...
July 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571795/misophonia-a-new-mental-disorder
#9
Steven Taylor
Misophonia, a phenomenon first described in the audiology literature, is characterized by intense emotional reactions (e.g., anger, rage, anxiety, disgust) in response to highly specific sounds, particularly sounds of human origin such as oral or nasal noises made by other people (e.g., chewing, sniffing, slurping, lip smacking). Misophonia is not listed in any of the contemporary psychiatric classification systems. Some investigators have argued that misophonia should be regarded as a new mental disorder, falling within the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive related disorders...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555406/investigation-of-previously-implicated-genetic-variants-in-chronic-tic-disorders-a-transmission-disequilibrium-test-approach
#10
Mohamed Abdulkadir, Douglas Londono, Derek Gordon, Thomas V Fernandez, Lawrence W Brown, Keun-Ah Cheon, Barbara J Coffey, Lonneke Elzerman, Carolin Fremer, Odette Fründt, Blanca Garcia-Delgar, Donald L Gilbert, Dorothy E Grice, Tammy Hedderly, Isobel Heyman, Hyun Ju Hong, Chaim Huyser, Laura Ibanez-Gomez, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Young Key Kim, Young Shin Kim, Yun-Joo Koh, Sodahm Kook, Samuel Kuperman, Bennett Leventhal, Andrea G Ludolph, Marcos Madruga-Garrido, Athanasios Maras, Pablo Mir, Astrid Morer, Kirsten Müller-Vahl, Alexander Münchau, Tara L Murphy, Kerstin J Plessen, Veit Roessner, Eun-Young Shin, Dong-Ho Song, Jungeun Song, Jennifer Tübing, Els van den Ban, Frank Visscher, Sina Wanderer, Martin Woods, Samuel H Zinner, Robert A King, Jay A Tischfield, Gary A Heiman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Dietrich
Genetic studies in Tourette syndrome (TS) are characterized by scattered and poorly replicated findings. We aimed to replicate findings from candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our cohort included 465 probands with chronic tic disorder (93% TS) and both parents from 412 families (some probands were siblings). We assessed 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 465 parent-child trios; 117 additional SNPs in 211 trios; and 4 additional SNPs in 254 trios. We performed SNP and gene-based transmission disequilibrium tests and compared nominally significant SNP results with those from a large independent case-control cohort...
May 29, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536500/the-impact-of-single-session-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-over-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-posterior-superior-temporal-sulcus-on-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Hsing-Chang Ni, June Hung, Chen-Te Wu, Yu-Yu Wu, Chee-Jen Chang, Rou-Shayn Chen, Ying-Zu Huang
Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was applied over the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to explore its impact in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Among 25 adults with ASD, 19 (mean age: 20.8 years) completed the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial. Every participant received iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC, bilateral pSTS and inion (as a sham control stimulation) in a randomized order with a 1-week interval...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528196/a-review-of-psychiatric-co-morbidity-described-in-genetic-and-immune-mediated-movement-disorders
#12
REVIEW
K J Peall, M S Lorentzos, I Heyman, M A J Tijssen, M J Owen, R C Dale, M A Kurian
Psychiatric symptoms are an increasingly recognised feature of movement disorders. Recent identification of causative genes and autoantibodies has allowed detailed analysis of aetiologically homogenous subgroups, thereby enabling determination of the spectrum of psychiatric symptoms in these disorders. This review evaluates the incidence and type of psychiatric symptoms encountered in patients with movement disorders. A broad spectrum of psychiatric symptoms was identified across all subtypes of movement disorder, with depression, generalised anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder being most common...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527059/personality-disorders-in-cluster-headache-a-study-using-the-millon-clinical-multiaxial-inventory-iii
#13
Sylvie Hélène Marie Jeanne Piacentini, Lara Draghi, Alberto Proietti Cecchini, Massimo Leone
A great deal of studies suggests that cluster headache (CH) patients are usually comorbid to anxiety-mood spectrum disorders and psychopathological symptoms; however, the personality profiles reported in the literature strictly depend on type of assessment used. Psychiatric comorbidities have been extensively studied in migraine and they are recognized to represent a major risk factor associated with poorer outcome, playing a role in the headache chronification process at once as cause and consequence of it...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498087/an-expert-opinion-on-pandas-pans-highlights-and-controversies
#14
Francesca Chiarello, Silvia Spitoni, Eric Hollander, Marco Matucci Cerinic, Stefano Pallanti
OBJECTIVES: 'Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections' (PANDAS) identified a unique subgroup of patients with abrupt onset of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms clinically related to Streptococcus infection and accompanied by neuropsychological and motor symptoms. After almost 20 years, PANDAS has not been accepted as distinct disorder and new criteria for paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) have been replaced it, highlighting the fact that several agents rather than only Streptococcus might be involved...
June 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471212/hierarchical-structure-of-emotional-disorders-from-individual-symptoms-to-the-spectrum
#15
Monika A Waszczuk, Roman Kotov, Camilo Ruggero, Wakiza Gamez, David Watson
Classification of emotional disorders faces challenges of within-disorder heterogeneity and between-disorder comorbidity. The current study addressed these issues by analyzing all emotional disorder symptoms to identify homogeneous dimensions that characterize this domain. These dimensions were, in turn, used to define coherent syndromes and higher order factors. All of the emotional disorder symptoms specified in diagnostic manuals were assessed by interview in 2 treatment-seeking samples (N = 426 and 305), alongside clinical diagnoses and functioning measures...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#17
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407363/de-novo-unbalanced-translocation-4p-duplication-8p-deletion-in-a-patient-with-autism-ocd-and-overgrowth-syndrome
#18
Angela Sagar, Dalila Pinto, Fedra Najjar, Stephen J Guter, Carol Macmillan, Edwin H Cook
Chromosomal abnormalities, such as unbalanced translocations and copy number variants (CNVs), are found in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) [Sanders et al. (2011) Neuron 70: 863-885]. Many chromosomal abnormalities, including sub microscopic genomic deletions and duplications, are missed by G-banded karyotyping or Fragile X screening alone and are picked up by chromosomal microarrays [Shen et al. (2010) Pediatrics 125: e727-735]. Translocations involving chromosomes 4 and 8 are possibly the second most frequent translocation in humans and are often undetected in routine cytogenetics [Giglio et al...
June 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389841/an-initial-case-series-of-intensive-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Marina Iniesta-Sepúlveda, Joshua M Nadeau, Amaya Ramos, Brian Kay, Bradley C Riemann, Eric A Storch
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is prevalent among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with ASD-specific modifications has support for treating OCD in this population; however, use of intensive CBT in youth with ASD and severe OCD has not been tested. The current study examined the preliminary effectiveness of an individualized intensive CBT protocol for OCD in adolescents with ASD. Nine adolescents (aged 11-17 years) completed a regimen of intensive CBT (range 24-80 daily sessions) incorporating exposure with response prevention (ERP)...
April 7, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374658/the-inner-world-of-overactive-monitoring-neural-markers-of-interoception-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
A Yoris, A M García, L Traiber, H Santamaría-García, M Martorell, F Alifano, R Kichic, J S Moser, M Cetkovich, F Manes, A Ibáñez, L Sedeño
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients typically overmonitor their own behavior, as shown by symptoms of excessive doubt and checking. Although this is well established for the patients' relationship with external stimuli in the environment, no study has explored their monitoring of internal body signals, a process known to be affected in anxiety-related syndromes. Here, we explored this issue through a cardiac interoception task that measures sensing of heartbeats. Our aim was to explore key behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of internal-cue monitoring in OCD, while examining their potential distinctiveness in this condition...
April 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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