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Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928938/sensory-sensitivity-mediates-the-relationship-between-anxiety-and-picky-eating-in-children-adolescents-ages-8-17-and-in-college-undergraduates-a-replication-and-age-upward-extension
#1
Hana F Zickgraf, Anjeli Elkins
This study explores the relationships among anxiety, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and picky eating (PE). An earlier study in 95 children ages 5-10 found that sensory sensitivity fully mediated the relationship between anxiety and picky eating. We replicated this finding in a sample of 158 children, ages 8-17, and in 813 young adult college students. As in the previous child sample, the relationship between anxiety and picky eating appears to be mediated by sensory sensitivity. This relationship extends into adolescence and young adulthood and holds even in a sample of children with obsessive-compulsive-spectrum and anxiety disorders...
June 18, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896127/white-matter-features-associated-with-autistic-traits-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#2
Masaru Kuno, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Akiko Nakagawa, Kenichi Asano, Fumiyo Oshima, Sawako Nagaoka, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is among the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. Comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autistic traits may impair treatment response in OCD. To identify possible neurostructural deficits underlying autistic traits, we performed white matter tractography on diffusion tensor images (DTI) and assessed autistic trait severity using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in 33 OCD patients. Correlations between AQ and the DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were examined in major white matter tracts that were suggested to be altered in previous OCD studies...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880881/subthalamic-nucleus-high-frequency-stimulation-prevents-and-reverses-escalated-cocaine-use
#3
Yann Pelloux, Mickaël Degoulet, Alix Tiran-Cappello, Candie Cohen, Sylvie Lardeux, Olivier George, George F Koob, Serge H Ahmed, Christelle Baunez
One of the key features of addiction is the escalated drug intake. The neural mechanisms involved in the transition to addiction remain to be elucidated. Since abnormal neuronal activity within the subthalamic nucleus (STN) stands as potential general neuromarker common to impulse control spectrum deficits, as observed in obsessive-compulsive disorders, the present study recorded and manipulated STN neuronal activity during the initial transition to addiction (i.e., escalation) and post-abstinence relapse (i...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875534/bowel-and-bladder-anxiety-an-obsession-or-a-variant-of-agoraphobia
#4
Debjit Roy, Amrita Sarkar, Arvind Nongpiur, Manoj Prithviraj
It has long been debated whether bowel and bladder anxiety are a part of obsessive compulsive spectrum disorder or a variant of agoraphobia with no consensus view yet. Tricyclic antidepressants are reportedly efficacious in such cases and lead to complete resolution of symptoms. Here, we report a 36-year-old male having urges to visit toilet when in public places or where toilets are not easily available and a resulting avoidance of such spaces fearing an episode of incontinence. Symptoms originated 16 years ago when he was in university which compelled him to drop out...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875529/prevalence-of-obsessive-compulsive-spectrum-disorders-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Mohammad Aleem Siddiqui, Daya Ram, Sanjay Kumar Munda, Shazia Veqar Siddiqui, Sujit Sarkhel
Introduction: There is growing awareness of the heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and of the multiple systems involved in its pathogenesis. Identification of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) may have important implications in the management and prognosis of OCD, but there is a paucity of research in the domain of identification of OCSD in probands with OCD. There are few studies that have examined OCSD in the first-degree relatives (FDR) of OCD patients, some of these were not controlled, and these studies have no final agreements over outcomes, and therefore, this area needs to be further explored...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795071/autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children-affected-by-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#6
Lucia Parisi, Teresa Di Filippo, Pasqualino Glorioso, Sabina La Grutta, Maria S Epifanio, Michele Roccella
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent and severe form of the dystrophinopathies. The literature shows that about 30-40% of DMD subjects have intellectual disability. In males with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, neuropsychiatric disorders have also been observed: attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity, autism spectrum disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is not just a muscle disorder, but also a disease that affects the brain...
June 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781408/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-as-a-paradigmatic-neuropsychiatric-disorder
#7
Andrea E Cavanna
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a chronic and complex tic disorder accompanied by specific behavioral problems in the majority of patients. With its multifaceted interplay between motion and emotion, this condition is a paradigmatic example of the science and art of clinical neuropsychiatry. This review article encompasses the clinical phenomenology of motor and vocal tics and associated sensory experiences (premonitory urges), as well as the behavioral spectrum of the most common comorbidities, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, affective symptoms, and impulsivity...
May 21, 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779439/descriptive-phenotype-of-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-in-males-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#8
Angela J Lee, Edward T Buckingham, Aaron J Kauer, Katherine D Mathews
Increased rates of clinically significant internalizing disorders (obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression) have been demonstrated in males with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and a Duchenne muscular dystrophy neuropsychiatric syndrome has been suggested. Although symptoms of depression are widely recognized, some of the other internalizing symptoms are less frequently identified. Through a retrospective chart review of 107 males with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we identified 15 patients with obsessive compulsive disorder spectrum symptoms; 11 of those also had anxiety symptoms...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769783/trichotillomania-ranging-from-ritual-to-illness-and-as-a-rare-clinical-manifestation-of-frontotemporal-dementia-review-of-literature-and-case-report
#9
Thomas Gregor Issac, Ashay Vivek Telang, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the most common form of dementia in the younger age group and often exists with comorbid obsessions and compulsions in up to 80% of the patients. Trichotillomania or compulsive "hair-pulling" disorder is a rare manifestation of FTD and is a poorly evaluated symptom in this condition. The release of "grooming functions" due to frontal disinhibition is often attributed to the evolutionary perspective; however, recent findings also implicate the role of neurotransmitter dysfunction...
March 2018: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753752/the-cingulum-bundle-anatomy-function-and-dysfunction
#10
REVIEW
Emma J Bubb, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, John P Aggleton
The cingulum bundle is a prominent white matter tract that interconnects frontal, parietal, and medial temporal sites, while also linking subcortical nuclei to the cingulate gyrus. Despite its apparent continuity, the cingulum's composition continually changes as fibres join and leave the bundle. To help understand its complex structure, this review begins with detailed, comparative descriptions of the multiple connections comprising the cingulum bundle. Next, the impact of cingulum bundle damage in rats, monkeys, and humans is analysed...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750139/the-brown-incompleteness-scale-bincs-measure-development-and-initial-evaluation
#11
Christina L Boisseau, Nicholas J Sibrava, Sarah L Garnaat, Maria C Mancebo, Jane L Eisen, Steven A Rasmussen
Background: In recent years, incompleteness has received increased clinical attention as a core motivation underlying obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Yet, assessment of incompleteness has relied almost exclusively on self-report and has assumed a unitary conceptualization of this phenomenon. Therefore, we sought to develop and validate a new multi-faceted clinician-administered measure of incompleteness. The Brown Incompleteness Scale (BINCS) consists of 21 items; each rated on a 5-point scale, with higher scores indicating a greater degree of incompleteness...
January 2018: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736064/psychiatric-comorbidities-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-six-month-follow-up-study
#12
D Ramya Shruthi, S Sunil Kumar, Nagaraj Desai, Rajesh Raman, T S Sathyanarayana Rao
Introduction: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) caused by coronary atherosclerosis include ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI, and unstable angina. The relation between psychiatric disorders and coronary artery disease is a complex one which includes the effect of the psychosocial factors on heart and vice versa. Point prevalence studies have been reported, but there is paucity of follow-up studies from India. Materials and Methods: The study is a follow-up evaluation at discharge of 248 consecutive patients presented with ACS at JSS Hospital, Mysuru, Karnataka, over a period of 6 months to assess the psychiatric comorbidities...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735112/stereotypic-movement-disorders
#13
Mackenzie Katherine
This review summarizes motor stereotypies in terms of description, prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. They are fixed and persistent movements. Stereotypies begin before 3 years of age and continue into adulthood. Primary motor stereotypies occur in children of normal intelligence, whereas secondary stereotypies ensue in the setting of an additional diagnosis such as autism spectrum disorder or other neurologic disorders. They are highly associated with comorbidities such as anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, inattention, and tics...
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627697/are-the-components-of-social-reciprocity-transdiagnostic-across-pediatric-neurodevelopmental-disorders-evidence-for-common-and-disorder-specific-social-impairments
#14
Alexandra Sturm, Michelle Rozenman, Susanna Chang, James J McGough, James T McCracken, John C Piacentini
Deficits in social communication are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet significant social problems have been observed in youth with many neurodevelopmental disorders. In this preliminary investigation, we aimed to explore whether domains of social reciprocity (i.e., social communication, social cognition, social awareness, social motivation, and restricted and repetitive behaviors) represent transdiagnostic traits. These domains were compared across youth ages 7-17 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; N = 32), tic disorders (TD; N = 20), severe mood dysregulation (N = 33) and autism spectrum disorder (N = 35)...
June 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568212/effectiveness-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-comorbid-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-review-of-the-research
#15
Leman Kaniturk Kose, Lise Fox, Eric A Storch
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are highly comorbid, precipitating an urgent need to identify evidence-based practices that might be used to address this comorbidity exclusively. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of intervention research and clinical reports to examine the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals who have comorbid ASD and OCD. Based on the pre-determined review inclusion criteria, 11 studies were included in the review: three randomized control trials (RCT), one case controlled study, two single subject experimental designs, and five case studies...
February 2018: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540864/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-extended-release-guanfacine-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-adhd-symptoms-an-analysis-of-secondary-outcome-measures
#16
Laura C Politte, Lawrence Scahill, Janet Figueroa, James T McCracken, Bryan King, Christopher J McDougle
In a prior report, we showed that extended-release guanfacine (GEXR) is safe and effective for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) accompanied by ADHD symptoms. Here, we examine the impact of GEXR on oppositional behavior, anxiety, repetitive behavior, and sleep disturbance. Sixty-two subjects with ASD (53 boys, 9 girls; ages 5-14 years) were randomly assigned to GEXR (n = 30) or placebo (n = 32) for 8 weeks. Outcomes include the Home Situation Questionnaire-Modified for ASD (HSQ-ASD), Anxiety scale of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI), Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Modified for ASD (CYBOCS-ASD), and Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ)...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505902/the-genetic-architecture-of-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Kevin S O'Connell, Nathaniel W McGregor, Christine Lochner, Robin Emsley, Louise Warnich
Considerable evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share a common molecular aetiology, despite their unique clinical diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was therefore to determine and characterise the common and unique molecular architecture of ASD, SCZ, BD and OCD. Gene lists were obtained from previously published studies for ASD, BD, SCZ and for OCD. Genes identified to be common to all disorders, or unique to one specific disorder, were included for enrichment analyses using the web-server tool Enrichr...
April 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398245/cans-childhood-acute-neuropsychiatric-syndromes
#18
REVIEW
Federica Zibordi, Zorzi Giovanna, Carecchio Miryam, Nardocci Nardo
The terms Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS), and Childhood Acute Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (CANS) have been used to describe certain acute onset neuropsychiatric pediatric disorders. This clinical characteristic was unusually abrupt onset of obsessive compulsive symptoms and/or severe eating restrictions and concomitant cognitive, behavioral or neurological symptoms. Because the CANS/PANS criteria define a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric conditions, the syndrome is presumed to result from a variety of disease mechanisms and to have multiple etiologies, ranging from postinfectious autoimmune and neuroinflammatory disorders to toxic, endocrine or metabolic disorders...
March 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396406/dlgap1-knockout-mice-exhibit-alterations-of-the-postsynaptic-density-and-selective-reductions-in-sociability
#19
M P Coba, M J Ramaker, E V Ho, S L Thompson, N H Komiyama, S G N Grant, J A Knowles, S C Dulawa
The scaffold protein DLGAP1 is localized at the post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic neurons and is a component of supramolecular protein complexes organized by PSD95. Gain-of-function variants of DLGAP1 have been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), while haploinsufficient variants have been linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in human genetic studies. We tested male and female Dlgap1 wild type (WT), heterozygous (HT), and knockout (KO) mice in a battery of behavioral tests: open field, dig, splash, prepulse inhibition, forced swim, nest building, social approach, and sucrose preference...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349864/the-morphometric-co-atrophy-networking-of-schizophrenia-autistic-and-obsessive-spectrum-disorders
#20
Franco Cauda, Andrea Nani, Tommaso Costa, Sara Palermo, Karina Tatu, Jordi Manuello, Sergio Duca, Peter T Fox, Roberto Keller
By means of a novel methodology that can statistically derive patterns of co-alterations distribution from voxel-based morphological data, this study analyzes the patterns of brain alterations of three important psychiatric spectra-that is, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD). Our analysis provides five important results. First, in SCZD, ASD, and OCSD brain alterations do not distribute randomly but, rather, follow network-like patterns of co-alteration...
May 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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