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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305878/study-of-microvascular-non-newtonian-blood-flow-modulated-by-electroosmosis
#1
Dharmendra Tripathi, Ashu Yadav, O Anwar Bég, Rakesh Kumar
An analytical study of microvascular non-Newtonian blood flow is investigated in presence of electro-osmosis phenomenon. Blood is considered as a Bingham rheological aqueous ionic solutions. An externally applied static axial electrical field is imposed on the system. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation for electric potential distribution is implemented to accommodate the electrical double layer in the microvascular. With long wavelength, lubrication and Debye-Hückel approximations, the boundary value problem is rendered non-dimensional...
January 3, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249336/pulsatile-flow-of-non-newtonian-blood-fluid-inside-stenosed-arteries-investigating-the-effects-of-viscoelastic-and-elastic-walls-arteriosclerosis-and-polycythemia-diseases
#2
A Abbas Nejad, Z Talebi, D Cheraghali, A Shahbani-Zahiri, M Norouzi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In this study, the interaction of pulsatile blood flow with the viscoelastic walls of the axisymmetric artery is numerically investigated for different severities of stenosis. The geometry of artery is modeled by an axisymmetric cylindrical tube with a symmetric stenosis in a two-dimensional case. The effects of stenosis severity on the axial velocity profile, pressure distribution, streamlines, wall shear stress, and wall radial displacement for the viscoelastic artery are also compared to the elastics artery...
February 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247703/effects-of-tiotropium-bromide-on-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-inflammation-in-mice-exposed-to-organic-dust
#3
Joshua A Gregory, Cecilia Kemi, Jie Ji, Jakob Karén, Ingrid Delin, Per Gerde, Michael P Pieper, Mikael Adner, Kjell Larsson
INTRODUCTION: Acute exposure to organic dust (OD) in pig barns induces intense airway inflammation with neutrophilia and hyperresponsiveness. This reaction is likely associated with increased cholinergic activity. Therefore, the involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the reaction to acute exposure of OD was investigated in mice using the long-acting muscarinic antagonist tiotropium. METHODS: BALB/c mice received tiotropium (2-200 ng) intranasally on day 1 of the study...
December 13, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235874/effect-of-wetting-on-drop-splashing-of-newtonian-fluids-and-blood
#4
Thijs C de Goede, Nick Laan, Karla de Bruin, Daniel Bonn
We investigate the impact velocity beyond which the ejection of smaller droplets from the main droplet (splashing) occurs for droplets of different liquids impacting different smooth surfaces. We examine its dependence on the surface wetting properties and droplet surface tension. We show that the splashing velocity is independent of the wetting properties of the surface, but increases roughly linearly with increasing surface tension of the liquid. A preexisting splashing model and simplification are considered that predicts the splashing velocity by incorporating the air viscosity...
December 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205216/investigation-of-blood-flow-rheology-using-second-grade-viscoelastic-model-phan-thien-tanner-within-carotid-artery
#5
Abas Ramiar, Morsal Momenti Larimi, Ali Akbar Ranjbar
PURPOSE: Hemodynamic factors, such as Wall Shear Stress (WSS), play a substantial role in arterial diseases. In the larger arteries, such as the carotid artery, interaction between the vessel wall and blood flow affects the distribution of hemodynamic factors. The fluid is considered to be non-Newtonian, whose flow is governed by the equation of a second-grade viscoelastic fluid and the effects of viscoelastic on blood flow in carotid artery is investigated. METHODS: Pulsatile flow studies were carried out in a 3D model of carotid artery...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197751/dacron-graft-as-replacement-to-dissected-aorta-a-three-dimensional-fluid-structure-interaction-analysis
#6
R Jayendiran, B M Nour, A Ruimi
Aortic dissection (AD) is a serious medical condition characterized by a tear in the intima, the inner layer of the aortic walls. In such occurrence, blood is being diverted to the media (middle) layer and may result in patient death if not quickly attended. In the case where the diseased portion of the aorta needs to be replaced, one common surgical technique is to use a graft made of Dacron, a synthetic fabric. We investigate the response of a composite human aortic segment-Dacron graft structure subjected to blood flow using the three-dimensional fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) capability in Abaqus...
November 26, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159532/a-multiphysics-approach-for-modeling-early-atherosclerosis
#7
M P Thon, A Hemmler, A Glinzer, M Mayr, M Wildgruber, A Zernecke-Madsen, M W Gee
This work is devoted to the development of a mathematical model of the early stages of atherosclerosis incorporating processes of all time scales of the disease and to show their interactions. The cardiovascular mechanics is modeled by a fluid-structure interaction approach coupling a non-Newtonian fluid to a hyperelastic solid undergoing anisotropic growth and a change of its constitutive equation. Additionally, the transport of low-density lipoproteins and its penetration through the endothelium is considered by a coupled set of advection-diffusion-reaction equations...
November 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100596/analysis-of-non-newtonian-effects-within-an-aorta-iliac-bifurcation-region
#8
Marcello Iasiello, Kambiz Vafai, Assunta Andreozzi, Nicola Bianco
The geometry of the arteries at or near arterial bifurcation influences the blood flow field, which is an important factor affecting arteriogenesis. The blood can act sometimes as a non-Newtonian fluid. However, many studies have argued that for large and medium arteries, the blood flow can be considered to be Newtonian. In this work a comprehensive investigation of non-Newtonian effects on the blood fluid dynamic behavior in an aorta-iliac bifurcation is presented. The aorta-iliac geometry is reconstructed with references to the values reported in Shah et al...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077409/roughness-influence-on-human-blood-drop-spreading-and-splashing
#9
Fiona R Smith, Naomi C Buntsma, David Brutin
Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is used on a daily basis as evidence in crime scene reconstruction. However, though the impact behavior of complex fluid droplets have been extensively studied, important questions still remain. We investigate the influence of surface roughness and wettability on the splashing limit of droplets of blood, a non-Newtonian colloidal fluid. Droplets of blood perpendicularly impacting different surfaces at different velocities were recorded with a high-speed camera. The recordings were analyzed as well as the surfaces characteristics in order to find an empirical solution because we found that roughness plays a major role in the threshold of the splashing/nonsplashing behavior of blood compared to the wettability...
November 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076377/investigating-the-performance-of-four-specific-types-of-material-grafts-and-their-effects-on-hemodynamic-patterns-as-well-as-on-von-mises-stresses-in-a-grafted-three-layer-aortic-model-using-fluid-structure-interaction-analysis
#10
Shahrokh Rahmani, Amin Jarrahi, Mahdi Navidbakhsh, Mansour Alizadeh
One of the important parts of the cardiac system is aorta which is the fundamental channel and supply of oxygenated blood in the body. Diseases of the aorta represent critical cardiovascular bleakness and mortality around the world. This study aims at investigation of hemodynamic parameters in a two-dimensional axisymmetric model of three-layer grafted aorta using fluid-structure interaction (FSI). It assumes that a damaged part of aorta, which may happen as a result of some diseases like aneurysm, dissection and post-stenotic dilatation, is replaced with a biomaterial graft...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059342/mathematical-model-of-calcium-exchange-during-haemodialysis-using-a-citrate-containing-dialysate
#11
Julien Aniort, Laurent Chupin, Nicolae Cîndea
Calcium has two important roles in haemodialysis. It participates in the activation of blood coagulation and calcium intakes have a major impact on patient mineral and bone metabolism. The aim of this article is to propose a mathematical model for calcium ions concentration in a dialyzer during haemodialysis using a citrate dialysate. The model is composed of two elements. The first describes the flows of blood and dialysate in a dialyzer fibre. It was obtained by asymptotic analysis and takes into account the anisotropy of the fibres forming a dialyzer...
October 20, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981424/continuous-separation-of-white-blood-cells-from-whole-blood-using-viscoelastic-effects
#12
Justin K S Tan, Sung-Yong Park, Hwa Liang Leo, Sangho Kim
White blood cells (WBCs) are the only cellular constituent containing genetic materials, and, hence, are candidate biomarkers for a host of diseases. However, conventional methods for WBC separation tend to have low sample purity and separation efficiency, which will have adverse implications on downstream polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. In this study, we introduce a two-stage microfluidic device which harnesses the elastic property of a non-Newtonian fluid for size-based separation of WBCs from whole blood...
October 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919372/biological-applications-of-kinetics-of-wetting-and-spreading
#13
REVIEW
G Ahmed, O Arjmandi Tash, J Cook, A Trybala, V Starov
Wetting and spreading kinetics of biological fluids has gained a substantial interest recently. The importance of these fluids in our lives has driven the pace of publications. Globally scientists have ever growing interest in understanding wetting phenomena due to its vast applications in biological fluids. It is impractical to review extremely large number of publications in the field of kinetics of complex biological fluids and cosmetic solutions on diverse surfaces. Therefore, biological and cosmetic applications of wetting and spreading dynamics are considered in the following areas: (i) Spreading of Newtonian liquids in the case of non-porous and porous substrates...
August 18, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913763/a-patient-specific-three-dimensional-hemodynamic-model-of-the-circle-of-willis
#14
Hamed Rezaie, Ali Ashrafizadeh, Afsaneh Mojra
Circle of Willis (CoW) is one of the most important cerebral arteries in the human body and various attempts have been made to study the hemodynamic of blood flow in this vital part of the brain. In the present study, blood flow in a patient specific CoW is numerically modeled to predict disease-prone regions of the CoW. Medical images and computer aided design software are used to construct a realistic three-dimensional model of the CoW for this particular case. The arteries are considered as elastic conduits and the interactions between arterial walls and the blood flow are taken into account...
September 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745766/ac-electric-field-controlled-non-newtonian-filament-thinning-and-droplet-formation-on-the-microscale
#15
Y Huang, Y L Wang, T N Wong
Monodispersity and fast generation are innate advantages of microfluidic droplets. Other than the normally adopted simple Newtonian fluids such as a water/oil emulsion system, fluids with complex rheology, namely, non-Newtonian fluids, which are being widely adopted in industries and bioengineering, have gained increasing research interest on the microscale. However, challenges occur in controlling the dynamic behavior due to their complex properties. In this sense, the AC electric field with merits of fast response and easiness in fulfilling "Lab on a chip" has attracted our attention...
July 26, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716304/three-dimensional-computational-model-of-a-blood-oxygenator-reconstructed-from-micro-ct-scans
#16
C D'Onofrio, R van Loon, S Rolland, R Johnston, L North, S Brown, R Phillips, J Sienz
Cardiopulmonary bypass procedures are one of the most common operations and blood oxygenators are the centre piece for the heart-lung machines. Blood oxygenators have been tested as entire devices but intricate details on the flow field inside the oxygenators remain unknown. In this study, a novel method is presented to analyse the flow field inside oxygenators based on micro Computed Tomography (μCT) scans. Two Hollow Fibre Membrane (HFM) oxygenator prototypes were scanned and three-dimensional full scale models that capture the device-specific fibre distributions are set up for computational fluid dynamics analysis...
September 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600487/fluid-viscoelasticity-promotes-collective-swimming-of-sperm
#17
Chih-Kuan Tung, Chungwei Lin, Benedict Harvey, Alyssa G Fiore, Florencia Ardon, Mingming Wu, Susan S Suarez
From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm in dynamic clusters, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. Sperm oriented in the same direction within each cluster, and cluster size and cell-cell alignment strength increased with viscoelasticity of the fluid. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian (nonelastic) fluids of low and high viscosity...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566887/wall-shear-stress-in-portal-vein-of-cirrhotic-patients-with-portal-hypertension
#18
Wei Wei, Yan-Song Pu, Xin-Kai Wang, An Jiang, Rui Zhou, Yu Li, Qiu-Juan Zhang, Ya-Juan Wei, Bin Chen, Zong-Fang Li
AIM: To investigate wall shear stress (WSS) magnitude and distribution in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension using computational fluid dynamics. METHODS: Idealized portal vein (PV) system models were reconstructed with different angles of the PV-splenic vein (SV) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV)-SV. Patient-specific models were created according to enhanced computed tomography images. WSS was simulated by using a finite-element analyzer, regarding the blood as a Newtonian fluid and the vessel as a rigid wall...
May 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512313/a-rapid-capillary-pressure-driven-micro-channel-to-demonstrate-newtonian-fluid-behavior-of-zebrafish-blood-at-high-shear-rates
#19
Juhyun Lee, Tzu-Chieh Chou, Dongyang Kang, Hanul Kang, Junjie Chen, Kyung In Baek, Wei Wang, Yichen Ding, Dino Di Carlo, Yu-Chong Tai, Tzung K Hsiai
Blood viscosity provides the rheological basis to elucidate shear stress underlying developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology. Zebrafish is a high throughput model for developmental biology, forward-genetics, and drug discovery. The micro-scale posed an experimental challenge to measure blood viscosity. To address this challenge, a microfluidic viscometer driven by surface tension was developed to reduce the sample volume required (3μL) for rapid (<2 min) and continuous viscosity measurement. By fitting the power-law fluid model to the travel distance of blood through the micro-channel as a function of time and channel configuration, the experimentally acquired blood viscosity was compared with a vacuum-driven capillary viscometer at high shear rates (>500 s(-1)), at which the power law exponent (n) of zebrafish blood was nearly 1 behaving as a Newtonian fluid...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445861/the-application-of-silicon-sol-gel-technology-to-forensic-blood-substitute-development-investigation-of-the-spreading-dynamics-onto-a-paper-surface
#20
Theresa Stotesbury, Mike Illes, Paul Wilson, Andrew J Vreugdenhil
This work investigates the spreading dynamics of three candidate sol-gel solutions, of ranging viscosities, surface tensions and densities, and compares them with water and two commercial blood substitute products. Droplets were created with different sizes (10 to75μL) and impact velocities (1.4 to 6.0m/s) to strike 176gsm cardstock. Over 2200 droplets were created using the six different fluids and their final dried stain diameter was measured. Droplet spread was plotted using the Scheller and Bousfield correlation and uses effective viscosity as a parameter for non-Newtonian fluids...
April 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
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