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Newtonian fluid blood

Wei-Tao Wu, Andrea Blue Martin, Alberto Gandini, Nadine Aubry, Mehrdad Massoudi, James F Antaki
This study is motivated by the development of a blood cell filtration device for removal of malaria-infected, parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs). The blood was modeled as a multi-component fluid using the computational fluid dynamics discrete element method (CFD-DEM), wherein plasma was treated as a Newtonian fluid and the red blood cells (RBCs) were modeled as soft-sphere solid particles which move under the influence of drag, collisions with other RBCs, and a magnetic force. The CFD-DEM model was first validated by a comparison with experimental data from Han et al...
2016: Microfluidics and Nanofluidics
L L Xiao, Y Liu, S Chen, B M Fu
Adhesion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to the microvessel wall largely depends on the blood hydrodynamic conditions, one of which is the blood viscosity. Since blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, whose viscosity increases with hematocrit, in the microvessels at low shear rate. In this study, the effects of hematocrit, vessel size, flow rate and red blood cell (RBC) aggregation on adhesion of a CTC in the microvessels were numerically investigated using dissipative particle dynamics. The membrane of cells was represented by a spring-based network connected by elastic springs to characterize its deformation...
October 13, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Roman Štukelj, Karin Schara, Apolonija Bedina-Zavec, Vid Šuštar, Manca Pajnič, Ljubiša Pađen, Judita Lea Krek, Veronika Kralj-Iglič, Anita Mrvar-Brečko, Rado Janša
During harvesting of nanovesicles (NVs) from blood, blood cells and other particles in blood are exposed to mechanical forces which may cause activation of platelets, changes of membrane properties, cell deformation and shedding of membrane fragments. We report on the effect of shear forces imposed upon blood samples during the harvesting process, on the concentration of membrane nanovesicles in isolates from blood. Mathematical models of blood flow through the needle during sampling with vacutubes and with free flow were constructed, starting from the Navier-Stokes formalism...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Chubin Ou, Wei Huang, Matthew Ming-Fai Yuen, Yi Qian
Hemodynamics has been recognized as an important factor in the development, growth, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms, and investigated by computational fluid dynamics techniques using a single phase approach. However, flow-dependent cell transport and interactions are usually ignored in single phase models, in which blood is usually treated as a single phase Newtonian fluid. For getting better insight into the underlying pathology of intracranial aneurysm, cell transport and interactions should be covered in hemodynamic studies...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
M O Khan, D A Steinman, K Valen-Sendstad
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) shows promise for informing treatment planning and rupture risk assessment for intracranial aneurysms. Much attention has been paid to the impact on predicted hemodynamics of various modelling assumptions and uncertainties, including the need for modelling the non-Newtonian, shear-thinning rheology of blood, with equivocal results. Our study clarifies this issue by contextualizing the impact of rheology model against the recently-demonstrated impact of CFD solution strategy on the prediction of aneurysm flow instabilities...
October 1, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Akbar Zaman, Nasir Ali, M Sajid, Tasawar Hayat
The pulsatile flow of blood in a catheterized blood vessel is analyzed. The flow of blood in vessel is modeled as the flow of two immiscible fluids. The fluid in the core region is characterized as a non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid satisfying the constitutive equation of an Oldroyd-B fluid. The fluid in the peripheral region is treated as a Newtonian fluid. The catheter inside the vessel is modeled as a rigid tube of very small radius. The resulting differential system for velocity in each region is computed numerically by finite-difference scheme and analytically by Laplace transform...
2016: PloS One
Bruno Guerciotti, Christian Vergara, Sonia Ippolito, Alfio Quarteroni, Carlo Antona, Roberto Scrofani
Coronary artery disease, caused by the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary vessel wall, is one of the leading causes of death in the world. For high-risk patients, coronary artery bypass graft is the preferred treatment. Despite overall excellent patency rates, bypasses may fail due to restenosis. In this context, the purpose of this work was to perform a parametric computational study of the fluid dynamics in patient-specific geometries with the aim of investigating a possible relationship between coronary stenosis degree and risk of graft failure...
August 19, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Takashi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Takao, Takamasa Suzuki, Tomoaki Suzuki, Shunsuke Masuda, Chihebeddine Dahmani, Mitsuyoshi Watanabe, Hiroya Mamori, Toshihiro Ishibashi, Hideki Yamamoto, Makoto Yamamoto, Yuichi Murayama
BACKGROUND: In most simulations of intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics, blood is assumed to be a Newtonian fluid. However, it is a non-Newtonian fluid, and its viscosity profile differs among individuals. Therefore, the common viscosity assumption may not be valid for all patients. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test the suitability of the common viscosity assumption. METHODS: Blood viscosity datasets were obtained from two healthy volunteers...
July 29, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Hiroyuki Tsukui, Manabu Shinke, Young Kwang Park, Kenji Yamazaki
Distal anastomosis technique affects graft patency and long-term outcomes in coronary artery bypass grafting, however, there is no standard for the appropriate length of distal anastomosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether longer distal anastomosis provides higher quality of distal anastomosis and better hemodynamic patterns. Off pump CABG training simulator, YOUCAN (EBM Corporation, Japan), was used for distal anastomosis model. Two lengths of distal anastomosis model (10 versus 4 mm) were prepared by end-to-side anastomosis technique...
August 2, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Alireza Sharifi, Mohammad Charjouei Moghadam
INTRODUCTION: Buerger's disease is an occlusive arterial disease that occurs mainly in medium and small vessels. This disease is associated with Tobacco usage. The existence of corkscrew collateral is one of the established characteristics of the Buerger's disease. METHODS: In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of blood flow within the corkscrew artery of the Buerger's disease is conducted. The geometry of the artery is constructed based on the actual corkscrew artery of a patient diagnosed with the Buerger's disease...
2016: BioImpacts: BI
M A El Kot, W Abbas
This study is concerned with the surgical technique for the injection of a catheter through arteries with overlapping stenosis in the presence of externally applied magnetic field and Hall currents influences. The nature of blood is analyzed mathematically by considering it as a micropolar fluid. The analysis is carried out for an artery with a mild stenosis. The governing equations with the corresponding boundary conditions solved numerically using Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference scheme. The numerical technique give excellent agreement for axial velocity of the fluid, the circumferential microrotation, the wall shear stress distribution and the contour plots of stream lines...
June 17, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Dhananjay Radhakrishnan Subramaniam, David J Gee
Particle suspensions are common to biological fluid flows; for example, flow of red- and white-blood cells, and platelets. In medical technology, current and proposed methods for drug delivery use membrane-bounded liquid capsules for transport via the microcirculation. In this paper, we consider a 3D linear elastic particle inserted into a Newtonian fluid and investigate the time-dependent deformation using a numerical simulation. Specifically, a boundary element technique is used to investigate the motion and deformation of initially spherical or spheroidal particles in bounded linear shear flow...
September 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Sophie Roman, Adlan Merlo, Paul Duru, Frédéric Risso, Sylvie Lorthois
Despite the development of microfluidics, experimental challenges are considerable for achieving a quantitative study of phase separation, i.e., the non-proportional distribution of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) and suspending fluid, in microfluidic bifurcations with channels smaller than 20 μm. Yet, a basic understanding of phase separation in such small vessels is needed for understanding the coupling between microvascular network architecture and dynamics at larger scale. Here, we present the experimental methodologies and measurement techniques developed for that purpose for RBC concentrations (tube hematocrits) ranging between 2% and 20%...
May 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Pooria Akbarzadeh
In this paper, magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries are numerically simulated using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid containing nanoparticles. In the modified nanofluids model, the viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of the solid-liquid mixture (nanofluids) which are commonly utilized as an effective value, are locally combined with the prevalent single-phase model. The modified governing equations are solved numerically using Newton's method and a block tridiagonal matrix solver...
May 12, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
E Jabir, S Anil Lal
The presence of a stenosis caused by the abnormal narrowing of the lumen in the artery tree can cause significant variations in flow parameters of blood. The original flow, which is believed to be laminar in most situations, may turn out to turbulent by the geometric perturbation created by the stenosis. Flow may evolve to fully turbulent or it may relaminarise back according to the intensity of the perturbation. This article reports the numerical simulation of flow through an eccentrically located asymmetric stenosis having elliptical cross section using computational fluid dynamics...
August 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Dipankar Biswas, David M Casey, Douglas C Crowder, David A Steinman, Yang H Yun, Francis Loth
Blood is a complex fluid that, among other things, has been established to behave as a shear thinning, non-Newtonian fluid when exposed to low shear rates (SR). Many hemodynamic investigations use a Newtonian fluid to represent blood when the flow field of study has relatively high SR (>200 s-1). Shear thinning fluids have been shown to exhibit differences in transition to turbulence (TT) compared to that of Newtonian fluids. Incorrect prediction of the transition point in a simulation could result in erroneous hemodynamic force predictions...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Marcello Iasiello, Kambiz Vafai, Assunta Andreozzi, Nicola Bianco
In this work, non-Newtonian effects on Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) transport across an artery are analyzed with a multi-layer model. Four rheological models (Carreau, Carreau-Yasuda, power-law and Newtonian) are used for the blood flow through the lumen. For the non-Newtonian cases, the arterial wall is modeled with a generalized momentum equation. Convection-diffusion equation is used for the LDL transport through the lumen, while Staverman-Kedem-Katchalsky, combined with porous media equations, are used for the LDL transport through the wall...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Ali Imanparast, Nasser Fatouraee, Farhad Sharif
Left ventricle (LV) fluid dynamics and the function of its valves have a crucial impact on clinical diagnosis, treatment and prosthesis design. In this paper, we simulated left ventricular flow using 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on geometrical and deformational information obtained from MRI. Time variant smoothed LV shapes were extracted from MR images. Corresponding deformation data was interpolated using a cubic-spline interpolation. To evaluate valve influence on LV flow, we compared two planar valve models: physiologically corrected gradually opening/closing model and a simple on/off model...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Mohammed G Al-Azawy, A Turan, A Revell
A detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study of transient, turbulent blood flow through a positive displacement left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is performed. Two common models for Non-Newtonian blood flow are compared to the Newtonian model to investigate their impact on predicted levels of shear rate and wall shear stress. Given that both parameters are directly relevant to the evaluation of risk from thrombus and haemolysis, there is a need to assess the sensitivity to modelling non-Newtonian flow effects within a pulsatile turbulent flow, in order to identify levels of uncertainly in CFD...
February 26, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Kenny W Q Low, Raoul van Loon, Samuel A Rolland, Johann Sienz
This paper reviews and further develops pore-scale computational flow modeling techniques used for creeping flow through orthotropic fiber bundles used in blood oxygenators. Porous model significantly reduces geometrical complexity by taking a homogenization approach to model the fiber bundles. This significantly simplifies meshing and can avoid large time-consuming simulations. Analytical relationships between permeability and porosity exist for Newtonian flow through regular arrangements of fibers and are commonly used in macroscale porous models by introducing a Darcy viscous term in the flow momentum equations...
May 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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