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R G Holt, D Luo, N Gruver, D B Khismatullin
BACKGROUND: Thromboelastography is widely used as a tool to assess the coagulation status of surgical patients. It allows observation of changes in material properties of whole blood, beginning with early stages of clot formation and ending with clot lysis. However, the contact activation of the coagulation cascade at surfaces of thromboelastographic systems leads to inherent variability and unreliability in predicting bleeding or thrombosis risks. OBJECTIVES: To develop acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry as a noncontact method for perioperative assessment of blood coagulation...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Theresa Stotesbury, Mike Illes, Paul Wilson, Andrew J Vreugdenhil
This work investigates the spreading dynamics of three candidate sol-gel solutions, of ranging viscosities, surface tensions and densities, and compares them with water and two commercial blood substitute products. Droplets were created with different sizes (10 to75μL) and impact velocities (1.4 to 6.0m/s) to strike 176gsm cardstock. Over 2200 droplets were created using the six different fluids and their final dried stain diameter was measured. Droplet spread was plotted using the Scheller and Bousfield correlation and uses effective viscosity as a parameter for non-Newtonian fluids...
April 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
A V Malm, T A Waigh
The flow instabilities of solutions of high molecular weight DNA in the entangled semi-dilute concentration regime were investigated using optical coherence tomography velocimetry, a technique that provides high spatial (probe volumes of 3.4 pL) and temporal resolution (sub μs) information on the flow behaviour of complex fluids in a rheometer. The velocity profiles of the opaque DNA solutions (high and low salt) were measured as a function of the distance across the gap of a parallel plate rheometer, and their evolution over time was measured...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
G S Bruno Lebon, I Tzanakis, G Djambazov, K Pericleous, D G Eskin
To address difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal with ultrasound, a fundamental study of acoustic cavitation in liquid aluminium, expressed in an experimentally validated numerical model, is presented in this paper. To improve the understanding of the cavitation process, a non-linear acoustic model is validated against reference water pressure measurements from acoustic waves produced by an immersed horn. A high-order method is used to discretize the wave equation in both space and time. These discretized equations are coupled to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation using two different time scales to couple the bubble and flow scales, resulting in a stable, fast, and reasonably accurate method for the prediction of acoustic pressures in cavitating liquids...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Danny Thonig, Olle Eriksson, Manuel Pereiro
An essential property of magnetic devices is the relaxation rate in magnetic switching which strongly depends on the energy dissipation. This is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the well known damping parameter, which has been shown to be reproduced from quantum mechanical calculations. Recently the importance of inertia phenomena have been discussed for magnetisation dynamics. This magnetic counterpart to the well-known inertia of Newtonian mechanics, represents a research field that so far has received only limited attention...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sharmin Sultana, Jason Blatt, Benjamin Gilles, Tanweer Rashid, Michel Audette
This paper presents a segmentation technique to identify the medial axis and the boundary of cranial nerves. We utilize a 3D deformable 1-simplex discrete contour model to ex-tract the medial axis of each cranial nerve. This contour model represents a collection of 2-connected vertices linked by edges, where vertex position is determined by a Newtonian expression for vertex kinematics featuring internal and external forces, the latter of which include attractive forces towards the nerve medial axis. We exploit multiscale vesselness filtering and minimal path techniques in the medial axis extraction method, which also com-putes a radius estimate along the path...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Andrew M Reynolds, Michael Sinhuber, Nicholas T Ouellette
Midge swarms are a canonical example of collective animal behaviour where local interactions do not clearly play a major role and yet the animals display group-level cohesion. The midges appear somewhat paradoxically to be tightly bound to the swarm whilst at the same time weakly coupled inside it. The microscopic origins of this behaviour have remained elusive. Models based on Newtonian gravity do, however, agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. They are biologically plausible since gravitational interactions have similitude with long-range acoustic and visual interactions, and they correctly predict that individual attraction to the swarm centre increases linearly with distance from the swarm centre...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Y Ryabenkova, A Pinnock, P A Quadros, R L Goodchild, G Möbus, A Crawford, P V Hatton, C A Miller
Biomaterials composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) are currently used for the treatment of bone defects resulting from trauma or surgery. However, hydroxyapatite supplied in the form of a paste is considered a very convenient medical device compared to the materials where HA powder and liquid need to be mixed immediately prior to the bone treatment during surgery. In this study we have tested a series of hydroxyapatite (HA) pastes with varying microstructure and different rheological behaviour to evaluate their injectability and biocompatibility...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Juan D Bernal, Jesús M Seoane, Miguel A F Sanjuán
The phenomenon of chaotic scattering is very relevant in different fields of science and engineering. It has been mainly studied in the context of Newtonian mechanics, where the velocities of the particles are low in comparison with the speed of light. Here, we analyze global properties such as the escape time distribution and the decay law of the Hénon-Heiles system in the context of special relativity. Our results show that the average escape time decreases with increasing values of the relativistic factor β...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
A M Xenakis, S J Lind, P K Stansby, B D Rogers
Tsunamis caused by landslides may result in significant destruction of the surroundings with both societal and industrial impact. The 1958 Lituya Bay landslide and tsunami is a recent and well-documented terrestrial landslide generating a tsunami with a run-up of 524 m. Although recent computational techniques have shown good performance in the estimation of the run-up height, they fail to capture all the physical processes, in particular, the landslide-entry profile and interaction with the water. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a versatile numerical technique for describing free-surface and multi-phase flows, particularly those that exhibit highly nonlinear deformation in landslide-generated tsunamis...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Xinyu Lu, Chao Liu, Guoqing Hu, Xiangchun Xuan
Microfluidic devices have been widely used since 1990s for diverse manipulations of particles (a general term of beads, cells, vesicles, drops, etc.) in a variety of applications. Compared to the active manipulation via an externally imposed force field, the passive manipulation of particles exploits the flow-induced intrinsic lift and/or drag to control particle motion with several advantages. Along this direction, inertial microfluidics has received tremendous interest in the past decade due to its capability to handle a large volume of samples at a high throughput...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Shujing Sun, Liuying Ai, Haiyang Zhang, Caihong Weng, Chunfen Lai, Li Liu
This study aims to enhance the accumulation of pleuromutilin by Pleurotus mutilus and to analyze the molecular structure of pleuromutilin. The results showed that a novel three-stage DO control strategy (60% DO, 1-3d; 45% DO, 4-6d; 30% DO, 7-9d) was very effective for improving the pleuromutilin accumulation and the highest production reached 12g/L, a 4-fold increase over a constant DO strategy. Furthermore, the flow behavior of fermentation broth appeared Newtonian with a maximum μap of 3.9×10(-3)Pa·s. Meanwhile the molecular formula (C22H34O5), molecular weight (378...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ji Eun Choi, Jun Ho Lee
This study was conducted to determine the rheological properties of gochujang and chogochujang at different temperatures (25, 35, and 45°C). Rheological properties of the samples were determined using a rotational rheometer at a shear range of 1 to 40 s(-1). Gochujang and chogochujang were found to be non-Newtonian fluids according to the Herschel-Bulkley model. Yield stress and consistency coefficient of gochujang at different temperatures were higher than those of chogochujang, whereas the opposite was observed for flow behavior index...
March 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Chong-Yeon Kim, Byoungseung Yoo
Rheological properties of waxy barley flour (WBF) dispersions mixed with various gums (carboxyl methyl celluleose, guar gum, gum arabic, konjac gum, locust bean gum, tara gum, and xanthan gum) at different gum concentrations were examined in steady and dynamic shear. WBF-gum mixture samples showed a clear trend of shear-thinning behavior and had a non-Newtonian nature with yield stress. Rheological tests indicated that the flow and dynamic rheological parameter (apparent viscosity, consistency index, yield stress, storage modulus, and loss modulus) values of WBF dispersions mixed with gums, except for gum arabic, were significantly higher than those of WBF with no gum, and also increased with an increase in gum concentration...
March 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Silvia Varagnolo, Daniele Filippi, Giampaolo Mistura, Matteo Pierno, Mauro Sbragaglia
The sliding of non-Newtonian drops down planar surfaces results in a complex, entangled balance between interfacial forces and non-linear viscous dissipation, which has been scarcely inspected. In particular, a detailed understanding of the role played by the polymer flexibility and the resulting elasticity of the polymer solution is still lacking. To this aim, we have considered polyacrylamide (PAA) solutions of different molecular weights, suspended either in water or in glycerol/water mixtures. In contrast to drops of stiff polymers, drops of flexible polymers exhibit a remarkable elongation in steady sliding...
April 10, 2017: Soft Matter
Marie Basire, Félix Mouhat, Guillaume Fraux, Amélie Bordage, Jean-Louis Hazemann, Marion Louvel, Riccardo Spezia, Sara Bonella, Rodolphe Vuilleumier
Vibrational spectroscopy is a fundamental tool to investigate local atomic arrangements and the effect of the environment, provided that the spectral features can be correctly assigned. This can be challenging in experiments and simulations when double peaks are present because they can have different origins. Fermi dyads are a common class of such doublets, stemming from the resonance of the fundamental excitation of a mode with the overtone of another. We present a new, efficient approach to unambiguously characterize Fermi resonances in density functional theory (DFT) based simulations of condensed phase systems...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Sanjay Kumar Pandey, Gireesh Ranjan, Shailendra Kumar Tiwari, Kushagra Pandey
The investigation is an attempt to explore the cause that generates high pressure in the distal oesophagus compared to that in the proximal part. We observe through computer simulation that peristaltic waves of even slightly but progressively increasing amplitude can generate high pressure near the distal end. This is illustrated through exponential growth in the wave amplitude, which represents the dependence of the rate of growth of amplitude on its current magnitude. This may be physically interpreted that the generation of high pressure in the lower oesophagus ensures complete bolus delivery to the stomach through the cardiac sphincter...
April 5, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Fan Ye, Ming Miao, Bo Jiang, Bruce R Hamaker, Zhengyu Jin, Tao Zhang
The molecular structure, rheological properties, microstructure and physical stability of oil-in-water emulsions using octenyl succinic-sugary maize soluble starch (OS-SMSS) were investigated and compared with two commercial OS-starches (HI-CAP 100 and Purity Gum 2000). The degree of substitution (DS), weight-average molecular weight (Mw) and z-root mean square radius of gyration (Rz) of OS-SMSS, HI-CAP 100 and Purity Gum 2000 were 0.0050, 223.4×10(5)g/mol and 38.8nm, 0.0037, 9.6×10(5)g/mol and 29.3nm, and 0...
June 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
C Trejo-Soto, E Costa-Miracle, I Rodriguez-Villarreal, J Cid, M Castro, T Alarcon, A Hernandez-Machado
We introduce a new framework to study the non-Newtonian behaviour of fluids at the microscale based on the analysis of front advancement. We apply this methodology to study the non-linear rheology of blood in microchannels. We carry out experiments in which the non-linear viscosity of blood samples is quantified at different haematocrits and ages. Under these conditions, blood exhibits a power-law dependence on the shear rate. In order to analyse our experimental data, we put forward a scaling theory which allows us to define an adhesion scaling number...
April 19, 2017: Soft Matter
Fan Ye, Ming Miao, Bo Jiang, Osvaldo H Campanella, Zhengyu Jin, Tao Zhang
The aim of present study was to study the medium-chain triacylglycerol-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsion stabilized using different modified starch-based nanoparticles (octenylsuccinylation treated soluble starch nanoparticle, OSA-SSNP, and insoluble starch nanoparticle, ISNP). The major factors for affecting the system stability, rheological behaviour and microstructure of the emulsions were also investigated. The parameters of the O/W emulsions stabilized by OSA-SSNP or ISNP were selected as follows: 3.0% of starch nanoparticles concentration, 50% of MCT fraction and 7...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
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