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Sangeetha Mathavan, Momir Mikov, Svetlana Golocorbin-Kon, Hani Al-Salami
CONTEXT: The bile acid taurocholic acid (TCA) is endogenously produced, and has shown formulation-stabilising effects when incorporated into microcapsules containing potential antidiabetic drugs. This study aimed to develop and characterise TCA-microcapsules, and test their antidiabetic effects, in an animal model of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Using the polymer sodium alginate (SA), SA-microcapsules (control) and TCA-microcapsules (test) were prepared, and assessed for morphology, surface composition, chemical and thermal stability, swelling, buoyancy, mechanical, release and rheological properties...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
I Lesov, S Tcholakova, M Kovadjieva, T Saison, M Lamblet, N Denkov
Foaming of particulate suspensions, followed by foam drying, is developed as an efficient method for production of highly porous materials with various applications. A key factor for success is the appropriate choice of surfactants which both modify the particle surface and stabilize the foam. Here we compare the efficiency of this method for silica suspensions containing two surfactants which lead to very different types of foam stabilization. Cationic TTAB leads to particle-stabilized foams (Pickering stabilization) whereas zwitterionic CAPB - to surfactant-stabilized foams...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Antonio Raudino, Domenica Raciti, Mario Corti
We investigate, both theoretically and by a differential interferometric technique, the behavior of large-wavelength capillary waves (of order of 10^-4 m) selectively excited at the surface of drops and bubbles with typical eigenfrequencies of order of 10^2 Hz. The resonance peaks of gas bubbles or hydrocarbon drops in water (radius less than 1 mm) highlight anomalously small dissipation in the region of ultra-low (sub-nanometric) oscillation amplitudes, reaching a plateau at higher amplitudes. This is in sharp contrast to the usual oscillating systems, where an anomalous behavior holds at large amplitudes alone...
May 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Iulia Salaoru, Zuoxin Zhou, Peter Morris, Gregory J Gibbons
Inkjet printing is a modern method for polymer processing, and in this work, we demonstrate that this technology is capable of producing polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) multilayer structures. A polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution was formulated. The intrinsic properties of the ink, such as surface tension, viscosity, pH, and time stability, were investigated. The PVOH-based ink was a neutral solution (pH 6.7) with a surface tension of 39.3 mN/m and a viscosity of 7.5 cP. The ink displayed pseudoplastic (non-Newtonian shear thinning) behavior at low shear rates, and overall, it demonstrated good time stability...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Juhyun Lee, Tzu-Chieh Chou, Dongyang Kang, Hanul Kang, Junjie Chen, Kyung In Baek, Wei Wang, Yichen Ding, Dino Di Carlo, Yu-Chong Tai, Tzung K Hsiai
Blood viscosity provides the rheological basis to elucidate shear stress underlying developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology. Zebrafish is a high throughput model for developmental biology, forward-genetics, and drug discovery. The micro-scale posed an experimental challenge to measure blood viscosity. To address this challenge, a microfluidic viscometer driven by surface tension was developed to reduce the sample volume required (3μL) for rapid (<2 min) and continuous viscosity measurement. By fitting the power-law fluid model to the travel distance of blood through the micro-channel as a function of time and channel configuration, the experimentally acquired blood viscosity was compared with a vacuum-driven capillary viscometer at high shear rates (>500 s(-1)), at which the power law exponent (n) of zebrafish blood was nearly 1 behaving as a Newtonian fluid...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Akaki Jamburidze, Marco De Corato, Axel Huerre, Angelo Pommella, Valeria Garbin
Ultrasound-driven microbubble dynamics are central to biomedical applications, from diagnostic imaging to drug delivery and therapy. In therapeutic applications, the bubbles are typically embedded in tissue, and their dynamics are strongly affected by the viscoelastic properties of the soft solid medium. While the behaviour of bubbles in Newtonian fluids is well characterised, a fundamental understanding of the effect on ultrasound-driven bubble dynamics of a soft viscoelastic medium is still being developed...
May 15, 2017: Soft Matter
Masashi Saitoh, Yukiyasu Kashiwagi, Masaya Chigane
The recent growing interest in the applications of gold nanowires (AuNWs) as flexible materials has raised the fundamental issue of how their mechanical properties are related to their morphology. In this work, to address this issue, the systematic synthesis of AuNWs, their structural analysis, and their rheological investigation were demonstrated. The structural analysis of AuNWs was performed based on TEM observations and light-scattering experiments. From these observations, it was found that the length of AuNWs varies from nanometer to micrometer depending on the reaction time while a constant width of 1...
May 12, 2017: Soft Matter
Wenhang Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Anguo Teng, Anjun Liu
Given a variety of distinguished aspect ratio-related characteristics of nanofiber cellulose (NFC), the impact of NFC on gelatin hydrogel performance involving strength, rheology, microstructure was investigated, focusing on concentration percolation mechanism for it. The inner topography displayed a compact three-dimensional network structure in the NFC-added gelatin gel, however, an NFC amount of 7.5gkg(-1) caused more inhomogeneous aggregation. Texture profile analysis showed that the addition of NFC increased the hardness but reduced the elasticity of gelatin gel at 10°C, depending on NFC concentration...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Aaron D Ludlow, Alejandro Benítez-Llambay, Matthieu Schaller, Tom Theuns, Carlos S Frenk, Richard Bower, Joop Schaye, Robert A Crain, Julio F Navarro, Azadeh Fattahi, Kyle A Oman
We analyze the total and baryonic acceleration profiles of a set of well-resolved galaxies identified in the eagle suite of hydrodynamic simulations. Our runs start from the same initial conditions but adopt different prescriptions for unresolved stellar and active galactic nuclei feedback, resulting in diverse populations of galaxies by the present day. Some of them reproduce observed galaxy scaling relations, while others do not. However, regardless of the feedback implementation, all of our galaxies follow closely a simple relationship between the total and baryonic acceleration profiles, consistent with recent observations of rotationally supported galaxies...
April 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Muhammad Qazi Waqas, Johan Wiklund, Annika Altskär, Olle Ekberg, Mats Stading
People who suffer from swallowing disorders, commonly referred to as dysphagia, are often restricted to a texture-modified diet. In such a diet, the texture of the fluid is modified mainly by the addition of gum or starch-based thickeners. For optimal modification of the texture, tunable rheological parameters are shear viscosity, yield stress, and elasticity. In this work, the flow properties of commercial thickeners obtained from major commercial suppliers were measured both in shear and extensional flow using a laboratory viscometer and a newly developed tube viscometry technique, termed Pulsed Ultrasound Velocimetry plus Pressure Drop (PUV + PD)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
R Lapasin, M Abrami, M Grassi, U Šebenik
Both Laponite and scleroglucan can find several applications in various fields (from industrial to biomedical one) in virtue of their peculiar features and rheological properties displayed in aqueous phases. Structural states of Laponite dispersions strongly depend on concentration and ionic strength. When attractive and repulsive interparticle interactions are so effective that they lead to arrested states (attractive gel or repulsive glass), the rheological behavior of the dispersion undergoes a sharp transition, from quasi-Newtonian to markedly shear thinning and viscoelastic...
July 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
R G Holt, D Luo, N Gruver, D B Khismatullin
BACKGROUND: Thromboelastography is widely used as a tool to assess the coagulation status of surgical patients. It allows observation of changes in material properties of whole blood, beginning with early stages of clot formation and ending with clot lysis. However, the contact activation of the coagulation cascade at surfaces of thromboelastographic systems leads to inherent variability and unreliability in predicting bleeding or thrombosis risks. OBJECTIVES: To develop acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry as a noncontact method for perioperative assessment of blood coagulation...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Bo Yang, Juhao Wu, Tor O Raubenheimer, Yiping Feng
Newtonian fluid dynamics simulations were performed using the Navier-Stokes-Fourier formulations to elucidate the short time-scale (µs and longer) evolution of the density and temperature distributions in an argon-gas-filled attenuator for an X-ray free-electron laser under high-repetition-rate operation. Both hydrodynamic motions of the gas molecules and thermal conductions were included in a finite-volume calculation. It was found that the hydrodynamic wave motions play the primary role in creating a density depression (also known as a filament) by advectively transporting gas particles away from the X-ray laser-gas interaction region, where large pressure and temperature gradients have been built upon the initial energy deposition via X-ray photoelectric absorption and subsequent thermalization...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Chandrasekaran Muthukumaran, Loganathan Banupriya, Somasundharam Harinee, Sivagurunathan Sivaranjani, Govindasamy Sharmila, Vinayagam Rajasekar, Narasimhan Manoj Kumar
Pectin derived from plant waste sources is currently focused as an economical and eco-friendly approach. Optimization of pectin extraction from muskmelon peel by response surface methodology (RSM) was investigated in this study. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to identify the optimal level of the extraction variables such as time, pH and temperature. A second-order model equation for pectin extraction was obtained from multiple regression analysis of experimental data with the correlation coefficient (R (2)) value of 0...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
Christopher Ness, Zhongyang Xing, Erika Eiser
The viscosity of a dense suspension has contributions from hydrodynamics and particle interactions, both of which depend upon the flow-induced arrangement of particles into fragile structures. Here, we study the response of nearly hard sphere suspensions to oscillatory shear using simulations and experiments in the athermal, non-inertial limit. Three distinct regimes are observed as a function of the strain amplitude γ0. For γ0 < 10(-1), initially non-contacting particles remain separated and the suspension behaves similarly to a Newtonian fluid, with the shear stress proportional to the strain rate, and the normal stresses close to zero...
April 28, 2017: Soft Matter
Theresa Stotesbury, Mike Illes, Paul Wilson, Andrew J Vreugdenhil
This work investigates the spreading dynamics of three candidate sol-gel solutions, of ranging viscosities, surface tensions and densities, and compares them with water and two commercial blood substitute products. Droplets were created with different sizes (10 to75μL) and impact velocities (1.4 to 6.0m/s) to strike 176gsm cardstock. Over 2200 droplets were created using the six different fluids and their final dried stain diameter was measured. Droplet spread was plotted using the Scheller and Bousfield correlation and uses effective viscosity as a parameter for non-Newtonian fluids...
April 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
A V Malm, T A Waigh
The flow instabilities of solutions of high molecular weight DNA in the entangled semi-dilute concentration regime were investigated using optical coherence tomography velocimetry, a technique that provides high spatial (probe volumes of 3.4 pL) and temporal resolution (sub μs) information on the flow behaviour of complex fluids in a rheometer. The velocity profiles of the opaque DNA solutions (high and low salt) were measured as a function of the distance across the gap of a parallel plate rheometer, and their evolution over time was measured...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
G S Bruno Lebon, I Tzanakis, G Djambazov, K Pericleous, D G Eskin
To address difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal with ultrasound, a fundamental study of acoustic cavitation in liquid aluminium, expressed in an experimentally validated numerical model, is presented in this paper. To improve the understanding of the cavitation process, a non-linear acoustic model is validated against reference water pressure measurements from acoustic waves produced by an immersed horn. A high-order method is used to discretize the wave equation in both space and time. These discretized equations are coupled to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation using two different time scales to couple the bubble and flow scales, resulting in a stable, fast, and reasonably accurate method for the prediction of acoustic pressures in cavitating liquids...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Danny Thonig, Olle Eriksson, Manuel Pereiro
An essential property of magnetic devices is the relaxation rate in magnetic switching which strongly depends on the energy dissipation. This is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the well known damping parameter, which has been shown to be reproduced from quantum mechanical calculations. Recently the importance of inertia phenomena have been discussed for magnetisation dynamics. This magnetic counterpart to the well-known inertia of Newtonian mechanics, represents a research field that so far has received only limited attention...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sharmin Sultana, Jason Blatt, Benjamin Gilles, Tanweer Rashid, Michel Audette
This paper presents a segmentation technique to identify the medial axis and the boundary of cranial nerves. We utilize a 3D deformable 1-simplex discrete contour model to ex-tract the medial axis of each cranial nerve. This contour model represents a collection of 2-connected vertices linked by edges, where vertex position is determined by a Newtonian expression for vertex kinematics featuring internal and external forces, the latter of which include attractive forces towards the nerve medial axis. We exploit multiscale vesselness filtering and minimal path techniques in the medial axis extraction method, which also com-putes a radius estimate along the path...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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