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Igor I Smolyaninov, Vera N Smolyaninova
We consider the recently suggested model of a multiverse based on a ferrofluid. When the ferrofluid is subjected to a modest external magnetic field, the nanoparticles inside the ferrofluid form small hyperbolic metamaterial domains, which from the electromagnetic standpoint behave as individual "Minkowski universes" exhibiting different "laws of physics", such as different strength of effective gravity, different versions of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) and different radiation lifetimes. When the ferrofluid "multiverse" is populated with atomic or molecular species, and these species are excited using an external laser source, the radiation lifetimes of atoms and molecules in these "universes" depend strongly on the individual physical properties of each "universe" via the Purcell effect...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fei Tian, Wei Zhang, Lili Cai, Shanshan Li, Guoqing Hu, Yulong Cong, Chao Liu, Tiejun Li, Jiashu Sun
The microfluidic passive control of microparticles largely relies on the hydrodynamic effects of the carrier media such as Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic fluids. Yet the viscoelastic/Newtonian interfacial effect has been scarcely investigated, especially for high-resolution particle separation. Here we report a microfluidic co-flow of Newtonian (water or PBS) and viscoelastic fluids (PEO) for the size-dependent separation of microparticles. The co-flow condition generates a stable viscoelastic/Newtonian interface, giving rise to the wall-directed elastic lift forces that compete with the center-directed lift forces, and efficiently hinders the migration of microparticles from the Newtonian to the viscoelastic fluid in a size-dependent manner...
August 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Kyle S Okada, Wan-Yuan Kuo, Youngsoo Lee
The effects of varying formulation and processing parameters on rheological properties in a model lipid/protein-based emulsion gel were studied. Heat-set model lipoproteic emulsion gels were prepared with varying levels of protein, lipid, and NaCl contents and high pressure homogenization treatments. Small deformation oscillatory rheometry, creep compliance, and pore size analysis experiments were used to characterize intrinsic structural properties, matrix interactions, and microstructure. Creep compliance behavior of the gel system was successfully modeled by a four-component Burgers model...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
Jesper Malling Schmidt, Lotte Bach Larsen, Marianne Hammershøj
The objective was to prepare sheared gels of potato protein concentrate and evaluate the effect of pH (3, ∼4, ∼7), ionic strength (15 or 200 mM) and protein drying conditions (spray or freeze drying) on the final appearance and rheological characteristics. Heat-set gels 3 % (w/w) at a high ionic strength (200 mM) resulted in an inhomogeneous appearance with presence of clots, while low ionic strength (15 mM) gave homogenous structures. Gels prepared at pH 3 became transparent while preparation above pH 3...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Mario J Pinheiro
Classical mechanics, as commonly taught in engineering and science, are confined to the conventional Newtonian theory. But classical mechanics has not really changed in substance since Newton formulation, describing simultaneous rotation and translation of objects with somewhat complicate drawbacks, risking interpretation of forces in non-inertial frames. In this work we introduce a new variational principle for out-of-equilibrium, rotating systems, obtaining a set of two first order differential equations that introduces a thermodynamic-mechanistic time into Newton's dynamical equation, and revealing the same formal symplectic structure shared by classical mechanics, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics...
July 2017: Heliyon
Santanu Sinha, Andrew T Bender, Matthew Danczyk, Kayla Keepseagle, Cody A Prather, Joshua M Bray, Linn W Thrane, Joseph D Seymour, Sarah L Codd, Alex Hansen
We present an experimental and numerical study of immiscible two-phase flow of Newtonian fluids in three-dimensional (3D) porous media to find the relationship between the volumetric flow rate (Q) and the total pressure difference ([Formula: see text]) in the steady state. We show that in the regime where capillary forces compete with the viscous forces, the distribution of capillary barriers at the interfaces effectively creates a yield threshold ([Formula: see text]), making the fluids reminiscent of a Bingham viscoplastic fluid in the porous medium...
2017: Transport in Porous Media
Concepción Paz, Eduardo Suárez, Oscar Parga, Jesús Vence
In this study, we have reproduced the cough clearance process with an Eulerian wall film model. The simulated domain is based on realistic geometry from the literature, which has been improved by adding the glottis and epiglottis. The vocal fold movement has been included due to the dynamic mesh method, considering different abduction and adduction angles and velocities. The proposed methodology captures the deformation of the flexible tissue, considers non-Newtonian properties for the mucus, and enables us to reproduce a single cough or a cough epoch...
August 7, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Paul M Chesler, Abraham Loeb
In the weak-field limit of general relativity, gravitational waves obey linear equations and propagate at the speed of light. These properties of general relativity are supported by the observation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as well as by LIGO's recent detection of gravitation waves. We argue that two existing relativistic generalizations of modified Newtonian dynamics, namely, the generalized Einstein-aether theory and bimetric modified Newtonian dynamics, display fatal inconsistencies with these observations...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Armand Barbot, Takeaki Araki
We numerically studied the behaviour of colloidal suspensions in one-phase binary liquid mixtures under shear flows. Far from the phase-separation point, the colloidal particles are well dispersed and the suspension exhibits a Newtonian viscosity. When the mixture is close to the coexistence curve, the colloidal particles aggregate by attractive interactions due to the concentration heterogeneity caused by surface wetting, and the viscosity of the suspension increases. Near the phase-separation point, the viscosity increases when the fraction of species favoured by the surface of a colloid particle is small...
August 3, 2017: Soft Matter
Yabin Wu, Martin J Stoddart, Karin Wuertz-Kozak, Sibylle Grad, Mauro Alini, Stephen J Ferguson
Articular cartilage plays an essential role in joint lubrication and impact absorption. Through this, the mechanical signals are coupled to the tissue's physiological response. Healthy synovial fluid has been shown to reduce and homogenize the shear stress acting on the cartilage surfaces due to its unique shear-thinning viscosity. As cartilage tissues are sensitive to mechanical changes in articulation, it was hypothesized that replacing the traditional culture medium with a healthy non-Newtonian lubricant could enhance tissue development in a cartilage engineering model, where joint-kinematic-mimicking mechanical loading is applied...
August 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Viraht Sahni
The Schrödinger theory for a system of electrons in the presence of both a static and time-dependent electromagnetic field is generalized so as to exhibit the intrinsic self-consistent nature of the corresponding Schrödinger equations. This is accomplished by proving that the Hamiltonian in the stationary-state and time-dependent cases {Ĥ;Ĥ(t)} are exactly known functionals of the corresponding wave functions {Ψ;Ψ(t)}, that is, Ĥ=Ĥ[Ψ] and Ĥ(t)=Ĥ[Ψ(t)]. Thus, the Schrödinger equations may be written as Ĥ[Ψ]Ψ=E[Ψ]Ψ and Ĥ[Ψ(t)]Ψ(t)=i∂Ψ(t)/∂t...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Yusuke Matsuura, Taichi Hirano, Keiji Sakai
In this study, we developed a novel type of rheological measurement system. Here, a spherical probe is driven to rotate periodically by applying torques using quadruple electromagnets in a noncontact manner. Moreover, this system is an enhancement of our electromagnetically spinning (EMS) viscometer, which is widely used for measuring rheological flow curves in various industrial fields. The quadruple EMS method provides the frequency spectrum of viscoelasticity, in addition to shear viscosity, in a steady flow by switching the operation modes of the driving torque...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Joselito de Oliveira Neto, João Alison de Moraes Silveira, Daniel Silveira Serra, Daniel de Araújo Viana, Diva Maria Borges-Nojosa, Célia Maria Souza Sampaio, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro, Francisco Sales Ávila Cavalcante, Janaina Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista
This study have analyzed the pulmonary function in an experimental model of acute lung injury, induced by the Crotalus durissus cascavella venom (C. d. cascavella) (3.0 μg/kg - i.p), in pulmonary mechanic and histology at 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after inoculation. The C. d. cascavella venom led to an increase in Newtonian Resistance (RN), Tissue Resistance (G) and Tissue Elastance (H) in all groups when compared to the control, particularly at 12 h and 24 h. The Histeresivity (η) increased 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after inoculation...
July 28, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Andreia de Araújo Morandim-Giannetti, Samantha Regina Rubio, Regina Freitas Nogueira, Fernando Dos Santos Ortega, Octaviano Magalhães Junior, Paulo Schor, Patrícia Alessandra Bersanetti
Hydrogels are made from natural or synthetic polymers and, currently, they have many biomedical applications. In this work, the conditions for obtaining a hydrogel with similar physicochemical characteristics to the vitreous humor were defined using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and glutaraldehyde (GLUT) as cross-linker. The concentration of PVA and GLUT were modified, and their effect was analyzed in terms of the refractive index, density, and dynamic viscosity. The hydrogel which was obtained using 3.98% (w/V) of PVA, 3...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Uma Kamboj, Paramita Guha, Sunita Mishra
BACKGROUND: Aim of the present research was to study the changes in fundamental rheological properties of dough prepared from wheat grains stored for six months at 20(°) C, ambient temperature (temperature varied with time) and 4(°) C, with controlled. Stress/Shear rate ramp, oscillation and creep-recovery tests were performed to assess the changes in rheological properties due to storage. RESULTS: Samples were observed to be non-Newtonian, thus Bingham model estimated the yield stress, which was maximum for the ambient condition stored wheat and minimum for 20(°) C stored-wheat...
July 31, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Y Huang, Y L Wang, T N Wong
Monodispersity and fast generation are innate advantages of microfluidic droplets. Other than the normally adopted simple Newtonian fluids such as a water/oil emulsion system, fluids with complex rheology, namely, non-Newtonian fluids, which are being widely adopted in industries and bioengineering, have gained increasing research interest on the microscale. However, challenges occur in controlling the dynamic behavior due to their complex properties. In this sense, the AC electric field with merits of fast response and easiness in fulfilling "Lab on a chip" has attracted our attention...
July 26, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Yan Xu, Vivian Li, Jinjiang Li, Duohai Pan, Gerd Langenbucher, Neil Mathias
Liquid crystal lipid-based formulations are an effective approach to prolong pharmacokinetics and reduce burst release of a drug on subcutaneous delivery. The objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of phase structures of a lipid-based liquid crystal delivery system and its associated mechanical properties on the release profile of a peptide. It was hypothesized that release of drug molecules are closely related to the mechanical properties that are controlled by phase structures. Experimentally, the relationship between phase structures of lipid liquid crystal system-soy phosphatidyl choline (SPC) and glycerol dioleate (GDO) in water were characterized by polarized light microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction...
July 24, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
Somayeh Pakseresht, Mostafa Mazaheri Tehrani, Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi
In the present study the amount of whey protein to casein ratio (W/C ratio) (0.22-0.7), fat content (FC) (0.5-1.5%) and microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) (0.0-1.0 U/g substrate protein) in the formulation of low fat set type yoghurt, prepared from reconstituted milk, were optimized by response surface method to achieve the best rheological properties and sensory characteristics. The selected parameters consisted of higher consistency coefficient, consistency, texture and mouth feeling and lower syneresis and pH...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Elena Pretel, José L Arias, Laura Cabeza, Consolación Melguizo, José Prados, Mireia Mallandrich, Joaquim Suñer, Beatriz Clares
In the present investigation solvent displacement or nanoprecipitation, and emulsion/solvent evaporation methods were utilized to optimize poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for the vehiculization of the 5-fluorouracil. Formulation components from both the aqueous and organic phases, as well as, operating conditions were varied. Particles were characterized in terms of particle size and morphology, electrical properties, rheology, drug loading, stability, and drug release. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity on human colon cells and different colon carcinoma cells was evaluated...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Marek Ochowiak, Magdalena Matuszak, Sylwia Włodarczak
OBJECTIVE: The paper contains results of the experimental studies on atomization process of inhaled drugs and aqueous solutions of glycerol with aqueous solutions of glycerol-polyacrylamide (Rokrysol WF1) in pneumatic nebulizers. In experiments the different concentration of aqueous solutions of glycerol-polyacrylamide have been tested. In addition, the effect of nebulizer design on atomization process has been determined. The one of the main elements of medical pneumatic nebulizer is nebulizer cup...
July 24, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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