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Ariel A C Toledo Hijo, Guilherme J Maximo, Rosiane L Cunha, Felipe H S Fonseca, Lisandro P Cardoso, Jorge F B Pereira, Mariana C Costa, Eduardo A C Batista, Antonio J A Meirelles
Protic ionic liquid crystals (PILCs) obtained from natural sources are promising compounds due to their peculiar properties and sustainable appeal. However, obtaining PILCs with higher thermal and mechanical stabilities for product and process design is in demand and studies on such approaches using this new IL generation are still scarce. In this context, this work discloses an alternative way for tuning the physicochemical properties of ILCs by mixing PILs. New binary mixtures of PILs derived from fatty acids and 2-hydroxy ethylamines have been synthesized here and investigated through the characterization of the solid-solid-[liquid crystal]-liquid thermodynamic equilibrium and their rheological and critical micellar concentration profiles...
February 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zijie Qu, Fatma Zeynep Temel, Rene Henderikx, Kenneth S Breuer
Although the motility of the flagellated bacteria, Escherichia coli, has been widely studied, the effect of viscosity on swimming speed remains controversial. The swimming mode of wild-type E. coli is often idealized as a run-and-tumble sequence in which periods of swimming at a constant speed are randomly interrupted by a sudden change of direction at a very low speed. Using a tracking microscope, we follow cells for extended periods of time in Newtonian liquids of varying viscosity and find that the swimming behavior of a single cell can exhibit a variety of behaviors, including run and tumble and "slow random walk" in which the cells move at a relatively low speed...
February 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jungmin Kim, Juyong Park, Wonjae Lee
The quality of life for people in urban regions can be improved by predicting urban human mobility and adjusting urban planning accordingly. In this study, we compared several possible variables to verify whether a gravity model (a human mobility prediction model borrowed from Newtonian mechanics) worked as well in inner-city regions as it did in intra-city regions. We reviewed the resident population, the number of employees, and the number of SNS posts as variables for generating mass values for an urban traffic gravity model...
2018: PloS One
Dongyang Cai, Qiaolian Yi, Chaohua Shen, Ying Lan, Gerald Urban, Wenbin Du
The full potential of microfluidic techniques as rapid and accurate methods for the detection of disease-causing agents and foodborne pathogens is critically limited by the complex sample preparation process, which commonly comprises the enrichment of bacterial cells to detectable levels. In this manuscript, we describe a microfluidic device which integrates H-filter desalination with positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for direct enrichment of bacterial cells from physiological samples of high conductivity and viscosity, such as cow's milk and whole human blood...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Qinlong Ren
Efficient pumping of blood flow in a microfluidic device is essential for rapid detection of bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI) using alternating current (AC) electrokinetics. Compared with AC electroosmosis (ACEO) phenomenon, the advantage of AC electrothermal (ACET) mechanism is its capability of pumping biofluids with high electrical conductivities at a relatively high AC voltage frequency. In the current work, the microfluidic pumping of non-Newtonian blood flow using ACET forces is investigated in detail by modeling its multi-physics process with hybrid boundary element method (BEM) and immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM)...
February 10, 2018: Electrophoresis
Eleonora Tubaldi, Michael Paidoussis, Marco Amabili
This study addresses the dynamic response to pulsatile physiological blood flow and pressure of a woven Dacron graft currently used in thoracic aortic surgery. The model of the prosthesis assumes a cylindrical orthotropic shell described by means of nonlinear Novozhilov shell theory. The blood flow is modeled as Newtonian pulsatile flow, and unsteady viscous effects are included. Coupled fluid-structure Lagrange equations for open systems with wave propagation subject to pulsatile flow are applied. Physiological waveforms of blood pressure and velocity are approximated with the first eight harmonics of the corresponding Fourier series...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Luca Guzzardi
Argument According to a long-standing interpretation which traces back to Max Jammer's Concepts of Force (1957), Ruggiero G. Boscovich would have developed a concept of force in the tradition of Leibniz's dynamics. In his variation on the theme, basic properties of matter such as solidity or impenetrability would be derived from an interplay of some "active" force of attraction and repulsion that any primary element of nature ("point of matter" in Boscovich's theory) would possess. In the present paper I discuss many flaws of this interpretation and argue for an alternative point of view, according to which the crucial aspect in the development of Boscovich's natural philosophy is his early definition of forces as "mathematical determinations" to have a certain state of motion...
December 2017: Science in Context
Zhaoyuan Wan
This paper provides an account of Chinese translations of Newton's Principia produced over the past century and a half within the larger context of the dissemination of Newtonian philosophy in China. Given its fundamental importance in the history of science, the Principia, originally penned in Latin, has been translated into a number of other languages. While in all these languages no more than two full translations have appeared, as many as four complete versions in Chinese have been produced since the 1850s, when first attempts were made to translate the Principia in late imperial China...
February 8, 2018: Annals of Science
Vikas Thondapu, Erhan Tenekecioglu, Eric K W Poon, Carlos Collet, Ryo Torii, Christos V Bourantas, Cheng Chin, Yohei Sotomi, Hans Jonker, Jouke Dijkstra, Eve Revalor, Frank Gijsen, Yoshinobu Onuma, Andrew Ooi, Peter Barlis, Patrick W Serruys
Aims: As a sine qua non for arterial wall physiology, local hemodynamic forces such as endothelial shear stress (ESS) may influence long-term vessel changes as bioabsorbable scaffolds dissolve. The aim of this study was to perform serial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations to examine immediate and long-term haemodynamic and vascular changes following bioresorbable scaffold placement. Methods and results: Coronary arterial models with long-term serial assessment (baseline and 5 years) were reconstructed through fusion of intravascular optical coherence tomography and angiography...
February 2, 2018: European Heart Journal
Tapan Sood, Somnath Roy, Manabendra Pathak
The present work reports numerical simulations of blood flow patterns and wall shear stress (WSS) distributions in stenotic arteries, modelled as straight tubes. Inflow waveforms have been generated for different pulse rates considering constant volumetric flow during each pulsation cycle and a two-element windkessel model has been used to specify the outlet pressure. It is noticed that the non-Newtonian shear thinning rheology of blood produces more accurate and realistic predictions of the flow field as compared to the Newtonian assumption...
January 30, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
Given that eye movement control can be framed as an inferential process, how are the requisite forces generated to produce anticipated or desired fixation? Starting from a generative model based on simple Newtonian equations of motion, we derive a variational solution to this problem and illustrate the plausibility of its implementation in the oculomotor brainstem. We show, through simulation, that the Bayesian filtering equations that implement 'planning as inference' can generate both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Julien Maire, Emmanuelle Brunol, Nicolas Fatin-Rouge
Surfactant foam has been proposed as an effective treatment fluid for in situ environmental remediation of soils. In the vadose zone, it could improve treatment homogeneity, but its use remains challenging. To better understand and predict foam formation and propagation in vadose zone, we studied them in 24 soils with wide range of properties (including permeability: 2 10-12 to 3.3 10-9 m2). Foam rheology showed to be complex and mostly influenced by soil permeability and grading. Below 2 10-11 m2, foam propagation velocity was not influenced by permeability...
January 29, 2018: Chemosphere
Thomas Dubos
Geophysical models approximate classical fluid motion in rotating frames. Even accurate approximations can have profound consequences, such as the loss of inertial frames. If geophysical fluid dynamics are not strictly equivalent to Newtonian hydrodynamics observed in a rotating frame, what kind of dynamics are they? We aim to clarify fundamental similarities and differences between relativistic, Newtonian, and geophysical hydrodynamics, using variational and covariant formulations as tools to shed the necessary light...
January 19, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Félix Schoeller, Leonid Perlovsky, Dmitry Arseniev
What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, thermodynamics, quantum physics, the theory of relativity, astrophysics and the theory of superstrings? All these areas of physics have in common a methodology, which is discussed in the first few lines of the review. Is a physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe how a mind adapts in real time to changes in the physical world through a theory based on a few basic laws? From perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas allowing high-level cognition and executive functioning, at nearly all levels of study, the mind shows variability and uncertainties...
February 2, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
Matthias Schmidt
We construct a variational theory for the inertial dynamics of classical many-body systems out of equilibrium. The governing (power rate) functional depends on three time- and space-dependent one-body distributions, namely, the density, the particle current, and the time derivative of the particle current. The functional is minimized by the true time derivative of the current. Together with the continuity equation, the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equation uniquely determines the time evolution of the system...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Bingyan Chen, Zebin Guo, Shaoxiao Zeng, Yuting Tian, Song Miao, Baodong Zheng
Starch-lipid complexes were prepared using lotus seed starch (LS) and glycerin monostearate (GMS) via a high-pressure homogenization (HPH) process, and the effect of HPH on the paste structure and rheological properties of LS-GMS was investigated. Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) profiles showed that HPH treatment inhibited the formation of the second viscosity peak of the LS-GMS paste, and the extent of this change was dependent on the level of homogenized pressure. Analysis of the size-exclusion chromatography, light microscopy, and low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance results revealed that high homogenized pressure (70-100MPa) decreased molecular weight and size by degrading the branch structure of amylopectin; however, intact LS-GMS granules can optimize the network structure by filler-matrix interaction, which causes free water to transition into immobile water in the starch paste...
January 2018: Food Research International
Edward K Morris, Charryse F Luckey
This is a historical note on a precursor of the concept of behavioral momentum in the late 1950s and early 1960s, in particular, Charles B. description of it in terms of behavioral durability. The note is based largely on two email exchanges we had with John A. (Tony) Nevin, who offered insights on behavioral momentum as a term and a concept that are fit to be public on the occasion of this issue of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior in his honor. Nevin addressed graduate work at Columbia University, the Newtonian analogy, the term behavioral momentum, and precursors of his work that are now lost in history...
January 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Maiara Taís Bazana, Aline S Gonçalves, Paulo Guilherme R Schimites, Jader B Ruchel, João Felipe P Rezer, Daniela B Rosa Leal, Cristiane de B da Silva
This study aimed to develop gel-creams from the lyophilised product of betamethasone dipropionate-loaded lipid-core nanocapsule suspensions and evaluated its efficacy in a model of contact dermatitis. The gel-creams were prepared and characterized followed by a study of in vitro drug penetration/permeation and its in vivo efficacy. The suspensions and lyophilised products showed nanometric size; the betamethasone content was 0.25 ± 0.01 mg/mL and the encapsulation efficiency was approximately 100%. The nanocapsules and redispersed powders presented control of the drug release...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Dan-Ye Zhu, Yi-Long Ma, Kiran Thakur, Cai-Hong Wang, Hao Wang, Ya-Fei Ren, Jian-Guo Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wei
In this work we described the rheological properties of polysaccharides (HBSS, CHSS, DASS, CASS) sequentially extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.). Four onion polysaccharides (ACLPs) solutions resulted into significant differences on their rheological properties. ACLPs solutions showed non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior over the range of 0.5-2.5%. At concentration of 1%, the apparent viscosity of CHSS was observed to be the highest. The apparent viscosity of ACLPs solutions decreased with the acidic pH (4...
January 25, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
V R Ahuja, J van der Gucht, W J Briels
We present a novel coarse-grain particle-based simulation technique for modeling self-developing flow of dilute and semi-dilute polymer solutions. The central idea in this paper is the two-way coupling between a mesoscopic polymer model and a phenomenological fluid model. As our polymer model, we choose Responsive Particle Dynamics (RaPiD), a Brownian dynamics method, which formulates the so-called "conservative" and "transient" pair-potentials through which the polymers interact besides experiencing random forces in accordance with the fluctuation dissipation theorem...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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