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Daniele Tammaro, Rossana Pasquino, M M Villone, Gaetano D'Avino, Vincenzo Ferraro, Ernesto Di Maio, Antonio Langella, Nino Grizzuti, Pier Luca Maffettone
When a Newtonian bubble ruptures, the film retraction dynamics is controlled by the interplay of surface, inertial and viscous forces. In case a viscoelastic liquid is considered, the scenario is enriched by the appearance of a new significant contribution, namely, the elastic force. In this paper, we investigate experimentally the retraction of viscoelastic bubbles inflated at different blowing rates, showing that the amount of elastic energy stored by the liquid film enclosing the bubble depends on the inflation history and, in turn, affects the velocity of film retraction when the bubble is punctured...
April 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yanan Li, Zhaoqing Zhou, Xiaomin Zhao, Hua Zhao, Xin Qu
Hydrophilic polymers are widely used in the cosmetics industry as thickening agents/rheology modifiers. These thickening agents have different chemical structures which affect the rheological properties, as well as the sensory attributes of the formula. Systematic study is important to determine the relationship among them. Six commonly used hydrophilic polymers, including cellulose derivatives and synthetic polymers, were used as thickening agents in a series of oil-in-water emulsions. The rheological properties were evaluated in relation to the thickening mechanism and polymer structures...
January 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Science
Yuta Asano, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hiroshi Noguchi
We investigated the Kármán vortex behind a circular cylinder in a polymer solution by a molecular dynamics simulation. The vortex characteristics are distinctly different for short and long polymers. The solution with the long polymer exhibits a reduction in the vortex shedding frequency and broadening of the lift coefficient spectrum. On the other hand, the characteristics of the short-polymer solution are almost the same as those of the Newtonian fluid. These facts are consistent with the experiments. Because the distributions of the gyration radius and the orientational order of the long-polymer solution are highly inhomogeneous in the flow field, we conclude that the extensional property of the polymer plays an important role in changing the flow characteristics...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Josep M López, Gerard Fortuny, Dolors Puigjaner, Joan Herrero, Francesc Marimon
Computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate the flow of blood within an inferior vena cava (IVC) geometry model that was reconstructed from computed tomography images obtained from a real patient. The main novelty of the present work is that we simulated the implantation of four different filter models in this realistic IVC geometry. We considered different blood flow rates in the range between Vin =20 and Vin =80cm3 /s and all simulations were performed with both the Newtonian and a non-Newtonian model for the blood viscosity...
March 30, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Francesco Zappa, Sebastiano Bernuzzi, David Radice, Albino Perego, Tim Dietrich
We study the gravitational-wave peak luminosity and radiated energy of quasicircular neutron star mergers using a large sample of numerical relativity simulations with different binary parameters and input physics. The peak luminosity for all the binaries can be described in terms of the mass ratio and of the leading-order post-Newtonian tidal parameter solely. The mergers resulting in a prompt collapse to black hole have the largest peak luminosities. However, the largest amount of energy per unit mass is radiated by mergers that produce a hypermassive neutron star or a massive neutron star remnant...
March 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
J Prakash, K Ramesh, D Tripathi, R Kumar
A numerical simulation is presented to study the heat and flow characteristics of blood flow altered by electroosmosis through the tapered micro-vessels. Blood is assumed as non-Newtonian (micropolar) nanofluids. The flow regime is considered as asymmetric diverging (tapered) microchannel for more realistic micro-vessels which is produced by choosing the peristaltic wave train on the walls to have different amplitudes and phase. The Rosseland approximation is employed to model the radiation heat transfer and temperatures of the walls are presumed constants...
March 26, 2018: Microvascular Research
Dahai Zhu, Lingling Wang, Wei Yu, Huaqing Xie
Nanofluids offer the exciting new possibilities to enhance heat transfer performance. In this paper, experimental and theoretical investigations have been conducted to determine the effect of CuO nanowires on the thermal conductivity and viscosity of dimethicone based nanofluids. The CuO nanowires were prepared through a thermal oxidation method, and the analysis indicated that the as-prepared CuO nanowires had high purity, monocrystalline with a monoclinic structure and large aspect ratio compared to CuO nanospheres...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Prabhat Bhusal, Jamie Lee Rahiri, Bruce Sua, Jessica E McDonald, Mahima Bansal, Sara Hanning, Manisha Sharma, Kaushik Chandramouli, Jeff Harrison, Georgina Procter, Gavin Andrews, David S Jones, Andrew G Hill, Darren Svirskis
An understanding of biological fluids at the site of administration is important to predict the fate of drug delivery systems in vivo. Little is known about peritoneal fluid; therefore, we have investigated this biological fluid and compared it to phosphate-buffered saline, a synthetic media commonly used for in vitro evaluation of intraperitoneal drug delivery systems. Human peritoneal fluid samples were analysed for electrolyte, protein and lipid levels. In addition, physicochemical properties were measured alongside rheological parameters...
March 26, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Shuya Wei, Zhu Cheng, Pooja Nath, Mukul D Tikekar, Gaojin Li, Lynden A Archer
Electrodeposition is a widely practiced method for creating metal, colloidal, and polymer coatings on conductive substrates. In the Newtonian liquid electrolytes typically used, the process is fundamentally unstable. The underlying instabilities have been linked to failure of microcircuits, dendrite formation on battery electrodes, and overlimiting conductance in ion-selective membranes. We report that viscoelastic electrolytes composed of semidilute solutions of very high-molecular weight neutral polymers suppress these instabilities by multiple mechanisms...
March 2018: Science Advances
Noelia Mori Cortés, Gabriel Lorenzo, Alicia N Califano
Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable systems that have attracted considerable attention in the food industry as delivery systems for many hydrophobic nutrients. These spontaneous systems are highly dependent on ingredients and composition. In this work phase diagrams were constructed using two surfactants (Kolliphor RH40 and ELP), water, sunflower oil, and ethanol as cosurfactant, evaluating their physicochemical properties. Stability of the systems was studied at 25 and 60 °C, monitoring turbidity at 550 nm for over a month to identify the microemulsion region...
May 2018: Food Research International
Nian Liu, Ricardo Couto, Bernhard Seifried, Paul Moquin, Luis Delgado, Feral Temelli
The physicochemical properties of the oat beta-glucan powder (BG) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)-loaded BG powder (L-BG) produced by the pressurized gas-expanded liquid (PGX) technology were studied. Helium ion microscope, differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffractometer, AutoSorb iQ and rheometer were used to determine the particle morphology, thermal properties, crystallinity, surface area and viscosity, respectively. Both BG (7.7μm) and L-BG (6.1μm) were produced as micrometer-scale particles, while CoQ10 nanoparticles (92nm) were adsorbed on the porous structure of L-BG...
April 2018: Food Research International
Davy Verheyen, Maria Baka, Seline Glorieux, Barbara Duquenne, Ilse Fraeye, Torstein Skåra, Jan F Van Impe
The effectiveness of predictive microbiology is limited by the lack of knowledge concerning the influence of food microstructure on microbial dynamics. Therefore, future modelling attempts should be based on experiments in structured food model systems as well as liquid systems. In this study, fish-based model systems with various microstructures were developed, i.e., two liquid systems (with and without xanthan gum), an emulsion, an aqueous gel, and a gelled emulsion. The microstructural effect was isolated by minimising compositional and physico-chemical changes among the different model systems...
April 2018: Food Research International
Ana M Muñoz-Labrador, Rodrigo Moreno, Mar Villamiel, Antonia Montilla
BACKGROUND: Pectin is heteropolysaccharide found in cell walls coming mainly from by-products as well as citrus peels, apple and sugar beet pulp and presenting biological and techno-functional properties. In this work a generalproximal and structural characterisation of industrial citrus pectins was done together with a study of impact of power ultrasound (US) on their rheological properties with the aim of using them as edible coatings for fresh strawberries. RESULTS: The results indicated that pure pectin showed a methylesterification degree greater than 50% and galacturonic acid content > 65%, indicating its consideration as additive E-440, conditions that were not achieved by pectin with sugar addition...
March 23, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Anna Story, Zdzisław Jaworski, Mark J Simmons, Emilia Nowak
The paper presents results of an experimental study of the fluid velocity field in a stirred tank equipped with a Prochem Maxflo T (PMT) type impeller which was rotating at a constant frequency of N  = 4.1 or 8.2 s-1 inducing transitional ( Re  = 499 or 1307) or turbulent ( Re  = 2.43 × 104 ) flow of the fluid. The experiments were performed for a Newtonian fluid (water) and a non-Newtonian fluid (0.2 wt% aqueous solution of carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC) exhibiting mild viscoelastic properties. Measurements were carried out using laser light scattering on tracer particles which follow the flow (2-D PIV)...
2018: Chemické Zvesti
Luke Bergmann, David O'Sullivan
A mismatch between largely absolute Newtonian models of space in GIScience and the relational spaces of critical human geography has contributed to mutual disinterest between the fields. Critical GIS has offered an intellectual critique of GIScience without substantially altering how particular key geographical concepts are expressed in data structures. Although keystone ideas in GIScience such as Tobler's "First Law" and the modifiable areal unit problem speak to enduring concerns of human geography, they have drawn little interest from that field...
2018: Canadian Geographer. Géographe Canadien
Khalil Ur Rehman, Noor Ul Saba, M Y Malik, Iffat Zehra
The current paper contains the simultaneous analysis of both Newtonian and non-Newtonian nanofluid models. The fluid flow is achieved by considering the no-slip condition subject to a stretched cylindrical surface. The flow regime manifests with pertinent physical effects, namely temperature stratification, concentration stratification, thermal radiation, heat generation, magnetic field, dual convection and chemical reaction. The strength of fluid temperature and nanoparticles concentration adjacent to an inclined cylindrical surface is assumed to be higher than the ambient flow field...
March 22, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Chung-Hsuan Huang, Satish Kumar
Transfer of liquid from one surface to another plays a vital role in printing processes. During liquid transfer, a liquid bridge is formed and subjected to substantial extension, but incomplete liquid transfer can produce defects that are detrimental to the operation of printed electronic devices. One strategy for minimizing these defects is to apply an electric field, a technique known as electrostatic assist (ESA). However, the physical mechanisms underlying ESA remain a mystery. To better understand these mechanisms, slender-jet models are developed for both perfect dielectric and leaky dielectric axisymmetric Newtonian liquid bridges with moving contact lines...
March 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
S Varchanis, Y Dimakopoulos, C Wagner, J Tsamopoulos
Blood plasma has been considered a Newtonian fluid for decades. Recent experiments (Brust et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2013, 110) revealed that blood plasma has a pronounced viscoelastic behavior. This claim was based on purely elastic effects observed in the collapse of a thin plasma filament and the fast flow of plasma inside a contraction-expansion microchannel. However, due to the fact that plasma is a solution with very low viscosity, conventional rotational rheometers are not able to stretch the proteins effectively and thus, provide information about the viscoelastic properties of plasma...
March 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Vincent Mathieu, Clément de Loubens, Chloé Thomas, Maud Panouillé, Albert Magnin, Isabelle Souchon
The development of innovative experimental approaches is necessary to gain insights in the complex biomechanics of swallowing. In particular, unraveling the mechanisms of formation of the thin film of bolus coating the pharyngeal mucosa after the ingestion of liquid or semi-liquid food products is an important challenge, with implication in dysphagia treatment and sensory perceptions. The aim here is to propose an original experimental model of swallowing (i) to simulate the peristaltic motions driving the bolus from the oral cavity to the esophagus, (ii) to mimic and vary complex physiological variables of the pharyngeal mucosa (lubrication, deformability and velocity) and (iii) to measure the thickness and the composition of the coatings resulting from bolus flow...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Soad Ali Yehia, Sally Adel Abdel Halim, Mary Yosry Aziz
OBJECTIVE: Formulation of injectable in situ forming implant (ISI) systems of lornoxicam for dental and post operative pain management to decrease dosing frequency and increase patient compliance. METHOD: Polymeric in situ implant solutions were prepared using different concentrations and inherent viscosities of Poly-DL-lactide (PDL) or DL-lactide/glycolide copolymer (PDLG) using 22X4 factorial experimental design. Non polymeric systems were prepared using different concentrations of lipids like cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol and also sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) using 32 factorial experimental design...
March 19, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
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