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Thijs C de Goede, Nick Laan, Karla de Bruin, Daniel Bonn
We investigate the impact velocity beyond which the ejection of smaller droplets from the main droplet (splashing) occurs for droplets of different liquids impacting different smooth surfaces. We examine its dependence on the surface wetting properties and droplet surface tension. We show that the splashing velocity is independent of the wetting properties of the surface, but increases roughly linearly with increasing surface tension of the liquid. A preexisting splashing model and simplification are considered that predicts the splashing velocity by incorporating the air viscosity...
December 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Shehu Muhammad Auwal, Mohammad Zarei, Azizah Abdul-Hamid, Nazamid Saari
Protein hydrolysates produced from different food sources exhibit therapeutic potential and can be used in the management of chronic diseases. This study was targeted to optimise the conditions for the hydrolysis of stone fish protein to produce antioxidant hydrolysates using central composite design (CCD) by response surface methodology (RSM). The stone fish protein was hydrolysed under the optimum predicted conditions defined by pH (6.5), temperature (54°C), E/S ratio (1.5%), and hydrolysis time (360 min)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Parisa Mirbod, Zhenxing Wu, Goodarz Ahmadi
While researches have focused on drag reduction of various coated surfaces such as superhydrophobic structures and polymer brushes, the insights tso understand the fundamental physics of the laminar skin friction coefficient and the related drag reduction due to the formation of finite velocity at porous surfaces is still relatively unknown. Herein, we quantitatively investigated the flow over a porous medium by developing a framework to model flow of a Newtonian fluid in a channel where the lower surface was replaced by various porous media...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Melody X Lim, Jonathan Barés, Hu Zheng, Robert P Behringer
Above a certain solid fraction, dense granular suspensions in water exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, including impact-activated solidification. Although it has been suggested that solidification depends on boundary interactions, quantitative experiments on the boundary forces have not been reported. Using high-speed video, tracer particles, and photoelastic boundaries, we determine the impactor kinematics and the magnitude and timings of impactor-driven events in the body and at the boundaries of cornstarch suspensions...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
X Zhang, E Lorenceau, P Basset, T Bourouina, F Rouyer, J Goyon, P Coussot
From well-controlled long creep tests, we show that the residual apparent yield stress observed with soft-jammed systems along smooth surfaces is an artifact due to edge effects. By removing these effects, we can determine the stress solely associated with steady-state wall slip below the material yield stress. This stress is found to vary linearly with the slip velocity for a wide range of materials whatever the structure, the interaction types between the elements and with the wall, and the concentration...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
C M Romero, P V Martorell, A Gómez López, C G Nieto Peñalver, S Chaves, M Mechetti
Biocatalysis for industrial application is based on the use of enzymes to perform complex transformations. However, these systems have some disadvantage related to the costs of the biocatalyst. In this work, an alternative strategy for producing green immobilized biocatalysts based on biofilm was developed.A study of the rheological behavior of the biofilm from Bacillus sp. Mcn4, as well as the determination of its composition, was carried out. The dynamic rheological measurements, viscosity (G") and elasticity (G') module, showed that the biofilm presents appreciable elastic components, which is a recognized property for enzymes immobilization...
November 23, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Guillaume Chatté, Jean Comtet, Antoine Niguès, Lydéric Bocquet, Alessandro Siria, Guylaine Ducouret, François Lequeux, Nicolas Lenoir, Guillaume Ovarlez, Annie Colin
We study the flow of suspensions of non-Brownian particles dispersed into a Newtonian solvent. Combining capillary rheometry and conventional rheometry, we evidence a succession of two shear thinning regimes separated by a shear thickening one. Through X-ray radiography measurements, we show that during each of those regimes, the flow remains homogeneous and does not involve particle migration. Using a quartz-tuning fork based atomic force microscope, we measure the repulsive force profile and the microscopic friction coefficient μ between two particles immersed into the solvent, as a function of normal load...
December 7, 2017: Soft Matter
Abas Ramiar, Morsal Momenti Larimi, Ali Akbar Ranjbar
PURPOSE: Hemodynamic factors, such as Wall Shear Stress (WSS), play a substantial role in arterial diseases. In the larger arteries, such as the carotid artery, interaction between the vessel wall and blood flow affects the distribution of hemodynamic factors. The fluid is considered to be non-Newtonian, whose flow is governed by the equation of a second-grade viscoelastic fluid and the effects of viscoelastic on blood flow in carotid artery is investigated. METHODS: Pulsatile flow studies were carried out in a 3D model of carotid artery...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
Mahendra Singh, Jovita Kanoujia, Poonam Parashar, Malti Arya, Chandra B Tripathi, V R Sinha, Shailendra K Saraf, Shubhini A Saraf
The oral bioavailability of felodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist, is about 15%. This may be due to poor water solubility, and a lower intestinal permeability than a BCS class I drug, and hepatic first-pass metabolism of the drug. Many drugs are unpopular due to solubility issues. The goal of this study was to develop and optimize a felodipine-containing microemulsion to improve the intestinal permeability and bioavailability of the drug. The felodipine microemulsions were developed with the selected components, i...
December 4, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
R Jayendiran, B M Nour, A Ruimi
Aortic dissection (AD) is a serious medical condition characterized by a tear in the intima, the inner layer of the aortic walls. In such occurrence, blood is being diverted to the media (middle) layer and may result in patient death if not quickly attended. In the case where the diseased portion of the aorta needs to be replaced, one common surgical technique is to use a graft made of Dacron, a synthetic fabric. We investigate the response of a composite human aortic segment-Dacron graft structure subjected to blood flow using the three-dimensional fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) capability in Abaqus...
November 26, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Stanislav Glubokovskikh, Boris Gurevich
Explicit expressions for bounds on the effective bulk and shear moduli of mixture of an elastic solid and Newtonian fluid are derived. Since in frequency domain the shear modulus of the Newtonian fluid is complex valued, the effective mixture moduli are, in general, also complex valued and, hence, the bounds are curves in the complex plane. From the general expressions for bounds of effective moduli of viscoelastic mixtures, it is shown that effective bulk and shear moduli of such mixtures must lie between the real axis and a semicircle in the upper half-plane connecting formal lower and upper Hashin-Shtrikman bounds of the mixture of the solid and inviscid fluid of the same compressibility as the Newtonian fluid...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
C Rothleitner, S Schlamminger
By many accounts, the Newtonian constant of gravitation G is the fundamental constant that is most difficult to measure accurately. Over the past three decades, more than a dozen precision measurements of this constant have been performed. However, the scatter of the data points is much larger than the uncertainties assigned to each individual measurement, yielding a Birge ratio of about five. Today, G is known with a relative standard uncertainty of 4.7 × 10-5, which is several orders of magnitudes greater than the relative uncertainties of other fundamental constants...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
S De, J A M Kuipers, E A J F Peters, J T Padding
We investigate creeping viscoelastic fluid flow through two-dimensional porous media consisting of random arrangements of monodisperse and bidisperse cylinders, using our finite volume-immersed boundary method introduced in S. De, et al., J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 2016, 232, 67-76. The viscoelastic fluid is modeled with a FENE-P model. The simulations show an increased flow resistance with increase in flow rate, even though the bulk response of the fluid to shear flow is shear thinning. We show that if the square root of the permeability is chosen as the characteristic length scale in the determination of the dimensionless Deborah number (De), then all flow resistance curves collapse to a single master curve, irrespective of the pore geometry...
December 1, 2017: Soft Matter
A A Colbourne, T W Blythe, R Barua, S Lovett, J Mitchell, A J Sederman, L F Gladden
Nuclear magnetic resonance rheology (Rheo-NMR) is a valuable tool for studying the transport of suspended non-colloidal particles, important in many commercial processes. The Rheo-NMR imaging technique directly and quantitatively measures fluid displacement as a function of radial position. However, the high field magnets typically used in these experiments are unsuitable for the industrial environment and significantly hinder the measurement of shear stress. We introduce a low field Rheo-NMR instrument (1H resonance frequency of 10...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Yun-Ho Hwang, Seong-Gyeol Hong, Seul-Ki Mun, Su-Jin Kim, Sung-Ju Lee, Jong-Jin Kim, Kyung-Yun Kang, Sung-Tae Yee
Although astaxanthin has a variety of biological activities such as anti-oxidant effects, inhibitory effects on skin deterioration and anti-inflammatory effects, its effect on asthma has not been studied. In this paper, the inhibitory effect of astaxanthin on airway inflammation in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. We evaluated the number of total cells, Th1/2 mediated inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and airway hyperresponsiveness as well as histological structure...
November 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
M P Thon, A Hemmler, A Glinzer, M Mayr, M Wildgruber, A Zernecke-Madsen, M W Gee
This work is devoted to the development of a mathematical model of the early stages of atherosclerosis incorporating processes of all time scales of the disease and to show their interactions. The cardiovascular mechanics is modeled by a fluid-structure interaction approach coupling a non-Newtonian fluid to a hyperelastic solid undergoing anisotropic growth and a change of its constitutive equation. Additionally, the transport of low-density lipoproteins and its penetration through the endothelium is considered by a coupled set of advection-diffusion-reaction equations...
November 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Jean Marie Vianney Kinani, Alberto Jorge Rosales Silva, Francisco Gallegos Funes, Dante Mújica Vargas, Eduardo Ramos Díaz, Alfonso Arellano
We develop a swift, robust, and practical tool for detecting brain lesions with minimal user intervention to assist clinicians and researchers in the diagnosis process, radiosurgery planning, and assessment of the patient's response to the therapy. We propose a unified gravitational fuzzy clustering-based segmentation algorithm, which integrates the Newtonian concept of gravity into fuzzy clustering. We first perform fuzzy rule-based image enhancement on our database which is comprised of T1/T2 weighted magnetic resonance (MR) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images to facilitate a smoother segmentation...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Kivia M Albano, Vânia R Nicoletti
Consumers' preference for products with reduced levels of fat increased in the last years. Proteins and polysaccharides have an important role due to their functional and interaction properties because, when combined in ratios and pH of higher potential for electrostatic interactions they may act as emulsifiers or stabilizers. This study evaluated the ultrasound impact on the electrostatic interaction between pectin (PEC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) at different WPC:PEC ratios (1:1 to 5:1), and its effect on the emulsification and stability of emulsions formulated with WPC:PEC blends (1:1, 4:1) at low soybean oil contents (5 to 15%)...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Ling Li, Bu-Yan Liao, Kiran Thakur, Jian-Guo Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wei
The present study investigated the rheological properties of polysaccharides (HBSS, CHSS, DASS, CASS) sequentially extracted from Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. The monosaccharide, uronic acid, total carbohydrate, protein content of four polysaccharides were analyzed. The total carbohydrate content of PCHPs (HBSS, CHSS, DASS, and CASS) were 78.39, 71.86, 69.99 and 73.73% respectively, containing Rha, Ara, Man, Gal besides uronic acid and protein. The non-Newtonian fluidic nature of PCHPs was affected by the types of polysaccharides, concentration, temperature, pH, types and concentration of salt ions...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Li Guo
Entanglement concentration (ce, w/v) means the onset of overlap and interpenetration of random-coil chains in a macromolecule solution. The effects of ce on the dynamic viscoelasticity and film-forming property of cereal starches were investigated. The results showed that ce affected significantly the ratio of crystalline to amorphous regions of normal rice starch, waxy rice starch, normal maize starch and wheat starch because the absorbance ratio (1047cm(-1)/1022cm(-1)) increased more obviously at concentrations increasing from 0...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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