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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633824/ultrasound-assisted-extraction-of-polysaccharides-from-rhododendron-aganniphum-antioxidant-activity-and-rheological-properties
#1
Xiao Guo, Xiaofei Shang, Xuzheng Zhou, Baotang Zhao, Jiyu Zhang
In this study, we aimed to optimize the extraction of polysaccharides from the leaves of Rhododendron aganniphum and investigate its rheological properties and antioxidant activity. After optimizing the operating parameters using a Box-Behnken design (BBD), the results showed that the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were as follows: extraction temperature, 55°C; liquid-solid ratio, 25:1; extraction time, 2.2h; and ultrasound treatment power, 200W. The optimized experimental yield of polysaccharides by ultrasound-assisted extraction (PUAE) was 9...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618647/shear-banding-discontinuous-shear-thickening-and-rheological-phase-transitions-in-athermally-sheared-frictionless-disks
#2
Daniel Vågberg, Peter Olsson, S Teitel
We report on numerical simulations of simple models of athermal, bidisperse, soft-core, massive disks in two dimensions, as a function of packing fraction ϕ, inelasticity of collisions as measured by a parameter Q, and applied uniform shear strain rate γ[over ̇]. Our particles have contact interactions consisting of normally directed elastic repulsion and viscous dissipation, as well as tangentially directed viscous dissipation, but no interparticle Coulombic friction. Mapping the phase diagram in the (ϕ,Q) plane for small γ[over ̇], we find a sharp first-order rheological phase transition from a region with Bagnoldian rheology to a region with Newtonian rheology, and show that the system is always Newtonian at jamming...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614351/newtonian-boreal-forest-ecology-the-scots-pine-ecosystem-as-an-example
#3
Pertti Hari, Tuomas Aakala, Juho Aalto, Jaana Bäck, Jaakko Hollmén, Kalev Jõgiste, Kourosh Kabiri Koupaei, Mika A Kähkönen, Mikko Korpela, Liisa Kulmala, Eero Nikinmaa, Jukka Pumpanen, Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen, Pauliina Schiestl-Aalto, Asko Simojoki, Mikko Havimo
Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by Newton. The forest ecosystem is a complicated entity and hence we needed altogether 27 concepts to describe the material and energy flows in the metabolism of trees, ground vegetation and microbes in the soil, and to describe the regularities in tree structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600487/fluid-viscoelasticity-promotes-collective-swimming-of-sperm
#4
Chih-Kuan Tung, Chungwei Lin, Benedict Harvey, Alyssa G Fiore, Florencia Ardon, Mingming Wu, Susan S Suarez
From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm in dynamic clusters, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. Sperm oriented in the same direction within each cluster, and cluster size and cell-cell alignment strength increased with viscoelasticity of the fluid. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian (nonelastic) fluids of low and high viscosity...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583675/magnetic-particle-translation-as-a-surrogate-measure-for-synovial-fluid-mechanics
#5
Yash Y Shah, Lorena Maldonado-Camargo, Neal S Patel, Adam H Biedrzycki, Elena G Yarmola, Jon Dobson, Carlos Rinaldi, Kyle D Allen
The mechanics of synovial fluid vary with disease progression, but are difficult to quantify quickly in a clinical setting due to small sample volumes. In this study, a novel technique to measure synovial fluid mechanics using magnetic nanoparticles is introduced. Briefly, microspheres embedded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, termed magnetic particles, are distributed through a 100μL synovial fluid sample. Then, a permanent magnet inside a protective sheath is inserted into the synovial fluid sample...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581833/novel-nano-cellulose-excipient-for-generating-non-newtonian-droplets-for-targeted-nasal-drug-delivery
#6
Paul M Young, Daniela Traini, Hui Xin Ong, Angelo Granieri, Bing Zhu, Santo Scalia, Jie Song, Patrick T Spicer
PURPOSE: Thickening polymers have been used as excipients in nasal formulations to avoid nasal run-off (nasal drip) post-administration. However, increasing the viscosity of the formulation can have a negative impact on the quality of the aerosols generated. Therefore, the study aims to investigate the use of a novel smart nano-cellulose excipient to generate suitable droplets for nasal drug delivery that simultaneously has only marginally increased viscosity while still reducing nasal drips...
June 21, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579649/a-viscoactive-constitutive-modeling-framework-with-variational-updates-for-the-myocardium
#7
A V S Ponnaluri, L E Perotti, D B Ennis, W S Klug
We present a constitutive modeling framework for contractile cardiac mechanics by formulating a single variational principle from which incremental stress-strain relations and kinetic rate equations for active contraction and relaxation can all be derived. The variational framework seamlessly incorporates the hyperelastic behavior of the relaxed and contracted tissue along with the rate - and length - dependent generation of contractile force. We describe a three-element, Hill-type model that unifies the active tension and active deformation approaches...
February 1, 2017: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576043/insights-into-the-rheological-behaviors-evolution-of-alginate-dialdehyde-crosslinked-collagen-solutions-evaluated-by-numerical-models
#8
Shichen Zhu, Xiaoyue Yu, Shanbai Xiong, Ru Liu, Zhipeng Gu, Juan You, Tao Yin, Yang Hu
The elaboration of the rheological behaviors of alginate dialdehyde (ADA) crosslinked collagen solutions, along with the quantitative analysis via numerical models contribute to the controllable design of ADA crosslinked solution system's fluid mechanics performance during manufacturing process for collagen biomaterials. In the present work, steady shear flow, dynamical viscoelasticity, creep-recovery, thixotropy tests were performed to characterize the rheological behaviors of the collagen solutions incorporating of ADA from the different aspects and fitted with corresponding numerical models...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566887/wall-shear-stress-in-portal-vein-of-cirrhotic-patients-with-portal-hypertension
#9
Wei Wei, Yan-Song Pu, Xin-Kai Wang, An Jiang, Rui Zhou, Yu Li, Qiu-Juan Zhang, Ya-Juan Wei, Bin Chen, Zong-Fang Li
AIM: To investigate wall shear stress (WSS) magnitude and distribution in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension using computational fluid dynamics. METHODS: Idealized portal vein (PV) system models were reconstructed with different angles of the PV-splenic vein (SV) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV)-SV. Patient-specific models were created according to enhanced computed tomography images. WSS was simulated by using a finite-element analyzer, regarding the blood as a Newtonian fluid and the vessel as a rigid wall...
May 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562001/antiscaling-magnetic-slippery-surfaces
#10
Ali Masoudi, Peyman Irajizad, Nazanin Farokhnia, Varun Kashyap, Hadi Ghasemi
Scale formation is a common problem in a wide range of industries such as oil and gas, water desalination, and food processing. Conventional solutions for this problem including mechanical removal and chemical dissolution are inefficient, costly, and sometimes environmentally hazardous. Surface modification approaches have shown promises to address this challenge. However, these approaches suffer from intrinsic existence of solid-liquid interfaces leading to high rate of scale nucleation and high adhesion strength of the formed scale...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559623/rheological-properties-of-reduced-fat-ice-cream-mix-containing-octenyl-succinylated-pearl-millet-starch
#11
Monika Sharma, Ashish K Singh, Deep N Yadav
The octenyl succinyl anhydride (OSA) esterified pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) starch was evaluated as fat replacer in soft serve ice cream in comparison to other fat replacers viz. inulin, whey protein concentrate-70 and commercial starch. During temperature sweep test, the yield stress and flow behaviour index of un-pasteurized ice cream mixes increased as the temperature increased from 40 to 80 °C, while the consistency index decreased. Consistency index of aged ice cream mixes containing 2% fat replacer was higher as compared to mixes with 1% level...
May 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558664/numerical-integration-methods-and-layout-improvements-in-the-context-of-dynamic-rna-visualization
#12
Boris Shabash, Kay C Wiese
BACKGROUND: RNA visualization software tools have traditionally presented a static visualization of RNA molecules with limited ability for users to interact with the resulting image once it is complete. Only a few tools allowed for dynamic structures. One such tool is jViz.RNA. Currently, jViz.RNA employs a unique method for the creation of the RNA molecule layout by mapping the RNA nucleotides into vertexes in a graph, which we call the detailed graph, and then utilizes a Newtonian mechanics inspired system of forces to calculate a layout for the RNA molecule...
May 30, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551421/interaction-of-gliding-motion-of-bacteria-with-rheological-properties-of-the-slime
#13
Z Asghar, N Ali, M Sajid
Bacteria which do not have organelles of motility, such as flagella, adopt gliding as a mode of locomotion. In gliding motility bacterium moves under its own power by secreting a layer of slime on the substrate. The exact mechanism by which a glider achieves motility is yet in controversy but there are evidences which support the wave-like undulation on the surface of the organism, as a possible mechanism of motility. Based on this observation, a model of undulating sheet over a layer of slime is examined as a possible model of the gliding motion of a bacterium...
May 24, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541035/three-dimensional-printing-of-silver-microarchitectures-using-newtonian-nanoparticle-inks
#14
Sanghyeon Lee, Jung Hyun Kim, Muhammad Wajahat, Hwakyung Jeong, Won Suk Chang, Sung Ho Cho, Ji Tae Kim, Seung Kwon Seol
Although three-dimensional (3D) printing has recently emerged as a technology to potentially bring about the next industrial revolution, the limited selection of usable materials restricts its use to simple prototyping. In particular, metallic 3D printing with submicrometer spatial resolution is essential for the realization of 3D-printed electronics. Herein, a meniscus-guided 3D printing method that exploits a low-viscosity (∼7 mPa·s) silver nanoparticle (AgNP) ink meniscus with Newtonian fluid characteristics (which is compatible with conventional inkjet printers) to fabricate 3D silver microarchitectures is reported...
June 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539616/analytical-consideration-of-liquid-droplet-impingement-on-solid-surfaces
#15
Yukihiro Yonemoto, Tomoaki Kunugi
In industrial applications involving spray-cooling, combustion, and so on, prediction of the maximum spreading diameter of a droplet impinging on a solid surface permits a quantitative estimation of heat removal and energy consumption. However, although there are many experimental studies regarding droplet impingement behaviour, theoretical models have an applicability limit for predicting the maximum spreading diameter. In the present study, we have developed an analytical model for droplet impingement based on energy conservation that considers adhesion energy in both horizontal and vertical directions at the contact line...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529037/diabetes-development-increased-concentrations-of-the-conjugated-bile-acid-taurocholic-acid-in-serum-while-treatment-with-microencapsulated-taurocholic-acid-exerted-no-hypoglycaemic-effects
#16
Sangeetha Mathavan, Momir Mikov, Svetlana Golocorbin-Kon, Hani Al-Salami
CONTEXT: The bile acid taurocholic acid (TCA) is endogenously produced, and has shown formulation-stabilising effects when incorporated into microcapsules containing potential antidiabetic drugs. This study aimed to develop and characterise TCA-microcapsules, and test their antidiabetic effects, in an animal model of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Using the polymer sodium alginate (SA), SA-microcapsules (control) and TCA-microcapsules (test) were prepared, and assessed for morphology, surface composition, chemical and thermal stability, swelling, buoyancy, mechanical, release and rheological properties...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527299/role-of-pickering-stabilization-and-bulk-gelation-for-the-preparation-and-properties-of-solid-silica-foams
#17
I Lesov, S Tcholakova, M Kovadjieva, T Saison, M Lamblet, N Denkov
Foaming of particulate suspensions, followed by foam drying, is developed as an efficient method for production of highly porous materials with various applications. A key factor for success is the appropriate choice of surfactants which both modify the particle surface and stabilize the foam. Here we compare the efficiency of this method for silica suspensions containing two surfactants which lead to very different types of foam stabilization. Cationic TTAB leads to particle-stabilized foams (Pickering stabilization) whereas zwitterionic CAPB - to surfactant-stabilized foams...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520431/anomalous-behavior-of-ultra-low-amplitude-capillary-waves-a-glimpse-of-the-viscoelastic-properties-of-interfacial-water
#18
Antonio Raudino, Domenica Raciti, Mario Corti
We investigate, both theoretically and by a differential interferometric technique, the behavior of large-wavelength capillary waves (of order of 10^-4 m) selectively excited at the surface of drops and bubbles with typical eigenfrequencies of order of 10^2 Hz. The resonance peaks of gas bubbles or hydrocarbon drops in water (radius less than 1 mm) highlight anomalously small dissipation in the region of ultra-low (sub-nanometric) oscillation amplitudes, reaching a plateau at higher amplitudes. This is in sharp contrast to the usual oscillating systems, where an anomalous behavior holds at large amplitudes alone...
May 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518077/inkjet-printed-polyvinyl-alcohol-multilayers
#19
Iulia Salaoru, Zuoxin Zhou, Peter Morris, Gregory J Gibbons
Inkjet printing is a modern method for polymer processing, and in this work, we demonstrate that this technology is capable of producing polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) multilayer structures. A polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution was formulated. The intrinsic properties of the ink, such as surface tension, viscosity, pH, and time stability, were investigated. The PVOH-based ink was a neutral solution (pH 6.7) with a surface tension of 39.3 mN/m and a viscosity of 7.5 cP. The ink displayed pseudoplastic (non-Newtonian shear thinning) behavior at low shear rates, and overall, it demonstrated good time stability...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512313/a-rapid-capillary-pressure-driven-micro-channel-to-demonstrate-newtonian-fluid-behavior-of-zebrafish-blood-at-high-shear-rates
#20
Juhyun Lee, Tzu-Chieh Chou, Dongyang Kang, Hanul Kang, Junjie Chen, Kyung In Baek, Wei Wang, Yichen Ding, Dino Di Carlo, Yu-Chong Tai, Tzung K Hsiai
Blood viscosity provides the rheological basis to elucidate shear stress underlying developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology. Zebrafish is a high throughput model for developmental biology, forward-genetics, and drug discovery. The micro-scale posed an experimental challenge to measure blood viscosity. To address this challenge, a microfluidic viscometer driven by surface tension was developed to reduce the sample volume required (3μL) for rapid (<2 min) and continuous viscosity measurement. By fitting the power-law fluid model to the travel distance of blood through the micro-channel as a function of time and channel configuration, the experimentally acquired blood viscosity was compared with a vacuum-driven capillary viscometer at high shear rates (>500 s(-1)), at which the power law exponent (n) of zebrafish blood was nearly 1 behaving as a Newtonian fluid...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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