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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549521/the-evidence-for-dietary-interventions-and-nutritional-supplements-as-treatment-options-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Leah J Mische, Ellen M Mowry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). RECENT FINDINGS: There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive...
March 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466822/alternative-ern%C3%A3-hrungsformen-allgemeine-aspekte-und-vegetarische-kostformen
#2
Alexander Ströhle, Christian Löser, Isabel Behrendt, Claus Leitzmann, Andreas Hahn
Alternative diets (AD) differ from the current common mixed diet; AD are recommended as a permanent diet. These diets are based on ethical, philosophical and health promoting principles and lead to very different recommendations for food selection. Even within a particular AD there is usually a broad spectrum of versions, so that a general evaluation is only possible to a limited extent. This is also true for single AD. Vegetarian diets and partly paleo-diets have been investigated to a reasonable extent. Plant based diets are appropriate as permanent diets and offer health benefits as compared with currently practiced diets (risk reduction of cancers by 10-18% and of heart diseases by 30%; favorable effect on blood pressure and lipid profile; no risk reduction on cancer and total mortality)...
February 2018: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447759/ecomorphological-analysis-of-bovid-mandibles-from-laetoli-tanzania-using-3d-geometric-morphometrics-implications-for-hominin-paleoenvironmental-reconstruction
#3
Frances L Forrest, Thomas W Plummer, Ryan L Raaum
The current study describes a new method of mandibular ecological morphology (ecomorphology). Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3D GM) was used to quantify mandibular shape variation between extant bovids with different feeding preferences. Landmark data were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA), principal components analysis (PCA), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The PCA resulted in a continuum from grazers to browsers along PC1 and DFA classified 88% or more of the modern specimens to the correct feeding category...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124370/popular-weight-loss-strategies-a-review-of-four-weight-loss-techniques
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan Obert, Michelle Pearlman, Lois Obert, Sarah Chapin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the most recent literature on popular fad diets and exercise regimens that are used for weight loss. The weight loss plans that will be discussed in this article include juicing or detoxification diets, intermittent fasting, the paleo diet, and high intensity training. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the growing popularity of fad diets and exercise plans for weight loss, there are limited studies that actually suggest these particular regimens are beneficial and lead to long-term weight loss...
November 9, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065499/an-overview-of-dietary-interventions-and-strategies-to-optimize-the-management-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Brandon J Perumpail, Rosann Cholankeril, Eric R Yoo, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
Aim : To investigate the efficacy of lifestyle adjustment strategies as a preventive measure and/or treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. Method : A systematic review of literature through 1 July 2017 on the PubMed Database was performed. A comprehensive search was conducted using key terms, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), combined with lifestyle intervention, diet, and exercise. All of the articles and studies obtained from the search were reviewed. Redundant literature was excluded...
October 22, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875538/seasonal-cyclicity-in-trace-elements-and-stable-isotopes-of-modern-horse-enamel
#6
Niels J de Winter, Christophe Snoeck, Philippe Claeys
The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753214/how-to-make-stone-soup-is-the-paleo-diet-a-missed-opportunity-for-anthropologists
#7
Melanie L Chang, April Nowell
For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510338/the-paleo-diet-and-diabetes
#8
Sofianos Andrikopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348202/methodological-problems-with-the-test-of-the-paleo-diet-by-lamont-et-al-2016
#9
N Cofnas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27051985/cutting-through-the-paleo-hype-the-evidence-for-the-palaeolithic-diet
#10
REVIEW
Christopher E Pitt
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) are commonly asked about popular diets. The Palaeolithic diet is both highly popular and controversial. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the published literature to establish the evidence for and against the Palaeolithic diet. DISCUSSION: The Palaeolithic diet remains controversial because of exaggerated claims for it by wellness bloggers and celebrity chefs, and the contentious evolutionary discordance hypothesis on which it is based...
January 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26341820/determining-how-best-to-support-overweight-adults-to-adhere-to-lifestyle-change-protocol-for-the-swift-study
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rachael W Taylor, Melyssa Roy, Michelle R Jospe, Hamish R Osborne, Kim J Meredith-Jones, Sheila M Williams, Rachel C Brown
BACKGROUND: Physical activity plays a critical role in health, including for effective weight maintenance, but adherence to guidelines is often poor. Similarly, although debate continues over whether a "best" diet exists for weight control, meta-analyses suggest little difference in outcomes between diets differing markedly in macronutrient composition, particularly over the longer-term. Thus a more important question is how best to encourage adherence to appropriate lifestyle change...
September 4, 2015: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26331100/dietary-preferences-and-nutritional-information-needs-among-career-firefighters-in-the-united-states
#12
Justin Yang, Andrea Farioli, Maria Korre, Stefanos N Kales
BACKGROUND: Considerable cardiovascular disease and cancer risk among firefighters are attributable to excess adiposity. Robust evidence confirms strong relationships between dietary patterns and the risk of chronic disease. Dietary modification is more likely to be effective when the strategy is appealing and addresses knowledge gaps. OBJECTIVE: To assess career firefighters' diet practices and information needs, compare the relative appeal of proposed diet plans, and examine how these vary in association with body composition...
July 2015: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25889196/natural-environments-ancestral-diets-and-microbial-ecology-is-there-a-modern-paleo-deficit-disorder-part-ii
#13
REVIEW
Alan C Logan, Martin A Katzman, Vicent Balanzá-Martínez
Famed microbiologist René J. Dubos (1901-1982) was an early pioneer in the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) construct. In the 1960s, he conducted groundbreaking research concerning the ways in which early-life experience with nutrition, microbiota, stress, and other environmental variables could influence later-life health outcomes. He recognized the co-evolutionary relationship between microbiota and the human host. Almost 2 decades before the hygiene hypothesis, he suggested that children in developed nations were becoming too sanitized (vs...
March 10, 2015: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25828624/metabolic-and-physiologic-effects-from-consuming-a-hunter-gatherer-paleolithic-type-diet-in-type-2-diabetes
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
U Masharani, P Sherchan, M Schloetter, S Stratford, A Xiao, A Sebastian, M Nolte Kennedy, L Frassetto
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The contemporary American diet figures centrally in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases--'diseases of civilization'--such as obesity and diabetes. We investigated in type 2 diabetes whether a diet similar to that consumed by our pre-agricultural hunter-gatherer ancestors ('Paleolithic' type diet) confers health benefits. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed an outpatient, metabolically controlled diet study in type 2 diabetes patients...
August 2015: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25446146/methane-emission-by-adult-ostriches-struthio-camelus
#15
Samuel Frei, Marie T Dittmann, Christoph Reutlinger, Sylvia Ortmann, Jean-Michel Hatt, Michael Kreuzer, Marcus Clauss
Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108...
February 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24981322/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-use-and-nutrient-intake-among-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-in-the-united-states
#16
Laura Masullo, Mia A Papas, Nancy Cotugna, Sandra Baker, Lauren Mahoney, Jillian Trabulsi
Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, specific CAM therapies used within this population have not been thoroughly described, particularly the use of supplements, herbal remedies, and dietary modifications. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of specific types of CAM used by adults with MS in the United States. Participants included adults who were diagnosed with MS at least 1 year prior to study enrollment. CAM use was measured using the CAM Supplement of the National Health Interview Survey, and nutrient intake was assessed using an Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall...
February 2015: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23859996/established-dietary-estimates-of-net-acid-production-do-not-predict-measured-net-acid-excretion-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-on-paleolithic-hunter-gatherer-type-diets
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
L A Frassetto, L Shi, M Schloetter, A Sebastian, T Remer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Formulas developed to estimate diet-dependent net acid excretion (NAE) generally agree with measured values for typical Western diets. Whether they can also appropriately predict NAE for 'Paleolithic-type' (Paleo) diets-which contain very high amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and concurrent high amounts of protein is unknown. Here, we compare measured NAEs with established NAE estimates in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirteen subjects with well-controlled T2D were randomized to either a Paleo or American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet for 14 days...
September 2013: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22553124/analysis-of-dental-root-apical-morphology-a-new-method-for-dietary-reconstructions-in-primates
#18
NoÉmie Hamon, Edouard-Georges Emonet, Yaowalak Chaimanee, Franck Guy, Paul Tafforeau, Jean-Jacques Jaeger
The reconstruction of paleo-diets is an important task in the study of fossil primates. Previously, paleo-diet reconstructions were performed using different methods based on extant primate models. In particular, dental microwear or isotopic analyses provided accurate reconstructions for some fossil primates. However, there is sometimes difficult or impossible to apply these methods to fossil material. Therefore, the development of new, independent methods of diet reconstructions is crucial to improve our knowledge of primates paleobiology and paleoecology...
June 2012: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21706333/quaternary-record-of-aridity-and-mean-annual-precipitation-based-on-%C3%AE-15n-in-ratite-and-dromornithid-eggshells-from-lake-eyre-australia
#19
Seth D Newsome, Gifford H Miller, John W Magee, Marilyn L Fogel
The cause(s) of the late Pleistocene megafauna extinction on the Australian continent remains largely unresolved. Unraveling climatic forcing mechanisms from direct or indirect human agents of ecosystem alteration has proven to be extremely difficult in Australia due to the lack of (1) well-dated vertebrate fossils and (2) paleo-environmental and -ecological records spanning the past approximately 100 ka when regional climatic conditions are known to have significantly varied. We have examined the nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) of modern emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) eggshells collected along a precipitation gradient in Australia, along with modern climatological data and dietary δ(15)N values...
December 2011: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21328563/cranial-suture-biology-of-the-aleutian-island-inhabitants
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
James Cray, Mark P Mooney, Michael I Siegel
Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape...
April 2011: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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