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Paleo diet

Jonathan Obert, Michelle Pearlman, Lois Obert, Sarah Chapin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the most recent literature on popular fad diets and exercise regimens that are used for weight loss. The weight loss plans that will be discussed in this article include juicing or detoxification diets, intermittent fasting, the paleo diet, and high intensity training. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the growing popularity of fad diets and exercise plans for weight loss, there are limited studies that actually suggest these particular regimens are beneficial and lead to long-term weight loss...
November 9, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Brandon J Perumpail, Rosann Cholankeril, Eric R Yoo, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
Aim: To investigate the efficacy of lifestyle adjustment strategies as a preventive measure and/or treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. Method: A systematic review of literature through 1 July 2017 on the PubMed Database was performed. A comprehensive search was conducted using key terms, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), combined with lifestyle intervention, diet, and exercise. All of the articles and studies obtained from the search were reviewed. Redundant literature was excluded...
October 22, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
Niels J de Winter, Christophe Snoeck, Philippe Claeys
The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar...
2016: PloS One
Melanie L Chang, April Nowell
For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Sofianos Andrikopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
N Cofnas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
Christopher E Pitt
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) are commonly asked about popular diets. The Palaeolithic diet is both highly popular and controversial. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the published literature to establish the evidence for and against the Palaeolithic diet. DISCUSSION: The Palaeolithic diet remains controversial because of exaggerated claims for it by wellness bloggers and celebrity chefs, and the contentious evolutionary discordance hypothesis on which it is based...
January 2016: Australian Family Physician
Rachael W Taylor, Melyssa Roy, Michelle R Jospe, Hamish R Osborne, Kim J Meredith-Jones, Sheila M Williams, Rachel C Brown
BACKGROUND: Physical activity plays a critical role in health, including for effective weight maintenance, but adherence to guidelines is often poor. Similarly, although debate continues over whether a "best" diet exists for weight control, meta-analyses suggest little difference in outcomes between diets differing markedly in macronutrient composition, particularly over the longer-term. Thus a more important question is how best to encourage adherence to appropriate lifestyle change...
September 4, 2015: BMC Public Health
Justin Yang, Andrea Farioli, Maria Korre, Stefanos N Kales
BACKGROUND: Considerable cardiovascular disease and cancer risk among firefighters are attributable to excess adiposity. Robust evidence confirms strong relationships between dietary patterns and the risk of chronic disease. Dietary modification is more likely to be effective when the strategy is appealing and addresses knowledge gaps. OBJECTIVE: To assess career firefighters' diet practices and information needs, compare the relative appeal of proposed diet plans, and examine how these vary in association with body composition...
July 2015: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Alan C Logan, Martin A Katzman, Vicent Balanzá-Martínez
Famed microbiologist René J. Dubos (1901-1982) was an early pioneer in the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) construct. In the 1960s, he conducted groundbreaking research concerning the ways in which early-life experience with nutrition, microbiota, stress, and other environmental variables could influence later-life health outcomes. He recognized the co-evolutionary relationship between microbiota and the human host. Almost 2 decades before the hygiene hypothesis, he suggested that children in developed nations were becoming too sanitized (vs...
March 10, 2015: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
U Masharani, P Sherchan, M Schloetter, S Stratford, A Xiao, A Sebastian, M Nolte Kennedy, L Frassetto
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The contemporary American diet figures centrally in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases--'diseases of civilization'--such as obesity and diabetes. We investigated in type 2 diabetes whether a diet similar to that consumed by our pre-agricultural hunter-gatherer ancestors ('Paleolithic' type diet) confers health benefits. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed an outpatient, metabolically controlled diet study in type 2 diabetes patients...
August 2015: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Samuel Frei, Marie T Dittmann, Christoph Reutlinger, Sylvia Ortmann, Jean-Michel Hatt, Michael Kreuzer, Marcus Clauss
Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108...
February 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Laura Masullo, Mia A Papas, Nancy Cotugna, Sandra Baker, Lauren Mahoney, Jillian Trabulsi
Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, specific CAM therapies used within this population have not been thoroughly described, particularly the use of supplements, herbal remedies, and dietary modifications. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of specific types of CAM used by adults with MS in the United States. Participants included adults who were diagnosed with MS at least 1 year prior to study enrollment. CAM use was measured using the CAM Supplement of the National Health Interview Survey, and nutrient intake was assessed using an Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall...
February 2015: Journal of Community Health
L A Frassetto, L Shi, M Schloetter, A Sebastian, T Remer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Formulas developed to estimate diet-dependent net acid excretion (NAE) generally agree with measured values for typical Western diets. Whether they can also appropriately predict NAE for 'Paleolithic-type' (Paleo) diets-which contain very high amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and concurrent high amounts of protein is unknown. Here, we compare measured NAEs with established NAE estimates in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirteen subjects with well-controlled T2D were randomized to either a Paleo or American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet for 14 days...
September 2013: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
NoÉmie Hamon, Edouard-Georges Emonet, Yaowalak Chaimanee, Franck Guy, Paul Tafforeau, Jean-Jacques Jaeger
The reconstruction of paleo-diets is an important task in the study of fossil primates. Previously, paleo-diet reconstructions were performed using different methods based on extant primate models. In particular, dental microwear or isotopic analyses provided accurate reconstructions for some fossil primates. However, there is sometimes difficult or impossible to apply these methods to fossil material. Therefore, the development of new, independent methods of diet reconstructions is crucial to improve our knowledge of primates paleobiology and paleoecology...
June 2012: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Seth D Newsome, Gifford H Miller, John W Magee, Marilyn L Fogel
The cause(s) of the late Pleistocene megafauna extinction on the Australian continent remains largely unresolved. Unraveling climatic forcing mechanisms from direct or indirect human agents of ecosystem alteration has proven to be extremely difficult in Australia due to the lack of (1) well-dated vertebrate fossils and (2) paleo-environmental and -ecological records spanning the past approximately 100 ka when regional climatic conditions are known to have significantly varied. We have examined the nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) of modern emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) eggshells collected along a precipitation gradient in Australia, along with modern climatological data and dietary δ(15)N values...
December 2011: Oecologia
James Cray, Mark P Mooney, Michael I Siegel
Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape...
April 2011: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Irit Zohar, Rebecca Biton
The question of whether or not pre-modern hominins were responsible for the accumulation of fish remains is discussed through analyses of remains recovered from two lacustrine facies (I-4 and I-5) from Area A of the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY) in the Jordan Rift Valley, Israel. The fish remains provide the first glimpse into the naturally accumulated fish assemblage from the fluctuating shores of a lake that had been continually exploited by early hominins some 780,000 years ago. Preliminary analysis of the remains show that thirteen of the seventeen species native to Lake Hula were identified at GBY...
April 2011: Journal of Human Evolution
Matthew J Kohn
A broad compilation of modern carbon isotope compositions in all C3 plant types shows a monotonic increase in δ(13)C with decreasing mean annual precipitation (MAP) that differs from previous models. Corrections for temperature, altitude, or latitude are smaller than previously estimated. As corrected for altitude, latitude, and the δ(13)C of atmospheric CO(2), these data permit refined interpretation of MAP, paleodiet, and paleoecology of ecosystems dominated by C3 plants, either prior to 7-8 million years ago (Ma), or more recently at mid- to high latitudes...
November 16, 2010: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Matthew E Gompper, Eduardo Eizirik, Cheuk-Chung Ho, Leif Linden, Jesus E Maldonado, Robert K Wayne
The Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora) have played a central role in resolving the controversial systematics of the giant and red pandas, but phylogenetic relationships of species within the family itself have received much less attention. Cladistic analyses of morphological characters conducted during the last two decades have resulted in topologies that group ecologically and morphologically similar taxa together. Specifically, the highly arboreal and frugivorous kinkajou (Potos flavus) and olingos (Bassaricyon) define one clade, whereas the more terrestrial and omnivorous coatis (Nasua), raccoons (Procyon), and ringtails (Bassariscus) define another clade, with the similar-sized Nasua and Procyon joined as sister taxa in this latter group...
June 2007: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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