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Vegetarian diets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161815/bioactive-compounds-of-edible-purple-laver-porphyra-sp-nori
#1
Tomohiro Bito, Fei Teng, Fumio Watanabe
Porphyra sp. (nori) is widely cultivated as an important marine crop. Dried nori contains numerous nutrients including vitamin B12, which is the only vitamin absent from plant-derived food sources. Vegetarian diets are relatively low in iron and vitamin B12; depletion of both causes severe anemia. Nori also contains considerable amounts of iron compared with other plant-derived foods and eicosapentaenoic acid, which is an important fatty acid found in fish oils. In nori, there are also many bioactive compounds exhibiting various pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidative activities...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145911/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-north-italy-high-seroprevalence-in-swine-herds-and-increased-risk-for-swine-workers
#2
L Mughini-Gras, G Angeloni, C Salata, N Vonesch, W D'Amico, G Campagna, A Natale, F Zuliani, L Ceglie, I Monne, M Vascellari, K Capello, G DI Martino, N Inglese, G Palù, P Tomao, L Bonfanti
We determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence and detection rate in commercial swine herds in Italy's utmost pig-rich area, and assessed HEV seropositivity risk in humans as a function of occupational exposure to pigs, diet, foreign travel, medical history and hunting activities. During 2011-2014, 2700 sera from 300 swine herds were tested for anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA was searched in 959 faecal pools from HEV-seropositive herds and in liver/bile/muscle samples from 179 pigs from HEV-positive herds. A cohort study of HEV seropositivity in swine workers (n = 149) was also performed using two comparison groups of people unexposed to swine: omnivores (n = 121) and vegetarians/vegans (n = 115)...
November 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145461/climate-change-mitigation-opportunities-based-on-carbon-footprint-estimates-of-dietary-patterns-in-peru
#3
Ian Vázquez-Rowe, Gustavo Larrea-Gallegos, Pedro Villanueva-Rey, Alessandro Gilardino
Food consumption accounts for an important proportion of the world GHG emissions per capita. Previous studies have delved into the nature of dietary patterns, showing that GHG reductions can be achieved in diets if certain foods are consumed rather than other, more GHG intensive products. For instance, vegetarian and low-meat diets have proved to be less carbon intensive than diets that are based on ruminant meat. These environmental patterns, increasingly analyzed in developed nations, are yet to be assessed in countries liked Peru where food purchase represents a relatively high percentage of the average household expenditure, ranging from 38% to 51% of the same...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137685/nutrition-research-in-cognitive-impairment-dementia-with-a-focus-on-soya-and-folate
#4
Eef Hogervorst, Shelina Kassam, Atik Kridawati, Mira Soni, Xu Xin, Xiao Shifu, Tri Budi Rahardjo
Observational studies and treatment trials investigating nutrition and cognitive function, with a focus on folate and soya and dementia, were reviewed. Data suggested that effects of folic acid based interventions may only be shown before cognitive decline is evident and/or if people are folate deficient. In older people in Indonesia, Hawai'i and China, tofu, which can contain high levels of phytoestrogens, was found to increase dementia risk. This association was not mediated by a vegetarian diet, socioeconomic status, formaldehyde, thyroid function, or loss of teeth...
November 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134507/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-orthorexia-nervosa-in-a-sample-of-university-students-in-italy
#5
L Dell'Osso, Barbara Carpita, D Muti, I M Cremone, G Massimetti, E Diadema, C Gesi, C Carmassi
AIMS: Orthorexia nervosa (ON) has been recently defined as a pathological approach to feeding related to healthiness concerns and purity of food and/or feeding habits. This condition recently showed an increasing prevalence particularly among young adults. In order to investigate the prevalence of ON and its relationship with gender and nutritional style among young adults, we explored a sample of students from the University of Pisa, Italy. METHODS: Assessments included the ORTO-15 questionnaire and a socio-demographic and eating habits form...
November 13, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113145/associations-between-nut-consumption-and-health-vary-between-omnivores-vegetarians-and-vegans
#6
Rachel C Brown, Andrew R Gray, Siew Ling Tey, Alexandra Chisholm, Victoria Burley, Darren C Greenwood, Janet Cade
Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease risk factors in a large sample with diverse dietary patterns. Nut and nutrient intake from 34,831 women was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among self-identified omnivores, vegetarians and vegans...
November 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091812/food-restriction-followed-by-refeeding-with-a-casein-or-whey-based-diet-differentially-affects-the-gut-microbiota-of-pre-pubertal-male-rats
#7
Majdi Masarwi, Hadas Isaac Solnik, Moshe Phillip, Sima Yaron, Raanan Shamir, Metsada Pasmanic-Chor, Galia Gat-Yablonski
Researchers are gaining an increasing understanding of host-gut microbiota interactions, but studies of the role of gut microbiota in linear growth are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of food restriction and refeeding with different diets on gut microbiota composition in fast-growing rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed regular rat chow ad libitum (control group) or subjected to 40% food restriction for 36 days followed by continued restriction or ad libitum refeeding for 24 days...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067566/diet-gut-microbiota-and-vitamins-d-%C3%A2-a-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Paolo Riccio, Rocco Rossano
Central to the understanding of the relationships between diet, gut microbiota, and vitamins D and A in multiple sclerosis is low-grade inflammation, which is involved in all chronic inflammatory diseases and is influenced by each of the above effectors. We show that food components have either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects and influence both the human metabolism (the "metabolome") and the composition of gut microbiota. Hypercaloric, high-animal-fat Western diets favor anabolism and change gut microbiota composition towards dysbiosis...
October 24, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063379/dietary-patterns-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
REVIEW
M Carolina Archundia Herrera, Fatheema B Subhan, Catherine B Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary objective of this review is to identify dietary patterns with beneficial effects on cardiovascular health of adults with type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally. People with diabetes have a greater risk for cardiovascular disease. Mediterranean diet, dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, vegetarian diet, traditional Korean diet, Japanese diet, and low-glycemic-index diet can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in people with diabetes...
October 23, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058160/equivalent-reduction-in-greenhouse-gas-emissions-by-mahayana-buddhists-practicing-vegetarian-diets
#10
Ampere A Tseng
The equivalent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) by Mahayana Buddhists with vegetarian diets is quantitatively evaluated. The Buddhists in seven Mahayana-dominated countries or regions, i.e., China, Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, are studied. Assessments of the vegetarian population among these Mahayana-dominated countries or regions are performed. Correlation formulas based on data from a national survey are developed to quantify the GHGEs of various dietary groups by using the meat consumption as the only required input...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038146/use-of-metabolomics-in-improving-assessment-of-dietary-intake
#11
REVIEW
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly evolving to integrate nutrition with complex metabolomics data to discover new biomarkers of nutritional exposure and status. CONTENT: The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of the measurement techniques, study designs, and statistical approaches used in nutrition metabolomics, as well as to describe the current knowledge from epidemiologic studies identifying metabolite profiles associated with the intake of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027960/a-new-approach-to-assess-lifetime-dietary-patterns-finds-lower-consumption-of-animal-foods-with-aging-in-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-a-health-oriented-adventist-population
#12
Marcia C T Martins, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Michael Orlich, Jing Fan, Andrew Mashchak, Gary E Fraser
Life-course diet patterns may impact risk of disease, but little is known about dietary trends with aging. In a retrospective longitudinal analysis we estimated lifetime intake of animal products and adherence to vegetarian dietary patterns among 51,082 Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) subjects using data from a reliable life-course dietary (meats, dairy, eggs) questionnaire. Results showed a marked tendency to consume fewer animal products (in total) in older years and to reduce consumption of meat, poultry and fish, but not eggs or dairy...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022562/ketogenic-diet-in-endocrine-disorders-current-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
L Gupta, D Khandelwal, S Kalra, P Gupta, D Dutta, S Aggarwal
Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome...
October 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017525/is-vegetarian-diet-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-taiwanese-women
#14
Yao-Jen Chang, Yi-Cheng Hou, Li-Ju Chen, Jing-Hui Wu, Chao-Chuan Wu, Yun-Jau Chang, Kuo-Piao Chung
BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between vegetarian diet and breast cancer in Asian populations are limited. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between vegetarian diet, dietary patterns, and breast cancer in Taiwanese women. METHODS: This case-control study compared the dietary patterns of 233 breast cancer patients and 236 age-matched controls. A questionnaire about vegetarian diets and 28 frequently-consumed food items was administered to these 469 patients in the surgical department of Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital...
October 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959918/special-diets-in-modern-america-analysis-of-the-2012-national-health-interview-survey-data
#15
Brenda Leung, Romy Lauche, Matthew Leach, Yan Zhang, Holger Cramer, David Sibbritt
BACKGROUND: Special diets are frequently used by the public but reasons for use and characteristics of users remain unclear. AIM: To determine prevalence of the use of special diets, the individual characteristics associated with their use and reasons for use. METHODS: The secondary analysis used data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a cross-sectional household interview survey of a nationally representative sample of non-hospitalized US adult populations ( n = 34,525)...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957713/ovo-vegetarian-diet-is-associated-with-lower-systemic-blood-pressure-in-taiwanese-women
#16
C P Ho, J H Yu, T J F Lee
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate blood pressure (BP) profiles among Taiwanese women with different dietary patterns. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 269 non-hypertensive Taiwanese women, 40 years of age or older, were surveyed using structured questionnaires, and measurements of BP and physiological parameters were made. To assess differences among vegans, ovo-vegetarians, and meat eaters in terms of BP, demographic, and health behavior data, the chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were employed for categorical variables, and analysis of variance and independent t-tests were performed for continuous variables...
September 25, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938794/association-between-plant-based-diets-and-plasma-lipids-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Yoko Yokoyama, Susan M Levin, Neal D Barnard
Context: Although a recent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed that adoption of a vegetarian diet reduces plasma lipids, the association between vegetarian diets and long-term effects on plasma lipids has not been subjected to meta-analysis. Objective: The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and clinical trials that have examined associations between plant-based diets and plasma lipids. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for articles published in English until June 2015...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926931/comparison-of-sociodemographic-and-nutritional-characteristics-between-self-reported-vegetarians-vegans-and-meat-eaters-from-the-nutrinet-sant%C3%A3-study
#18
Benjamin Allès, Julia Baudry, Caroline Méjean, Mathilde Touvier, Sandrine Péneau, Serge Hercberg, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
BACKGROUND: There is a growing trend for vegetarian and vegan diets in many Western countries. Epidemiological evidence suggesting that such diets may help in maintaining good health is rising. However, dietary and sociodemographic characteristics of vegetarians and vegans are not well known. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics of self-reported, adult vegetarians and vegans, compared to meat-eaters, from the French NutriNet-Santé study...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924423/vegan-diets-practical-advice-for-athletes-and-exercisers
#19
REVIEW
David Rogerson
With the growth of social media as a platform to share information, veganism is becoming more visible, and could be becoming more accepted in sports and in the health and fitness industry. However, to date, there appears to be a lack of literature that discusses how to manage vegan diets for athletic purposes. This article attempted to review literature in order to provide recommendations for how to construct a vegan diet for athletes and exercisers. While little data could be found in the sports nutrition literature specifically, it was revealed elsewhere that veganism creates challenges that need to be accounted for when designing a nutritious diet...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918774/dietary-patterns-and-depressive-symptoms-in-a-uk-cohort-of-men-and-women-a-longitudinal-study
#20
Kate Northstone, Carol Joinson, Pauline Emmett
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence to suggest that individual components of dietary intake are associated with depressive symptoms. Studying the whole diet, through dietary patterns, has become popular as a way of overcoming intercorrelations between individual dietary components; however, there are conflicting results regarding associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms. We examined the associations between dietary patterns extracted using principal component analysis and depressive symptoms, taking account of potential temporal relationships...
September 18, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
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