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Essential fatty acids

Weilin Liu, Junmeng Lu, Aiqian Ye, Qingqing Xu, Mengmeng Tian, Youyu Kong, Fuqiang Wei, Jianzhong Han
There remain gaps in our understanding of the fate of liposomes in the infant gastrointestinal tract, especially regarding essential proteins such as lactoferrin. Models in vitro that mirrored digestion in the stomach and intestine of infants and adults were used to explore the behaviour of lactoferrin-loaded liposomes. The liposomes behaved differently in these environments, with less hydrolysis of encapsulated lactoferrin under infant model conditions. Compared to the adult model (1000 ± 66 μM mL-1 ), fewer free fatty acids were released (500 ± 43 μM mL-1 ) from liposomal bilayers and there was less alteration in functional groups of phospholipids membranes, based on pH and FTIR after infant model digestion...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yifeng Wang, Wen-Xing Ding, Tiangang Li
Liver is the major organ that regulates whole body cholesterol metabolism. Disrupted hepatic cholesterol homeostasis contributes to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Hepatic bile acid synthesis is the major catabolic mechanism for cholesterol elimination from the body. Furthermore, bile acids are signaling molecules that regulate liver metabolism and inflammation. Autophagy is a highly-conserved lysosomal degradation mechanism, which plays an essential role in maintaining cellular integrity and energy homeostasis...
April 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Veronika Boczonadi, Kathrin Meyer, Humberto Gonczarowska-Jorge, Helen Griffin, Andreas Roos, Marina Bartsakoulia, Boglarka Bansagi, Giulia Ricci, Fanni Palinkas, René P Zahedi, Francesco Bruni, Brian Kaspar, Hanns Lochmüller, Kym M Boycott, Juliane S Müller, Rita Horvath
The nuclear-encoded glycyl-tRNA synthetase gene (GARS) is essential for protein translation in both cytoplasm and mitochondria. In contrast, different genes encode the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of most other tRNA synthetases. Dominant GARS mutations were described in inherited neuropathies, while recessive mutations cause severe childhood-onset disorders affecting skeletal muscle and heart. The downstream events explaining tissue-specific phenotype-genotype relations remained unclear. We investigated the mitochondrial function of GARS in human cell lines and in the GarsC210R mouse model...
April 10, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Ramla Ben Mouhoub, Alya El May, Imen Boujezza, Mohamed Marouen Sethom, Moncef Feki, Ahmed Landoulsi
The aim of this work is to demonstrate the effects of a static magnetic field (SMF) with an induction 12 equal to 57mT on the viability and membrane lipid composition of Salmonella Hadar. Results showed an increase in the viability of exposed bacteria compared to controls after 9h of exposure. Analysis with gas chromatography of total lipids (TLs) and different fractions of phospholipids: phosphatidylglycerols (PGs), phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), and cardiolipins (CLs), separated by thin layer chromatography revealed changes in fatty acid levels during exposure...
March 29, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Antonia María Romero, Tania Jordá, Nicolas Rozès, María Teresa Martínez-Pastor, Sergi Puig
Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) are essential components of phospholipids that greatly contribute to the biophysical properties of cellular membranes. Biosynthesis of UFAs relies on a conserved family of iron-dependent fatty acid desaturases, whose representative in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Ole1. OLE1 expression is tightly regulated to adapt UFA biosynthesis and lipid bilayer properties to changes in temperature, and in UFA or oxygen availability. Despite iron deficiency being the most extended nutritional disorder worldwide, very little is known about the mechanisms and the biological relevance of fatty acid desaturases regulation in response to iron starvation...
April 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tianpeng Zhang, Xiaoling Zhao, Clifford J Steer, Guiqin Yan, Guisheng Song
BACKGROUNDS: The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly increasing due to the prevalence of obesity. NAFLD is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Even with successful surgical removal, the presence of NAFLD is associated with an increased recurrence of HCC. Despite the extensive study of NAFLD, its underlying mechanism(s) remains essentially unknown and there are no FDA-approved drugs for its treatment. Alterations in microRNA (miR) expression have been observed in human fatty livers...
April 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Lena Pernas, Camilla Bean, John C Boothroyd, Luca Scorrano
How intracellular pathogens acquire essential non-diffusible host metabolites and whether the host cell counteracts the siphoning of these nutrients by its invaders are open questions. Here we show that host mitochondria fuse during infection by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii to limit its uptake of fatty acids (FAs). A combination of genetics and imaging of FA trafficking indicates that Toxoplasma infection triggers lipophagy, the autophagy of host lipid droplets (LDs), to secure cellular FAs essential for its proliferation...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Hui Luo, Ming Jiang, Guili Lian, Qing Liu, Meng Shi, Terytty Yang Li, Lintao Song, Jing Ye, Ying He, Luming Yao, Cixiong Zhang, Zhi-Zhong Lin, Chen-Song Zhang, Tong-Jin Zhao, Wei-Ping Jia, Peng Li, Shu-Yong Lin, Sheng-Cai Lin
The efficiency of intestinal absorption of dietary fat constitutes a primary determinant accounting for individual vulnerability to obesity. However, how fat absorption is controlled and contributes to obesity remains unclear. Here, we show that inhibition of endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) increases the abundance of triacylglycerol synthesis enzymes and fat absorption in small intestine. The C2-domain protein AIDA acts as an essential factor for the E3-ligase HRD1 of ERAD to downregulate rate-limiting acyltransferases GPAT3, MOGAT2, and DGAT2...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Chao Liu, Tianxu Han, David L Stachura, Huawei Wang, Boris L Vaisman, Jungsu Kim, Richard L Klemke, Alan T Remaley, Tariq M Rana, David Traver, Yury I Miller
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mediates hydrolysis of triglycerides (TGs) to supply free fatty acids (FFAs) to tissues. Here, we show that LPL activity is also required for hematopoietic stem progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. Knockout of Lpl or its obligatory cofactor Apoc2 results in significantly reduced HSPC expansion during definitive hematopoiesis in zebrafish. A human APOC2 mimetic peptide or the human very low-density lipoprotein, which carries APOC2, rescues the phenotype in apoc2 but not in lpl mutant zebrafish...
April 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Zahirah Dhurmeea, Heidi Pethybridge, Chandani Appadoo, Nathalie Bodin
Lipid composition in the reproductive and somatic tissues were investigated for female albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the western Indian Ocean, between latitude 18-21°S and longitude 56-60°E, from January 2014 to March 2015. Highest total lipids (TL) were found in the gonads of spawning-capable females (SCP) (mainly phospholipids, PL, triacylglycerols, TAG and wax esters, WE) and in the liver of females in the late regressing and regenerating ovary phases (mainly TAG, PL and sterols, ST). Muscle TL was low but exhibited high inter-individual variability...
2018: PloS One
Asma Ennigrou, Hervé Casabianca, Emmanuelle Vulliet, Belgacem Hanchi, Karim Hosni
The fatty acid, essential oil compositions and their respective antioxidant and antibacterial activities was determined in Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi leaves and twigs. The lipid content ranged from 1.75 to 4.65% in twigs and leaves, respectively. Thirteen fatty acids were identified with α-linolenic (C18:3), palmitic (C16:0) and linoleic (C18:2) acids being the main components. The essential oils of both organs were characterized by a high amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons (68.91-74.88%) with α-phellandrene (33...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
D Ye, S K R Karnati, B Wagner, J L Firkins, M L Eastridge, J M Aldrich
The interaction of monensin and essential oil was hypothesized to suppress protozoa and methane production while maintaining normal rumen function. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding monensin (MON) and CinnaGar (CIN, a commercial blend of cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil) on ruminal fermentation characteristics. Continuous culture fermentors (n = 4) were maintained in 4 experimental periods in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial: (1) control diet, 37 g/d of dry matter (40 g/d at ∼92...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
John P Cant, Julie J M Kim, Scott R L Cieslar, John Doelman
Milk protein yield responses to changes in the profile of essential amino acids absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract or circulating in blood plasma do not follow the classic limiting amino acid response, in part because of an ability of the mammary glands to modify their blood flow rate and net clearance of amino acids out of plasma. The hypothesis that mammary blood flow is locally regulated to maintain ATP balance accounts for observed changes in flow due to postruminal glucose, insulin, and essential amino acid (EAA) infusions...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Vijay Kumar, Anchal Sharma, Shivendra Pratap, Pravindra Kumar
Malonyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase (FabD), being an essential enzyme of the FAS II pathway, is an attractive target for developing broad-spectrum antibiotics. It performs initiation reaction to form malonyl-ACP, which is a key building block in fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we have characterized the FabD from drug-resistant pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis (McFabD). More importantly, we have shown the binding of McFabD with three new compounds from the class of aporphine alkaloids. ITC based binding studies have shown that apomorphine is binding to McFabD with a stronger affinity (KD  = 4...
March 28, 2018: Biochimie
Indranil De, Sushabhan Sadhukhan
Protein S-palmitoylation refers to a post-translational modification (PTM) wherein palmitic acid, a 16-carbon long saturated fatty acid gets covalently attached to Cys sidechain of a protein. It has been known to the literature for almost 50 years and in general, this PTM is believed to facilitate membrane attachments of proteins for the obvious hydrophobicity of the palmitoyl group. But after the discovery of the protein palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs, also known as DHHC-PATs), a major paradigm shift has been observed in the field of protein S-palmitoylation...
March 22, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ying Liu, Haidong Wang, Juan Wang
Exosomes are one of the most potent intercellular communicators, which are able to communicate with adjacent or distant cells. Exosomes deliver various bioactive molecules, including membrane receptors, proteins, mRNA and microRNA, to target cells and serve roles. Recent studies have demonstrated that exosomes may regulate the functions and diseases of the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. The abnormal functions of the skin lead to the progression of scleroderma, melanoma, baldness and other diseases...
March 2018: Biomedical Reports
Cong-Hui Yao, Gao-Yuan Liu, Rencheng Wang, Sung Ho Moon, Richard W Gross, Gary J Patti
It has been suggested that some cancer cells rely upon fatty acid oxidation (FAO) for energy. Here we show that when FAO was reduced approximately 90% by pharmacological inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1) with low concentrations of etomoxir, the proliferation rate of various cancer cells was unaffected. Efforts to pharmacologically inhibit FAO more than 90% revealed that high concentrations of etomoxir (200 μM) have an off-target effect of inhibiting complex I of the electron transport chain...
March 29, 2018: PLoS Biology
Piera M Marchetti, Van Kelly, Joanna P Simpson, Mairi Ward, Dominic J Campopiano
The marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata produces the bipyrrole antibiotic tambjamine YP1. This natural product is built from common amino acid and fatty acid building blocks in a biosynthetic pathway that is encoded in the tam operon which contains 19 genes. The exact role that each of these Tam proteins plays in tambjamine biosynthesis is not known. Here, we provide evidence that TamA initiates the synthesis and controls the chain length of the essential tambjamine fatty amine tail. Sequence analysis suggests the unusual TamA is comprised of an N-terminal adenylation (ANL) domain fused to a C-terminal acyl carrier protein (ACP)...
March 29, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Xia Gao, Katie Lee, Michael A Reid, Sydney M Sanderson, Chuping Qiu, Siqi Li, Juan Liu, Jason W Locasale
Cell proliferation can be dependent on the non-essential amino acid serine, and dietary restriction of serine inhibits tumor growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Using a metabolomics approach, we found that serine deprivation most predominantly impacts cellular acylcarnitine levels, a signature of altered mitochondrial function. Fuel utilization from fatty acid, glucose, and glutamine is affected by serine deprivation, as are mitochondrial morphological dynamics leading to increased fragmentation...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Faiza Mejri, Slimen Selmi, Alice Martins, Haifa Benkhoud, Tarek Baati, Hedia Chaabane, Leila Njim, Maria L M Serralheiro, Amélia P Rauter, Karim Hosni
This study was aimed at investigating the chemical composition (proximate, minerals, fatty acids and phenolic compounds) and the in vitro (antimicrobial, radical scavenging, anti-acetylcholinesterase and protein denaturing activities) and in vivo (anti-diabetic and histo-protective effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice) biological activities of broad bean pods (BBPs), a food waste by-product material. The results showed that BBPs have high dietary fiber (57.46%), carbohydrate (18.93%) and protein (13.81%) content versus low fat content (<1%) contributing to a low energy value of 139...
March 28, 2018: Food & Function
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