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Essential fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244071/the-glycosyltransferase-eogt-regulates-adropin-expression-in-decidualizing-human-endometrium
#1
Joanne Muter, Mohammad T Alam, Pavle Vrljicak, Flavio S V Barros, Peter T Ruane, Lauren J Ewington, John D Aplin, Melissa Westwood, Jan J Brosens
In pregnancy, resistance of endometrial decidual cells to stress signals is critical for the integrity of the feto-maternal interface and, by extension, survival of the conceptus. O-GlcNAcylation is an essential post-translational modification that links glucose sensing to cellular stress resistance. Unexpectedly, decidualization of primary endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) was associated with a 60% reduction in O-GlcNAc modified proteins, reflecting downregulation of the enzyme that adds O-GlcNAc to substrates (O-GlcNAc transferase, OGT) but not the enzyme that removes the modification (O-GlcNAcase, OGA)...
December 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238606/effects-of-amino-acid-composition-in-pig-diet-on-odorous-compounds-and-microbial-characteristics-of-swine-excreta
#2
Neeraja Recharla, Kihyun Kim, Juncheol Park, Jinyoung Jeong, Yongdae Jeong, Hyunjeong Lee, Okhwa Hwang, Jaehyoung Ryu, Youlchang Baek, Youngkyun Oh, Sungkwon Park
Background: Major amino acids in pig diets are Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, but little is known about the requirements for the other essential amino acids, especially on odorous compounds and microbial characteristics in feces of growing-finishing pigs. To this end, different levels of amino acid composition added to diets to investigate the effects of amino acid composition on microbial characteristics and odorous compounds concentration. Methods: A total eight (n = 8) barrows (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) with an average bodyweight of 89...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238025/analytical-methods-to-evaluate-the-quality-of-edible-fats-and-oils-the-jocs-standard-methods-for-analysis-of-fats-oils-and-related-materials-2013-and-advanced-methods
#3
Yasushi Endo
Edible fats and oils are among the basic components of the human diet, along with carbohydrates and proteins, and they are the source of high energy and essential fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acids. Edible fats and oils are used in for pan- and deep-frying, and in salad dressing, mayonnaise and processed foods such as chocolates and cream. The physical and chemical properties of edible fats and oils can affect the quality of oil foods and hence must be evaluated in detail. The physical characteristics of edible fats and oils include color, specific gravity, refractive index, melting point, congeal point, smoke point, flash point, fire point, and viscosity, while the chemical characteristics include acid value, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid composition, trans isomers, triacylglycerol composition, unsaponifiable matters (sterols, tocopherols) and minor components (phospholipids, chlorophyll pigments, glycidyl fatty acid esters)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237378/substrates-for-paraoxonase
#4
Xiaojing Mu, Xiaoqi Yi, Shangyou Xiao, Chengshan Wang, Gang Chen, Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Paraoxonase (PON) is a family of calcium-dependent hydrolases which is related to many diseases. Elucidation of PON physiological roles, active center and all applications in medical fields are dependent of its substrates. OBJECTIVE: The reports about PON substrates scattered in a long span of period are collected to afford clue for drug design, diagnosis of PON status and other academic purposes. METHOD: PON substrates from 134 references are classified and compared...
December 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236720/topical-use-and-systemic-action-of-green-and-roasted-coffee-oils-and-ground-oils-in-a-cutaneous-incision-model-in-rats-rattus-norvegicus-albinus
#5
Bruno Grosselli Lania, Joseane Morari, Aglécio Luis de Souza, Marilene Neves da Silva, Amanda Roberta de Almeida, Gislaine Veira-Damiani, Sarah Monte Alegre, Carlos Lenz César, Lício Augusto Velloso, Maria Letícia Cintra, Nilson Borlina Maia, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira Velho
INTRODUCTION: Wounds are a common health problem. Coffee is widely consumed and its oil contains essential fatty acids. We evaluated the local (skin) and systemic effects associated with the topical use of coffee oils in rats. METHODS: Punch skin wounds (6 mm) incisions were generated on the backs of 75 rats. Saline (SS), mineral oil (MO), green coffee oil (GCO), roasted coffee oil (RCO), green coffee ground oil (GCGO) or roasted coffee ground oil (RCGO) were topically applied to the wounds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234365/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-properties-of-croton-macrostachyus-hochst-ex-delile-a-comprehensive-review
#6
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Croton macrostachyus is widely used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of tropical Africa. The potential of C. macrostachyus as herbal medicine, the phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of its parts used as herbal medicines are reviewed. The extensive literature survey revealed that C. macrostachyus is traditionally used to treat or manage at least 81 human and animal diseases and ailments. The species is used as herbal medicine for diseases and ailments such as abdominal pains, cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, malaria, pneumonia, sexually transmitted infections, skin infections, typhoid, and wounds and as ethnoveterinary medicine...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234310/modulation-of-lipid-droplet-metabolism-a-potential-target-for-therapeutic-intervention-in-flaviviridae-infections
#7
REVIEW
Jingshu Zhang, Yun Lan, Sumana Sanyal
Lipid droplets (LDs) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related dynamic organelles that store and regulate fatty acids and neutral lipids. They play a central role in cellular energy storage, lipid metabolism and cellular homeostasis. It has become evident that viruses have co-evolved in order to exploit host lipid metabolic pathways. This is especially characteristic of the Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) and several flaviviruses. Devoid of an appropriate lipid biosynthetic machinery of their own, these single-strand positive-sense RNA viruses can induce dramatic changes in host metabolic pathways to establish a favorable environment for viral multiplication and acquire essential components to facilitate their assembly and traffic...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232555/mtorc2-promotes-tumorigenesis-via-lipid-synthesis
#8
Yakir Guri, Marco Colombi, Eva Dazert, Sravanth K Hindupur, Jason Roszik, Suzette Moes, Paul Jenoe, Markus H Heim, Isabelle Riezman, Howard Riezman, Michael N Hall
Dysregulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) promotes cancer, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We describe an mTOR-driven mouse model that displays hepatosteatosis progressing to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Longitudinal proteomic, lipidomics, and metabolomic analyses revealed that hepatic mTORC2 promotes de novo fatty acid and lipid synthesis, leading to steatosis and tumor development. In particular, mTORC2 stimulated sphingolipid (glucosylceramide) and glycerophospholipid (cardiolipin) synthesis...
December 11, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232283/levocarnitine-for-the-treatment-of-valproic-acid-induced-hyperammonemic-encephalopathy-in-children-the-experience-of-large-tertiary-care-pediatric-hospital-and-a-poison-center
#9
Miguel Glatstein, Pedro Bonifacio Rino, Silvina de Pinho, Dennis Scolnik, Dikla Pivko-Levi, Christopher Hoyte
BACKGROUND: Although rare, symptomatic hyperammonemia is sometimes associated with valproic acid (VPA), especially in children. L-carnitine (levocarnitine), sometimes classified as an essential amino acid, is vital to mitochondrial utilization of fatty acids and can be helpful in treating this condition. The data supporting this, however, are limited. STUDY QUESTION: The aim of the study was to illustrate the role of L-carnitine in the treatment of patients with VPA-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VPE) at 2 different institutions...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230528/cofactor-f430-as-a-biomarker-for-methanogenic-activity-application-to-an-anaerobic-bioreactor-system
#10
I Passaris, P Van Gaelen, R Cornelissen, K Simoens, D Grauwels, L Vanhaecke, D Springael, I Smets
Over the last decades, anaerobic bioreactor technology proved to be a competitive technology for purifying wastewater while producing biogas. Methanogens perform the crucial final step in methane production, and monitoring their activity is of paramount importance for system understanding and management. Cofactor F430 is an essential prosthetic group of the methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) enzyme catalysing this final step. This research investigates whether the quantification of cofactor F430 in bioreactor systems is a viable intermediate-complexity monitoring tool in comparison to the conventional biogas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration follow-up and molecular genetic techniques targeting the mcrA gene encoding the MCR protein or its transcripts...
December 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229363/comparison-of-the-effects-of-flaxseed-oil-and-sunflower-seed-oil-consumption-on-serum-glucose-lipid-profile-blood-pressure-and-lipid-peroxidation-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Atefeh Akrami, Farzad Nikaein, Siavash Babajafari, Shiva Faghih, Hassan Yarmohammadi
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the risk of type II diabetes and morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed oil (FO), as a functional food, is one of the major vegetal sources of essential omega-3 fatty acids. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effects of consumption of FO and sunflower seed oil (SO) on lipid peroxidation and other symptoms of MetSyn. METHODS: This randomized controlled interventional trial was conducted on 60 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years who were diagnosed with MetSyn in Shiraz, Iran...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228775/effects-of-ceramide-and-dihydroceramide-stereochemistry-at-c-3-on-the-phase-behavior-and-permeability-of-skin-lipid-membranes
#12
Andrej Kovacik, Petra Pullmannová, Jaroslav Maixner, Katerina Vavrova
Ceramides (Cer) are key components of the skin permeability barrier. Sphingosine-based CerNS and dihydrosphingosine-based CerNdS (dihydroCer) have two chiral centers; however, the importance of the correct stereochemistry in the skin barrier Cer is unknown. We investigated the role of the configuration at C-3 of CerNS and CerNdS in the organization and permeability of model skin lipid membranes. Unnatural L-threo-CerNS and L-threo-CerNdS with 24-C acyl chains were synthesized and, along with their natural D-erythro isomers, incorporated into membranes composed of major stratum corneum lipids (Cer, free fatty acids, cholesterol and cholesteryl sulfate)...
December 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228272/an-investigation-into-the-possible-regulation-of-the-expression-of-genes-by-yapa-in-talaromyces-marneffei-using-the-qrt-pcr-method
#13
Wiyada Dankai, Monsicha Pongpom, Nongnuch Vanittanakom
The pathogenic dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei is known to cause a fatal systemic mycosis in immunocompromised patients, especially in HIV patients in Southeast Asia. The basic leucine-zipper (bZip) transcription factor gene, yapA, has been identified in T. marneffei. A prior study described that yapA was involved in the oxidative and nitrosative stress response in T. marneffei. Interestingly, an essential role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1p in the oxidative stress response is the activation of the transcription of its target genes...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227633/a-distal-loop-controls-product-release-chemo-and-regio-selectivity-in-cytochrome-p450-decarboxylases
#14
Jose A Amaya, Cooper D Rutland, Nic Leschinsky, Thomas M Makris
The cytochrome P450 OleT utilizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to catalyze the decarboxylation or hydroxylation of fatty acid (FA) substrates. Both reactions are initiated through the abstraction of a substrate hydrogen atom by the high-valent iron-oxo intermediate known as Compound I. Here, we specifically probe the influence of substrate coordination on OleT reaction partitioning through the combined use of fluorescent and EPR-active FA probes, and mutagenesis of a structurally disordered F-G loop that is distal from the heme-iron active-site...
December 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227542/characterization-of-peanut-oil-bodies-integral-proteins-lipids-and-their-associated-phytochemicals
#15
Farah Zaaboul, Husnain Raza, Cao Chen, Yuanfa Liu
A microscopic image of a section of a peanut seed shows that oil bodies (OBs) are a small droplet of oil that is dispersed throughout the whole seed. The protein profile of peanut's OBs recovered using the aqueous extraction method at different pH was found to have 2 oleosin isoforms of 14 and 16 kDa. Moreover, OBs essential amino acids are 1.52 higher than those in the PPI. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are the major fatty acids in both cold press peanut oil and OBs regardless of pH. Tocopherol content went from 270...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225604/transcriptional-regulation-of-t-cell-lipid-metabolism-implications-for-plasma-membrane-lipid-rafts-and-t-cell-function
#16
REVIEW
George A Robinson, Kirsty E Waddington, Ines Pineda-Torra, Elizabeth C Jury
It is well established that cholesterol and glycosphingolipids are enriched in the plasma membrane (PM) and form signaling platforms called lipid rafts, essential for T-cell activation and function. Moreover, changes in PM lipid composition affect the biophysical properties of lipid rafts and have a role in defining functional T-cell phenotypes. Here, we review the role of transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism including liver X receptors α/β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, estrogen receptors α/β (ERα/β), and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins in T-cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224892/how-glucose-glutamine-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-shape-blood-and-lymph-vessel-development
#17
REVIEW
Laure-Anne Teuwen, Vincent Geldhof, Peter Carmeliet
Recently, endothelial cell metabolism has emerged as an essential driver and regulator of both blood and lymph vessel development. Evidence rapidly builds that metabolism is not only necessary for endothelial cell function, but moreover controls several aspects of the (lymph)-angiogenic process. So far, the best-characterized metabolic pathways to have an impact on angiogenesis are glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation and glutamine metabolism. Glycolysis regulates tip cell behavior by providing ATP, fatty acid oxidation controls stalk cell proliferation by producing nucleotide biomass, and glutamine metabolism is critical for tip and stalk cell dynamics by supporting Krebs cycle anaplerosis, protein production and redox homeostasis, and links to asparagine metabolism...
December 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217655/regulation-of-lipolytic-response-and-energy-balance-by-melanocortin-2-receptor-accessory-protein-mrap-in-adipocytes
#18
Xiaodong Zhang, Alicia M Saarinen, Latoya E Campbell, Elena A De Filippis, Jun Liu
MRAP is highly expressed in adrenal gland and adipose tissue. In adrenal cells, MRAP is essential for ACTH-induced activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway by melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), leading to glucocorticoid production and secretion. Although ACTH was known to stimulate PKA-dependent lipolysis, the functional involvement of MRAP in adipocyte metabolism remains incompletely defined. Herein, we found that knockdown or overexpression of MRAP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced or increased ACTH-induced lipolysis, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217628/conversion-efficiency-of-alpha-linolenic-acid-to-omega-3-highly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-in-aerial-insectivore-chicks
#19
Cornelia W Twining, Peter Lawrence, David W Winkler, Alexander S Flecker, J Thomas Brenna
Food availability and quality are both critical for growing young animals. In nature, swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and other aerial insectivores feed on both aquatic insects, which are rich in omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) and terrestrial insects, which contain considerably lower amounts of omega-3 HUFA. Carnivorous mammals and fishes must obtain omega-3 HUFA from diet, as they have lost the capacity to convert the precursor omega-3 ALA into omega-3 HUFA. Thus, the relative value of aquatic versus terrestrial insects depends not only on the fatty acid composition of the prey, but also upon the capacity of consumers to convert ALA into omega-3 HUFA...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211685/optimisation-of-sampling-parameters-for-standardised-exhaled-breath-sampling
#20
Sophie L F Doran, Andrea Romano, George B Hanna
The lack of standardisation of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
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