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Essential fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458111/ppar%C3%AE-modulation-rescues-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation-defects-in-the-mdx-model-of-muscular-dystrophy
#1
Eric L Bell, Robert W Shine, Peter Dwyer, Lyndsay Olson, Jennifer Truong, Ross Fredenburg, Matthew Goddeeris, Dominique Stickens, Effie Tozzo
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive, fatal X-linked disease that is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle wasting due to the absence of dystrophin, which is an a essential protein that bridges the inner cytoskeleton and extra-cellular matrix. This study set out to characterize the mitochondria in primary muscle satellite cell derived myoblasts from mdx mice and wild type control mice. Compared to wild type derived cells the mdx derived cells have reduced mitochondrial bioenergetics and have fewer mitochondria...
February 16, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455523/sonchus-oleraceus-residue-improves-nutritive-and-health-promoting-value-%C3%A2-of-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris%C3%A2-%C3%A2-l-a-metabolic-study-%C3%A2
#2
Mahmoud O Hassan, Ahmed M Saleh, Hamada AbdElgawad
This study was conducted to evaluate the use of the phenolic-rich Sonchus ‎oleraceus residue as ‎an ‎environmentally safe approach to induce the nutritive and health-promoting values of ‎common bean ‎‎(Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bronco). S. oleraceus shoot residue, at rates of 150 and 300 g m-2, has ‎improved soil ‎fertility via accumulation of soil macronutrients, ‎organic matter, organic carbon and ‎total phenolics. ‎The growth and yield of bean was significantly increased. Moreover, chemical ‎composition of ‎the treated seeds was significantly altered, whereas higher levels of total ‎antioxidant ‎capacity, ‎proteins, carbohydrates and most of the individual phenolic acids, ‎flavonoids, ‎vitamins, essential ‎amino acids, and unsaturated fatty acids were recorded...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453570/molecular-mechanisms-and-signaling-pathways-involved-in-the-nutritional-support-of-spermatogenesis-by-sertoli-cells
#3
Luís Crisóstomo, Marco G Alves, Agostina Gorga, Mário Sousa, María F Riera, María N Galardo, Silvina B Meroni, Pedro F Oliveira
Sertoli cells play a central role in spermatogenesis. They maintain the blood-testis barrier, an essential feature of seminiferous tubules which creates the proper environment for the occurrence of the spermatogenesis. However, this confinement renders germ cells almost exclusively dependent on Sertoli cells' nursing function and support. Throughout spermatogenesis, differentiating sperm cells become more specialized, and their biochemical machinery is insufficient to meet their metabolic demands. Although the needs are not the same at all differentiation stages, Sertoli cells are able to satisfy their needs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450619/immediate-response-mechanisms-of-gram-negative-solvent-tolerant-bacteria-to-cope-with-environmental-stress-cis-trans-isomerization-of-unsaturated-fatty-acids-and-outer-membrane-vesicle-secretion
#4
REVIEW
Christian Eberlein, Thomas Baumgarten, Stephan Starke, Hermann J Heipieper
Bacteria have evolved an array of adaptive mechanisms enabling them to survive and grow in the presence of different environmental stresses. These mechanisms include either modifications of the membrane or changes in the overall energy status, cell morphology, and cell surface properties. Long-term adaptations are dependent on transcriptional regulation, the induction of anabolic pathways, and cell growth. However, to survive sudden environmental changes, bacterial short-term responses are essential to keep the cells alive after the occurrence of an environmental stress factor such as heat shock or the presence of toxic organic solvents...
February 15, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445923/inpatient-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-receiving-%C3%AF-3-enriched-lipid-emulsion-smoflipid-an-observational-study
#5
Nalin Choudhary, Kenneth Tan, Atul Malhotra
Neonatal units have started to switch from using conventional soy-based to alternate lipid emulsions, like SMOFlipid. SMOFlipid has been associated with an improvement in biochemical parameters and delays progression of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). This retrospective epoch study aimed to compare clinically relevant neonatal outcomes in preterm infants (< 32 weeks), receiving SMOFlipid versus Intralipid. We compared clinical outcomes in two epochs-epoch 1 (Intralipid, October 2013-June 2015) versus epoch 2 (SMOFlipid, July 2015-March 2017)...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442208/the-role-of-acyl-coa-thioesterase-acot8i-in-mediating-intracellular-lipid-metabolism-in-oleaginous-fungus-mortierella-alpina
#6
Jing Guo, Haiqin Chen, Bo Yang, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Yong Q Chen
Thioesterases (TEs) play an essential role in the metabolism of fatty acids (FAs). To explore the role of TEs in mediating intracellular lipid metabolism in the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina, the acyl-CoA thioesterase ACOT8I was overexpressed. The contents of total fatty acids (TFAs) were the same in the recombinant strains as in the wild-type M. alpina, whilst the production of free fatty acids (FFAs) was enhanced from about 0.9% (wild-type) to 2.8% (recombinant), a roughly threefold increase. Linoleic acid content in FFA form constituted about 9% of the TFAs in the FFA fraction in the recombinant strains but only about 1...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438993/identification-of-progesterone-receptor-membrane-component-1-as-an-interaction-partner-and-possible-regulator-of-fatty-acid-2-hydroxylase
#7
Robert Hardt, Dominic Winter, Volkmar Gieselmann, Matthias Eckhardt
The fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) is essential for synthesis of 2-hydroxylated fatty acids in myelinating and other cells and deficiency of this enzyme causes a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia also known as fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration. Despite its important role in sphingolipid metabolism, regulation of FA2H and its interaction with other proteins involved in the same or other metabolic pathways is poorly understood. To identify potential interaction partners of the enzyme, quantitative mass-spectrometry using stable isotope labeling of cells was combined with formaldehyde cross-linking and proximity biotinylation, respectively...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438773/peroxisomal-disorders-improved-laboratory-diagnosis-new-defects-and-the-complicated-route-to-treatment
#8
Ronald J A Wanders
Peroxisomes catalyze a number of essential metabolic functions of which fatty acid alpha- and beta-oxidation, ether phospholipid biosynthesis, glyoxylate detoxification and bile acid synthesis are the most important. The key role of peroxisomes in humans is exemplified by the existence of a group of peroxisomal disorders, caused by mutations in > 30 different genes which codes for proteins with a role in either peroxisome biogenesis or one of the metabolic pathways in peroxisomes. Technological advances in laboratory methods at the metabolite-, enzyme-, and molecular level has not only allowed the identification of a new peroxisomal disorder but also new phenotypes associated with already identified genetic defects thus extending the clinical spectrum...
February 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436679/long-non%C3%A2-coding-rna-bc168687-small-interfering-rna-reduces-high-glucose-and-high-free-fatty-acid%C3%A2-induced-expression-of-p2x7-receptors-in-satellite-glial-cells
#9
Cheng-Long Liu, Ze-Yu Deng, Er-Rong Du, Chang-Shui Xu
Purinergic signaling contributes to inflammatory and immune responses. The activation of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) in satellite glial cells (SGCs) may be an essential component in the promotion of inflammation and neuropathic pain. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a small interfering RNA for the lncRNA BC168687 on SGC P2X7 expression in a high glucose and high free fatty acids (HGHF) environment...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434029/de-novo-fatty-acid-synthesis-by-schwann-cells-is-essential-for-peripheral-nervous-system-myelination
#10
Laura Montani, Jorge A Pereira, Camilla Norrmén, Hartmut B F Pohl, Elisa Tinelli, Martin Trötzmüller, Gianluca Figlia, Penelope Dimas, Belinda von Niederhäusern, Rachel Schwager, Sebastian Jessberger, Clay F Semenkovich, Harald C Köfeler, Ueli Suter
Myelination calls for a remarkable surge in cell metabolism to facilitate lipid and membrane production. Endogenous fatty acid (FA) synthesis represents a potentially critical process in myelinating glia. Using genetically modified mice, we show that Schwann cell (SC) intrinsic activity of the enzyme essential for de novo FA synthesis, fatty acid synthase (FASN), is crucial for precise lipid composition of peripheral nerves and fundamental for the correct onset of myelination and proper myelin growth. Upon FASN depletion in SCs, epineurial adipocytes undergo lipolysis, suggestive of a compensatory role...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433421/the-distribution-of-three-candidate-cold-resistant-snps-in-six-minorities-in-north-china
#11
Qiuyan Li, Kexian Dong, Lidan Xu, Xueyuan Jia, Jie Wu, Wenjing Sun, Xuelong Zhang, Songbin Fu
BACKGROUND: Heilongjiang Province located in northeast China is a multi-ethnic region with people who have lived in cold conditions for several generations. Fatty acids are important to people with cold resistance. CPT1A encodes a protein that imports long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for fatty-acid oxidation. FADS is an essential enzyme for the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. RESULTS: In the present study, we investigated the distributions of three cold resistance-related SNPs (rs80356779 G > A in CPT1A, rs7115739 T > G in FADS3 and rs174570 C > T in FADS2) from six populations that included 1093 individuals who have lived in Heilongjiang Province for at least three generations...
February 12, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432413/comprehensive-analysis-of-central-carbon-metabolism-illuminates-connections-between-nutrient-availability-growth-rate-and-cell-morphology-in-escherichia-coli
#12
Corey S Westfall, Petra Anne Levin
Bacterial morphology is a complex trait that is highly sensitive to changes in the environment. For heterotrophic organisms, such as Escherichia coli, increases in nutrient levels are frequently accompanied by several-fold increases in both size and growth rate. Despite the dramatic nature of these changes, how alterations in nutrient availability translate into changes in growth and morphology remains a largely open question. To understand the signaling networks coupling nutrient availability with size and shape, we examined the impact of deletions in the entirety of non-essential central carbon metabolic genes on E...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432005/several-pesticides-influence-the-nutritional-content-of-sweet-corn
#13
Matthew A Cutulle, Gregory R Armel, Dean Adam Kopsell, Henry P Wilson, James Brosnan, Jose J Vargas, Thomas E Hines, Rebecca M Koepke-Hill
Herbicides are pesticides used to eradicate unwanted plants in both crop and non-crop environments. These chemistries are toxic to weeds due to inhibition of key enzymes or disruption of essential biochemical processes required for weedy plants to survive. Crops can survive systemic herbicide applications through various forms of detoxification including metabolism that can be enhanced by safeners. Field studies were conducted near Louisville, TN and Painter, VA to determine how the herbicides mesotrione, topramezone, nicosulfuron, and atrazine applied with or without the safener isoxadifen-ethyl would impact the nutritional quality of 'Incredible' sweet corn (Zea mays L...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429143/seeds-as-oil-factories
#14
REVIEW
Sébastien Baud
Studying seed oil metabolism. The seeds of higher plants represent valuable factories capable of converting photosynthetically derived sugars into a variety of storage compounds, including oils. Oils are the most energy-dense plant reserves and fatty acids composing these oils represent an excellent nutritional source. They supply humans with much of the calories and essential fatty acids required in their diet. These oils are then increasingly being utilized as renewable alternatives to petroleum for the chemical industry and for biofuels...
February 10, 2018: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428652/novel-approach-for-the-use-of-dairy-industry-wastes-for-bacterial-growth-media-production
#15
Mariam Kasmi, Lobna Elleuch, Ameni Dahmeni, Moktar Hamdi, Ismail Trabelsi, Mejdi Snoussi
This work proposes a novel approach for the reuse and the recovery of dairy wastes valuable components. Thermal coagulation was performed for dairy effluents and the main responsible fraction for the organic matter content (protein and fat) was separated. Dairy curds were prepared for the formulation of bacterial growth media. Protein, sugar, fat and fatty acids contents have been assessed. Samples treated at 100 °C exhibited marked improvement in terms of protein (25-50%) recovery compared to those treated at 80 °C...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426722/impact-of-heavy-metals-on-hydrogen-production-from-organic-fraction-of-municipal-solid-waste-using-co-culture-of-enterobacter-aerogenes-and-e-coli
#16
Preeti Sharma, Uma Melkania
In the present study, the effect of heavy metals (lead, mercury, copper, and chromium) on the hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated using co-culture of facultative anaerobes Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli. Heavy metals were applied at concentration range of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg/L. The results revealed that lead, mercury, and chromium negatively affected hydrogen production for the range of concentrations applied. Application of copper slightly enhanced hydrogen production at low concentration and resulted in the hydrogen yield of 36...
February 6, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425111/the-safety-of-lipistart-a-medium-chain-triglyceride-based-formula-in-the-dietary-treatment-of-long-chain-fatty-acid-disorders-a-phase-i-study
#17
Anita MacDonald, Rachel Webster, Matthew Whitlock, Adam Gerrard, Anne Daly, Mary Anne Preece, Sharon Evans, Catherine Ashmore, Anupam Chakrapani, Suresh Vijay, Saikat Santra
BACKGROUND: Children with long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation disorders (LCFAOD) presenting with clinical symptoms are treated with a specialist infant formula, with medium chain triglyceride (MCT) mainly replacing long chain triglyceride (LCT). It is essential that the safety and efficacy of any new specialist formula designed for LCFAOD be tested in infants and children. METHODS: In an open-label, 21-day, phase I trial, we studied the safety of a new MCT-based formula (feed 1) in six well-controlled children (three male), aged 7-13 years (median 9 years) with LCFAOD (very long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency [VLCADD], n=2; long chain 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency [LCHADD], n=2; carnitine acyl carnitine translocase deficiency [CACTD], n=2)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420533/drosophila-gr64e-mediates-fatty-acid-sensing-via-the-phospholipase-c-pathway
#18
Hyeyon Kim, Haein Kim, Jae Young Kwon, Jeong Taeg Seo, Dong Min Shin, Seok Jun Moon
Animals use taste to sample and ingest essential nutrients for survival. Free fatty acids (FAs) are energy-rich nutrients that contribute to various cellular functions. Recent evidence suggests FAs are detected through the gustatory system to promote feeding. In Drosophila, phospholipase C (PLC) signaling in sweet-sensing cells is required for FA detection but other signaling molecules are unknown. Here, we show Gr64e is required for the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to FAs. GR64e and TRPA1 are interchangeable when they act downstream of PLC: TRPA1 can substitute for GR64e in FA but not glycerol sensing, and GR64e can substitute for TRPA1 in aristolochic acid but not N-methylmaleimide sensing...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417145/stargardt-phenotype-associated-with-two-elovl4-promoter-variants-and-elovl4-downregulation-new-possible-perspective-to-etiopathogenesis
#19
Luigi Donato, Concetta Scimone, Carmela Rinaldi, Pasquale Aragona, Silvana Briuglia, Angela D'Ascola, Rosalia D'Angelo, Antonina Sidoti
Purpose: Stargardt disease (STGD) is the most common form of inherited juvenile macular degeneration. It is inherited as autosomal recessive trait (STGD1), although STGD3 and STGD4 are inherited as autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. STGD3 is caused by mutations in the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids-like 4 (ELOVL4) gene encoding for a very long-chain fatty acid elongase. Mutations lead to a truncated Elovl4, lacking of a dilysine motif necessary for retention of transmembrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416640/development-of-suspension-cell-culture-model-to-mimic-circulating-tumor-cells
#20
Ji Young Park, Ae Lee Jeong, Hyun Jeong Joo, Sora Han, So-Hyun Kim, Hye-Youn Kim, Jong-Seok Lim, Myeong-Sok Lee, Hyung-Kyoon Choi, Young Yang
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are essential for the establishment of distant metastasis. Numerous studies have characterized CTCs as metastatic precursors; however, the molecular nature of CTCs has not been completely revealed yet due to the low number of CTCs in the blood stream. As an alternative approach, we developed a long-term suspension cell culture model using human breast cancer cell lines to mimic CTCs. We found that more than 40 passaged suspension cells acquired the ability to enhance metastasis like cancer stem cells...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
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