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Essential fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531790/an-initial-evaluation-of-newly-proposed-biomarker-of-zinc-status-in-humans-linoleic-acid-dihomo-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-la-dgla-ratio
#1
Marija Knez, James C R Stangoulis, Manja Zec, Jasmina Debeljak-Martacic, Zoran Pavlovic, Mirjana Gurinovic, Maria Glibetic
BACKGROUND: Zinc is an essential micronutrient for humans with important physiological functions. A sensitive and specific biomarker for assessing Zn status is still needed. OBJECTIVE: The major aim of this study was to examine if the changes in the content of plasma phospholipid LA, DGLA and LA: DGLA ratio can be used to efficiently predict the dietary Zn intake and plasma Zn status of humans. METHODS: The study was performed on healthy human volunteers, 25-55 years of age...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526781/cd36-is-essential-for-endurance-improvement-changes-in%C3%A2-whole-body-metabolism-and-efficient-ppar-related-transcriptional-responses-in-the-muscle-with-exercise-training
#2
Mark Christian C Manio, Shigenobu Matsumura, Daisaku Masuda, Kazuo Inoue
Although circulating fatty acids are utilized as energy substrates, they also function as ligands to the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), a family of fatty acid sensing transcription factors. Exercise training leads to various adaptations in the muscle such as elevation of glycogen content, mitochondrial number as well as upregulation of fatty acid uptake and utilization through downstream transcriptional adaptations. In line with this, CD36 has been shown to be critical in controlling fatty acid uptake and consequently, fatty acid oxidation...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526050/dbcamp-regulates-adipogenesis-in-sheep-inguinal-preadipocytes
#3
Delin Kong, Jingjing Cui, Juncai Fu
BACKGROUND: The cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP) pathway is generally recognized as one of the essential pathways for the adipose conversion of rodent preadipocytes in vitro. However, divergent effects of cAMP on adipocyte differentiation have also been reported. Since there is very little data on non-rodent preadipose cells, the aim of the present work was to analyze the effects of one classic activator (dbcAMP) of the cAMP pathway on the proliferation and differentiation of sheep preadipocytes grown...
May 19, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523507/tof-sims-parallel-imaging-ms-ms-of-lipid-species-in-thin-tissue-sections
#4
Anne Lisa Bruinen, Gregory L Fisher, Ron M A Heeren
Unambiguous identification of detected species is essential in complex biomedical samples. To date, there are not many mass spectrometry imaging techniques that can provide both high spatial resolution and identification capabilities. A new and patented imaging tandem mass spectrometer, exploiting the unique characteristics of the nanoTOF II (Physical Electronics, USA) TOF-SIMS TRIFT instrument, was developed to address this.Tandem mass spectrometry is based on the selection of precursor ions from the full secondary ion spectrum (MS(1)), followed by energetic activation and fragmentation, and collection of the fragment ions to obtain a tandem MS spectrum (MS(2))...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521878/combining-a-nontargeted-and-targeted-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-metabolic-pathways-significantly-altered-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#5
Alice Y Chang, Antigoni Z Lalia, Gregory D Jenkins, Tumpa Dutta, Rickey E Carter, Ravinder J Singh, K Sreekumaran Nair
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition of androgen excess and chronic anovulation frequently associated with insulin resistance. We combined a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify pathways and metabolites that distinguished PCOS from metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Twenty obese women with PCOS were compared with 18 obese women without PCOS. Both groups met criteria for MetS but could not have diabetes mellitus or take medications that treat PCOS or affect lipids or insulin sensitivity...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521755/high-dietary-quality-of-non-toxic-cyanobacteria-for-a-benthic-grazer-and-its-implications-for-the-control-of-cyanobacterial-biofilms
#6
Sophie Groendahl, Patrick Fink
BACKGROUND: Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria frequently cause detrimental effects to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, attempts haven been made to control cyanobacterial blooms through naturally co-occurring herbivores. Control of cyanobacteria through herbivores often appears to be constrained by their low dietary quality, rather than by the possession of toxins, as also non-toxic cyanobacteria are hardly consumed by many herbivores. It was thus hypothesized that the consumption of non-toxic cyanobacteria may be improved when complemented with other high quality prey...
May 18, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518102/nmr-spectroscopy-as-a-robust-tool-for-the-rapid-evaluation-of-the-lipid-profile-of-fish-oil-supplements
#7
Kathryn Williamson, Emmanuel Hatzakis
The western diet is poor in n-3 fatty acids, therefore the consumption of fish oil supplements is recommended to increase the intake of these essential nutrients. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative analysis of encapsulated fish oil supplements using high-resolution (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy utilizing two different NMR instruments; a 500 MHz and an 850 MHz instrument. Both proton ((1)H) and carbon ((13)C) NMR spectra can be used for the quantitative determination of the major constituents of fish oil supplements...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510056/the-two-sides-of-a-lipid-protein-story
#8
REVIEW
Luis G Mansor Basso, Luis F Santos Mendes, Antonio J Costa-Filho
Protein-membrane interactions play essential roles in a variety of cell functions such as signaling, membrane trafficking, and transport. Membrane-recruited cytosolic proteins that interact transiently and interfacially with lipid bilayers perform several of those functions. Experimental techniques capable of probing changes on the structural dynamics of this weak association are surprisingly limited. Among such techniques, electron spin resonance (ESR) has the enormous advantage of providing valuable local information from both membrane and protein perspectives by using intrinsic paramagnetic probes in metalloproteins or by attaching nitroxide spin labels to proteins and lipids...
June 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507942/quality-properties-of-sesame-and-olive-oils-incorporated-with-flaxseed-oil
#9
Fataneh Hashempour-Baltork, Mohammadali Torbati, Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi, Geoffrey Peter Savage
Purpose: Suitable ratio of essential fatty acids has an important role in maintaining good health. There is no pure oil with an ideal fatty acid composition and oxidative stability. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of oil obtained by blending flaxseed oil as a rich source of ω3 fatty acids with sesame and olive oils. Methods: Three different ratios (65:30:5, 60:30:10 and 55:30:15) were prepared using olive, sesame and flaxseed oils. These mixtures were stored at 4°C and 24°C and their quality and physicochemical properties were determined by measuring the fatty acid composition, phenolic compound, peroxide, anisidine values and schaal tests...
April 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507800/formyl-peptide-receptor-1-suppresses-gastric-cancer-angiogenesis-and-growth-by-exploiting-inflammation-resolution-pathways
#10
Nella Prevete, Federica Liotti, Anna Illiano, Angela Amoresano, Piero Pucci, Amato de Paulis, Rosa Marina Melillo
Chronic inflammation can result from inadequate engagement of resolution mechanisms, mainly accomplished by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) arising from the metabolic activity of lipoxygenases (ALOX5/15) on ω-6 or ω-3 essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We previously demonstrated that formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) suppresses gastric cancer (GC) by inhibiting its inflammatory/angiogenic potential. In this study, we asked whether FPR1 exploits inflammation resolution pathways to suppress GC angiogenesis and growth...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507511/distribution-of-elovl4-in-the-developing-and-adult-mouse-brain
#11
David M Sherry, Blake R Hopiavuori, Megan A Stiles, Negar S Rahman, Kathryn G Ozan, Ferenc Deak, Martin-Paul Agbaga, Robert E Anderson
ELOngation of Very Long chain fatty acids (ELOVL)-4 is essential for the synthesis of very long chain-fatty acids (fatty acids with chain lengths ≥ 28 carbons). The functions of ELOVL4 and its very long-chain fatty acid products are poorly understood at present. However, mutations in ELOVL4 cause neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative diseases that vary according to the mutation and inheritance pattern. Heterozygous inheritance of different ELOVL4 mutations causes Stargardt-like Macular Dystrophy or Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 34...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507406/evaluation-of-different-agroindustrial-waste-on-the-effect-of-different-carcass-characteristics-and-physiological-and-biochemical-parameters-in-broilers-chicken
#12
Y Sánchez-Roque, Y D C Pérez-Luna, E Pérez-Luna, R Berrones Hernández, S Saldaña-Trinidad
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and biochemical effect in chickens of the Ross breed of a food enriched with agroindustrial waste. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The food is one of the main components of the total cost for the production of chickens. Rations should be formulated to provide the correct balance of energy, protein, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and essential fatty acids, to allow optimal growth and performance. This study was intended to evaluate a natural feed for chicken, made from corn, yucca meal, eggshells, orange peel, soybean meal, salt and garlic, enriched with agroindustrial waste (molasses, milk whey and ferment of coffee)...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507299/the-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-pathway-is-activated-by-leucine-deprivation-in-hepg2-cells-a-comparative-proteomics-study
#13
Guokai Yan, Xiuzhi Li, Ying Peng, Baisheng Long, Qiwen Fan, Zhichang Wang, Min Shi, Chunlin Xie, Li Zhao, Xianghua Yan
Leucine (Leu) is a multifunctional essential amino acid that plays crucial role in various cellular processes. However, the integral effect of Leu on the hepatic proteome remains largely unknown. Here, we for the first time applied an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based comparative proteomics strategy to investigate the proteome alteration induced by Leu deprivation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. A total of 4,111 proteins were quantified; 43 proteins were further identified as differentially expressed proteins between the normal and Leu deprivation groups...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504864/nitrated-fatty-acids-modulate-the-physical-properties-of-model-membranes-and-the-structure-of-transmembrane-proteins
#14
Johannes Franz, Tristan Bereau, Stefanie Pannwitt, Veerappan Anbazhagan, Alexander Lehr, Udo Nubbemeyer, Ulrich Dietz, Mischa Bonn, Tobias Weidner, Dirk Schneider
Nitrated fatty acids (NO2-FAs) act as anti-inflammatory signal mediators, albeit the molecular mechanisms behind NO2-FAs' influence on diverse metabolic and signaling pathways in inflamed tissues are essentially elusive. Here, we combine fluorescence measurements with surface-specific sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and coarse-grained computer simulations to demonstrate that NO2-FAs alter lipid organization by accumulation at the membrane-water interface. As the function of membrane proteins strongly depends on both, protein structure as well as membrane properties, we consecutively follow the structural dynamics of an integral membrane protein in presence of NO2-FAs...
May 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504636/-eggs-do-not-increase-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-can-be-safely-consumed
#15
Nina Rica Wium Geiker, Mogens Lytken Larsen, Jørn Dyerberg, Steen Stender, Arne Astrup
Eggs are nutrient dense, rich in essential amino- and fatty acids, and the most cholesterol containing food. Based on observational studies the consumption of eggs has since the 1970's been claimed to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Intervention studies on intake of eggs and plasma cholesterol do however not support causality. The higher incidence of CVD in egg eaters is more likely to be caused by the clustering of other CVD risk factors. Up to seven eggs per week can safely be consumed but in patients with CVD or diabetes only with special emphasis on a prudent diet and proper medical treatment...
May 15, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501409/effect-of-different-fat-supplements-on-performance-of-dairy-calves-during-cold-season
#16
E Ghasemi, M Azad-Shahraki, M Khorvash
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starter supplementation with fat sources differing in their fatty acid (FA) profile on performance of dairy calves during cold season. Sixty Holstein calves (3 d of age; 39.7 ± 3.8 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 starter diets supplemented with (1) no fat or oil source (control), (2) 3% palm fat (PLF), (3) 3% soybean oil (SBO), (4) 3% tallow (TAL), and (5) a 3.2% mixture (MIX) of PLF, SBO, and fish oil. The fat supplements were substituted for corn in the basal starter diet...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500069/b-cell-activity-is-impaired-in-human-and-mouse-obesity-and-is-responsive-to-an-essential-fatty-acid-upon-murine-influenza-infection
#17
Rasagna Kosaraju, William Guesdon, Miranda J Crouch, Heather L Teague, E Madison Sullivan, Erik A Karlsson, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Kymberly Gowdy, Lance C Bridges, Lauren R Reese, P Darrell Neufer, Michael Armstrong, Nichole Reisdorph, J Justin Milner, Melinda Beck, Saame Raza Shaikh
Obesity is associated with increased risk for infections and poor responses to vaccinations, which may be due to compromised B cell function. However, there is limited information about the influence of obesity on B cell function and underlying factors that modulate B cell responses. Therefore, we studied B cell cytokine secretion and/or Ab production across obesity models. In obese humans, B cell IL-6 secretion was lowered and IgM levels were elevated upon ex vivo anti-BCR/TLR9 stimulation. In murine obesity induced by a high fat diet, ex vivo IgM and IgG were elevated with unstimulated B cells...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499251/sequestration-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-membrane-phospholipids-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer-larva-attenuates-eicosanoid-biosynthesis-for-prolonged-survival
#18
Sin Man Lam, Zehua Wang, Jie Li, Xun Huang, Guanghou Shui
Mechanistic basis governing the extreme longevity and developmental quiescence of dauer juvenile, a "non-ageing" developmental variant of Caenorhabditis elegans, has remained largely obscure. Using a lipidomic approach comprising multiple reaction monitoring transitions specific to distinct fatty acyl moieties, we demonstrated that in comparison to other developmental stages, the membrane phospholipids of dauer larva contain a unique enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Esterified PUFAs in phospholipids exhibited temporal accumulation throughout the course of dauer endurance, followed by sharp reductions prior to termination of diapause...
May 4, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498489/application-of-edible-films-containing-oregano-origanum-vulgare-essential-oil-on-queso-blanco-cheese-prepared-with-flaxseed-linum-usitatissimum-oil
#19
Cristhiam Gurdian, Alexander Chouljenko, Kevin Mis Solval, Charles Boeneke, Joan M King, Subramaniam Sathivel
Fortification of queso blanco (QB) with flaxseed oil (FO) containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may provide a functional food with health benefits such as improved cell, brain, and retina functionality, and protection against cardiovascular and immune-inflammatory diseases. However, QB experiences a short shelf life because of the early development of yeasts and molds and addition of FO may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is known for its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, but due to its intense flavor compounds it may not be suitable for direct incorporation into QB...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497479/proximate-composition-amino-acid-and-fatty-acid-profiles-of-marine-snail-rapana-venosa-meat-visceral-mass-and-operculum
#20
Fenglei Luo, Ronge Xing, Xueqin Wang, Quancai Peng, Pengcheng Li
BACKGROUND: Rapana venosa (Rv), an important marine snail, presents increasing nutritional, and economic importance. However, there still has been limited information on their nutritional composition. This study highlighted and provided new information on the proximate composition, amino acids and fatty acids profiles of Rv different body parts in order to its better application and research. RESULTS: The operculum contained high amount of protein and flavor amino acids...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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