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Essential fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430962/ulk1-prevents-cardiac-dysfunction-in-obesity-through-autophagy-meditated-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism
#1
Minae An, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Jang Won Park, Ji Ha Choi, Eun-Mi Park, Kyung Eun Lee, Minna Woo, Minsuk Kim
Aims: Autophagy is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis, particularly in long-lived cells such as cardiomyocytes. Whereas many studies support the importance of autophagy in the mechanisms underlying obesity-related cardiac dysfunction, the role of autophagy in cardiac lipid metabolism remains unclear. In the heart, lipotoxicity is exacerbated by cardiac lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which mediates accumulation of fatty acids to the heart through intravascular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis...
April 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429671/ethanolamine-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-gastrointestinal-tract-mechanisms-patterns-and-importance
#2
J Zhou, X Xiong, K Wang, L Zou, D Lv, Y Yin
Nutritional exchanges and cooperation between bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and the mammalian host play an important role in health and disease. Ethanolamine is an essential dietary lipid nutrient for animals and is abundant in both intestinal and bacterial cell membranes. Ethanolamine can be utilized by intestinal eukaryotic cells via the cytidine phosphoethanolamine pathway for de novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine, and certain bacteria are able to catabolize it as a major carbon and/or nitrogen source with the help of ethanolamine utilization proteins...
March 31, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429463/global-mapping-of-protein-lipid-interactions-by-using-modified-choline-containing-phospholipids-metabolically-synthesized-in-live-cells
#3
Danyang Wang, Shubo Du, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Jingyan Ge, Jun-Seok Lee, Markus R Wenk, Shao Q Yao
The protein-lipid interaction is an essential metabolic process that mediates cellular signaling and functions. Existing strategies for large-scale mapping studies of the protein-lipid interaction fall short in their incompatibility with metabolic incorporation or inability to remove unwanted interferences from lipidated proteins. By incorporating an alkyne-containing choline head group and a diazirine-modified fatty acid simultaneously into choline-containing phospholipids synthesized from live mammalian cells, protein-phospholipid interactions have been successfully imaged in live cells...
April 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424855/analysis-of-multiple-soybean-phytonutrients-by-near-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy
#4
Gaoyang Zhang, Penghui Li, Wenfei Zhang, Jian Zhao
Improvement of the nutritional quality of soybean is usually facilitated by a vast range of soybean germplasm with enough information about their multiple phytonutrients. In order to acquire this essential information from a huge number of soybean samples, a rapid analytic method is urgently required. Here, a nondestructive near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method was developed for rapid and accurate measurement of 25 nutritional components in soybean simultaneously, including fatty acids palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, vitamin E (VE), α-VE, γ-VE, δ-VE, saponins, isoflavonoids, and flavonoids...
April 19, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422577/enrichment-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-hamilton-1822-diet-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-improves-fecundity-and-larvae-quality
#5
Joanna Nowosad, Dariusz Kucharczyk, Katarzyna Targońska
The zebrafish is a freshwater fish of the Cyprinidae family, which is frequently used in scientific research. It owes its popularity to its genome, whose structure is comparable to the human genome and, for this reason, this species is often used in human medical research. However, such research requires high-quality material to conduct tests producing repeatable results. This study examines the effect of providing feed enriched with essential fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid, to zebrafish spawners on fertility as well as the survival rate and growth of their offspring...
April 19, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422148/chemical-and-bioactive-profiling-and-biological-activities-of-coral-fungi-from-northwestern-himalayas
#6
Sapan Kumar Sharma, Nandini Gautam
Ramaria Fr. and Clavaria L. are the two major genera of coral mushrooms within families Gomphaceae and Clavariaceae, respectively. Besides having important role in forest ecology, some species of these are reported to possess high nutraceutical and bioactive potential. There is a hidden diversity of coral mushrooms in Northwestern Himalayas. Present studies describe the detailed biochemical profiling and antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of twelve coral mushroom species. Biochemical profiling of nutrients and nutraceuticals was done with standard techniques and by using HPLC, UPLC and GC...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421412/bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidant-activity-exhibit-high-intraspecific-variability-in-pleurotus-ostreatus-mushrooms-and-correlate-well-with-cultivation-performance-parameters
#7
Georgios Koutrotsios, Nick Kalogeropoulos, Pantelis Stathopoulos, Andriana C Kaliora, Georgios I Zervakis
Experimental data related with oyster mushroom production and nutritional properties usually derive from the examination of only one strain, and hence their representativeness/usefulness is questionable. This work aims at assessing intraspecific variability in Pleurotus ostreatus by studying 16 strains, under the same conditions, in respect to essential cultivation and mushroom quality aspects, and by defining the impact of intrinsic/genetic factors on such parameters. Hence, mushroom yield, earliness, crop length, biological efficiency, productivity, and their content in selected macro and microconstituents (e...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420500/does-different-bmi-influence-oocyte-and-embryo-quality-by-inducing-fatty-acid-in-follicular-fluid
#8
Parvaneh Mirabi, Mohammad Javad Chaichi, Sedighe Esmaeilzadeh, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Ali Bijani, Mahjobeh Ehsani
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of obesity-related follicular fluid (FF) fatty acids (FAs) on the number and quality of oocytes, good embryo quality rate, and pregnancy rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 105 infertile women under the age of 38, who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from March 2015 to October 2015. They were grouped into three body mass index (BMI) categories. The fatty acids composition of the FF was analyzed by GC-MS head space method...
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420388/association-between-maternal-intake-of-n-6-to-n-3-fatty-acid-ratio-during-pregnancy-and-infant-neurodevelopment-at-6-months-of-age-results-of-the-moceh-cohort-study
#9
Hyejin Kim, Hyesook Kim, Eunjung Lee, Yeni Kim, Eun-Hee Ha, Namsoo Chang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential for infant neurodevelopment. The nutritional adequacy of dietary LC-PUFAs depends not only on the LC-PUFAs intake but also on the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio (n-6/n-3 PUFAs). This study aimed to identify the association between the maternal dietary n-6/n-3 PUFAs and motor and cognitive development of infants at 6 months of age. METHODS: We used data from 960 participants in the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which is a multi-center prospective cohort study...
April 18, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420095/parenteral-nutrition-and-lipids
#10
REVIEW
Maitreyi Raman, Abdulelah Almutairdi, Leanne Mulesa, Cathy Alberda, Colleen Beattie, Leah Gramlich
Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients...
April 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419631/tgpl2-a-patatin-like-phospholipase-domain-containing-protein-is-involved-in-the-maintenance-of-apicoplast-lipids-homeostasis-in-toxoplasma
#11
Maude F Lévêque, Laurence Berry, Yoshiki Yamaryo-Botté, Hoa Mai Nguyen, Marine Galera, Cyrille Y Botté, Sébastien Besteiro
Patatin-like phospholipases are involved in numerous cellular functions, including lipid metabolism and membranes remodeling. The patatin-like catalytic domain, whose phospholipase activity relies on a serine-aspartate dyad and an anion binding box, is widely spread among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We describe TgPL2, a novel patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein from the parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii. TgPL2 is a large protein, in which the key motifs for enzymatic activity are conserved in the patatin-like domain...
April 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416471/chemotherapy-resistant-human-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-are-not-enriched-for-leukemic-stem-cells-but-require-oxidative-metabolism
#12
Thomas Farge, Estelle Saland, Fabienne de Toni, Nesrine Aroua, Moshen Hosseini, Robin Perry, Claudie Bosc, Mayumi Sugita, Lucille Stuani, Marine Fraisse, Sarah Scotland, Clément Larrue, Héléna Boutzen, Virginie Féliu, Marie-Laure Nicolau-Travers, Stephanie Cassant-Sourdy, Nicolas Broin, Marion David, Nizar Serhan, Audrey Sarry, Suzanne Tavitian, Tony Kaoma, Laurent Vallar, Jason Iacovoni, Laetitia K Linares, Camille Montersino, Remy Castellano, Emmanuel Griessinger, Yves Collette, Olivier Duchamp, Yara Barreira, Pierre Hirsch, Tony Palama, Lara Gales, Francois Delhommeau, Barbara H Garmy-Susini, Jean-Charles Portais, Francois Vergez, Mary Selak, Gwenn Danet-Desnoyers, Martin Carroll, Christian Récher, Jean Emmanuel Sarry
Chemotherapy-resistant human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are thought to be enriched in quiescent immature leukemic stem cells (LSCs). To validate this hypothesis in vivo, we developed a clinically relevant chemotherapeutic approach treating patient-derived xenograft (PDX) with cytarabine. Cytarabine residual AML cells are enriched neither in immature, quiescent cells nor LSCs. Strikingly, cytarabine-resistant pre-existing and persisting cells displayed high levels of reactive oxygen species, showed increased mitochondrial mass, and retained active polarized mitochondria, consistent with a high oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) status...
April 17, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414710/using-the-pimeloyl-coa-synthetase-adenylation-fold-to-synthesize-fatty-acid-thioesters
#13
Menglu Wang, Lucile Moynié, Peter J Harrison, Van Kelly, Andrew Piper, James H Naismith, Dominic J Campopiano
Biotin is an essential vitamin in plants and mammals, functioning as the carbon dioxide carrier within central lipid metabolism. Bacterial pimeloyl-CoA synthetase (BioW) acts as a highly specific substrate-selection gate, ensuring the integrity of the carbon chain in biotin synthesis. BioW catalyzes the condensation of pimelic acid (C7 dicarboxylic acid) with CoASH in an ATP-dependent manner to form pimeloyl-CoA, the first dedicated biotin building block. Multiple structures of Bacillus subtilis BioW together capture all three substrates, as well as the intermediate pimeloyl-adenylate and product pyrophosphate (PPi), indicating that the enzyme uses an internal ruler to select the correct dicarboxylic acid substrate...
April 17, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412936/-1-h-nmr-analysis-of-feces-new-possibilities-in-the-helminthes-infections-research
#14
Sarantos Kostidis, Daria Kokova, Natalia Dementeva, Irina V Saltykova, Hye Kyong Kim, Young Hae Choi, Oleg A Mayboroda
BACKGROUND: Analysis of the stool samples is an essential part of routine diagnostics of the helminthes infections. However, the standard methods such Kato and Kato-Katz utilize only a fraction of the information available. Here we present a method based on the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) which could be auxiliary to the standard procedures by evaluating the complex metabolic profiles (or phenotypes) of the samples. METHOD: The samples were collected over the period of June-July 2015, frozen at -20 °C at the site of collection and transferred within four hours for the permanent storage at -80 °C...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410667/comparative-effects-of-high-oleic-acid-vs-high-mixed-saturated-fatty-acid-obesogenic-diets-upon-pufa-metabolism-in-mice
#15
Matthew J Picklo, Joseph Idso, Drew R Seeger, Harold M Aukema, Eric J Murphy
Emerging evidence indicates that the fatty acid composition of obesogenic diets influences physiologic outcomes. There are scant data regarding how the content of non-essential fatty acids like monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) impact the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In this work, we tested the hypothesis that obesogenic diets enriched in oleic acid (OA; 18:1n-9) reduce polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels vs an obesogenic diet enriched in SFAs. Adult male mice were fed for eight weeks either (1) a control 16% fat energy (en) diet with 5...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410612/milk-protein-based-formulas-containing-different-oils-affect-fatty-acids-balance-in-term-infants-a-randomized-blinded-crossover-clinical-trial
#16
Carolina Oliveira de Souza, Maria Efigênia Q Leite, John Lasekan, Geraldine Baggs, Lorena Silva Pinho, Janice Izabel Druzian, Tereza Cristina M Ribeiro, Ângela P Mattos, José A Menezes-Filho, Hugo Costa-Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Palm olein is used in infant formula fat blends in order to match the fatty acid profile of human milk. While the effects on fatty acid balance have been evaluated, the use of palm olein in combination with palm kernel oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) has not been similarly assessed in infants. This study evaluated the effects of infant formulas containing different fat compositions on the balance of fat, fatty acids, and calcium...
April 14, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409773/the-making-of-a-mammalian-peroxisome-version-2-0-mitochondria-get-into-the-mix
#17
Michael Schrader, Luca Pellegrini
A recent report from the Laboratory of Heidi McBride (McGill University) presents a role for mitochondria in the de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes in mammalian cells. Peroxisomes are essential organelles responsible for a wide variety of biochemical functions, from the generation of bile to plasmalogen synthesis, reduction of peroxides, and the oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids. Like mitochondria, peroxisomes proliferate primarily through growth and division of pre-existing peroxisomes. However, unlike mitochondria, peroxisomes do not fuse; further, and perhaps most importantly, they can also be born de novo, a process thought to occur through the generation of pre-peroxisomal vesicles that originate from the endoplasmic reticulum...
April 14, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409472/analysis-of-peroxisomal-%C3%AE-oxidation-during-storage-oil-mobilization-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-seedlings
#18
Björn Hielscher, Lennart Charton, Tabea Mettler-Altmann, Nicole Linka
Peroxisomal β-oxidation in plants is essential for mobilization of storage oil in seed-oil storing plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. In plants, degradation of fatty acids occurs exclusively in peroxisomes via β-oxidation, driving seedling growth and development upon germination. Thus, the determination of storage oil breakdown rates is a useful approach to investigate defects in peroxisomal β-oxidation. Here we describe an acid catalyzed derivatization process of fatty acids representing a fast and efficient procedure to generate high yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409465/peroxisomal-membrane-and-matrix-protein-import-using-a-semi-intact-mammalian-cell-system
#19
Kanji Okumoto, Masanori Honsho, Yuqiong Liu, Yukio Fujiki
Peroxisomes are essential intracellular organelles that catalyze a number of essential metabolic pathways including β-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, synthesis of plasmalogen, bile acids, and generation and degradation of hydrogen peroxide. These peroxisomal functions are accomplished by strictly and spatiotemporally regulated compartmentalization of the enzymes catalyzing these reactions. Defects in peroxisomal protein import result in inherited peroxisome biogenesis disorders in humans. Peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes and transported to peroxisomes in a manner dependent on their specific targeting signals and their receptors...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409455/cytochemical-detection-of-peroxisomes-in-light-and-electron-microscopy-with-3-3-diaminobenzidine
#20
H Dariush Fahimi
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous dynamic and multifunctional organelles that contribute to numerous anabolic and catabolic pathways, being essential for human health and development. Their best known functions include the oxidation of fatty acids and metabolism of hydrogen peroxide with catalase as a marker enzyme. Indeed, historically, it was the cytochemical staining of catalase in many different cells and tissues that revealed the ubiquitous presence of peroxisomes in almost all animal and plant cells. In this chapter, the method for cytochemical staining of catalase with the alkaline 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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