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Essential fatty acids

Michael A Mitsche, Helen H Hobbs, Jonathan C Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sylwia Osowska, Marek Kunecki, Jacek Sobocki, Joanna Tokarczyk, Krystyna Majewska, Mohamed Omidi, Marek Radkowski, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND: The effect of different lipid emulsions (LEs) within the parenteral nutrition (PN) regimen of adult home PN (HPN) patients is not clear. This study investigated the effect of changing adult HPN patients from a soybean oil based LE (Intralipid) to either a fish oil containing LE (providing n-3 fatty acids) (SMOFLipid) or an olive oil based LE (ClinOleic). METHODS: Thirty two adults receiving long-term HPN with Intralipid as the LE were transferred to receive either SMOFLipid (n = 13) or ClinOleic (n = 19) for 60 days...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Aditi Mukherjee, Ayan Adhikari, Priya Das, Saroj Biswas, Supratim Mukherjee, Subrata Adak
Leishmania promastigotes have the ability to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids de novo and can grow in lipid free media. Recently, we have shown that NAD(P)H cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (Ncb5or) enzyme in Leishmania acts as the redox partner for Δ12 fatty acid desaturase, which catalyses the conversion of oleate to linoleate. So far, the exact role of Leishmania derived linoleate synthesis is still incomplete in the literature. The viability assay by flow cytometry as well as microscopic studies suggests that linoleate is an absolute requirement for Leishmania promastigote survival in delipidated media...
June 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kazuki Nosho, Koji Yasuhara, Yuto Ikehata, Tomohiro Mii, Taichiro Ishige, Shunsuke Yajima, Makoto Hidaka, Tetsuhiro Ogawa, Haruhiko Masaki
Most bacterial cells in nature exhibit extremely low colony-forming activity, despite showing various signs of viability, impeding the isolation and utilization of many bacterial resources. However, the general causes responsible for this state of low colony formation are largely unknown. Because liquid cultivation typically yields more bacterial cell cultures than traditional solid cultivation, we hypothesized that colony formation requires one or more specific gene functions that are dispensable or less important for growth in liquid media...
June 15, 2018: Microbiology
Jeong Ho Kim, Mamoru Komatsu, Kazuo Shin-Ya, Satoshi Omura, Haruo Ikeda
Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) are a superfamily of essential enzymes required for the synthetic processes of many compounds including fatty acid, polyketide, and nonribosomal peptide metabolites. These enzymes activate carrier proteins in specific biosynthetic pathways via the transfer of a phosphopantetheinyl moiety to a serine residue in the conserved motif of carrier proteins. Since many Actinomycetales microorganisms produce a number of polyketide and nonribosomal peptide metabolites, the distribution of PPTase genes was investigated in these microorganisms...
June 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ling Zhao, Yufen Huang, Lin Lu, Wei Yang, Tao Huang, Zesi Lin, Chengyuan Lin, Hiuyee Kwan, Hoi Leong Xavier Wong, Yang Chen, Silong Sun, Xuefeng Xie, Xiaodong Fang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Lixin Zhu, Zhaoxiang Bian
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is closely associated with gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorder, but the mechanism(s) by which bacteria interact with and affect host GI motility remains unclear. In this study, through using metabolomic and metagenomic analyses, an animal model of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) characterized by accelerated colonic motility and gut dysbiosis was used to investigate the mechanism underlying microbiota-driven motility dysfunction. RESULTS: An excess of intracolonic saturated long-chain fatty acids (SLCFAs) was associated with enhanced bowel motility in NMS rats...
June 14, 2018: Microbiome
Kassem Makki, Edward C Deehan, Jens Walter, Fredrik Bäckhed
Food is a primordial need for our survival and well-being. However, diet is not only essential to maintain human growth, reproduction, and health, but it also modulates and supports the symbiotic microbial communities that colonize the digestive tract-the gut microbiota. Type, quality, and origin of our food shape our gut microbes and affect their composition and function, impacting host-microbe interactions. In this review, we will focus on dietary fibers, which interact directly with gut microbes and lead to the production of key metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, and discuss how dietary fiber impacts gut microbial ecology, host physiology, and health...
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Svein Olav Kolset, Marianne Nordstrøm, Sigrun Hope, Kjetil Retterstøl, Per Ole Iversen
Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) are dependent on nutritional policies that have so far not been addressed in a systematic and health-promoting manner in Norway and other nations with a high socioeconomic standard. In many poor countries, such issues have not even been raised nor addressed. Nutritional issues facing persons with ID include the risk of both underweight and overweight. Deficiency in energy, vitamins, essential fatty acids and micronutrients can increase the risk of additional health burdens in already highly vulnerable individuals...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Noriko Kameyama, Chizuko Maruyama, Fuyuha Kitagawa, Kazunobu Nishii, Kaori Uenomachi, Yayoi Katayama, Hiromi Koga, Naoko Chikamoto, Yuko Kuwata, Junko Torigoe, Masako Arimoto, Toshiaki Tokumaru, Katsunori Ikewaki, Atsushi Nohara, Yoshihiko Otsubo, Koji Yanagi, Masayuki Yoshida, Mariko Harada-Shiba
AIM: Lomitapide is an oral inhibitor of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein used to treat homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH); patients require a low-fat diet to minimize gastrointestinal adverse effects and dietary supplements to prevent nutrient deficiencies. We investigated the diet and nutritional status during lomitapide treatment. METHODS: Japanese patients with HoFH, who were in a phase 3 trial of lomitapide, were instructed to start low-fat diets with supplements of vitamin E and essential fatty acids 6 weeks before starting lomitapide treatment...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Rumi Kotoky, Manobjyoti Bordoloi, Archana Yadav, Kashyap J Tamuli, Surovi Saikia, Partha P Dutta, Prodip P Khound, Siddhartha P Saikia
The essential oil extracted from fruit of Micromelum integrrimum were evaluated through gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. 52 compounds were identified from the fruit oil representing 99.98% of the oil. The major components of the total fruit oil are monoterpene hydrocarbons (72.23%), oxygenated monoterpenes (14.78%) and sesquiterpene (11.54%) which were predominated by terpinolene (32.21%), α-pinene (17.24%), β-pinene (17.24%), and camphene (4.05%). Moreover, other components that present in 1...
June 13, 2018: Natural Product Research
Renato B Pereira, Agostinho A Almeida, David M Pereira, Olga Silva, Paula B Andrade, Edgar Pinto, Patrícia Valentão
The profile of essential and non-essential elements was traced in the edible sea hares Aplysia depilans Gmelin, Aplysia fasciata Poiret and Aplysia punctata Cuvier. Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) were identified as the major essential elements. Risk assessment evidenced that the levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) did not exceed the maximum limit value established by the European Regulation, the contents of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and arsenic (As) being also below the levels established by the FDA guide...
June 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Dong-Yep Oh, Insik Nam, Sehwan Hwang, Hongsik Kong, Honggu Lee, Jaejung Ha, Myunggi Baik, Man Hwan Oh, Songmi Kim, Kyudong Han, Yoonseok Lee
In Korean cattle, intramuscular fat (IMF), or marbling, of the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) cross section is one of the most important indicators of beef quality and are influenced by environmental and genetic factors. This study was to evaluate the effect of SNPs on the beef quality in Korean cattle for functional studies, such as site-directed mutagenesis based on bovine adipocytes. The fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene plays an important role in lipogenesis. FASN is an essential metabolic and multifunctional enzyme in fatty acid synthesis...
March 2018: Genes & Genomics
Hong Liu, Jie Zheng, Pengzhan Liu, Fankui Zeng
In this study, the effects of different pulverizing methods on the chemical attributes and thermal properties of black, white and green pepper were evaluated. Cryogenic grinding minimally damaged the lipid, moisture, crude protein, starch, non-volatile ether extract, piperine, essential oil and the typical pepper essential oil compounds of the spices. The pulverizing methods and storage significantly affected the compositions of the fatty acid in the peppers, except for palmitic acid and lignoceric acid. The amino acid contents and the thermo-gravimetric analysis curve were hardly influenced by the grinding techniques...
June 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Geoffrey B Severin, Miriam S Ramliden, Lisa A Hawver, Kun Wang, Macy E Pell, Ann-Katrin Kieninger, Atul Khataokar, Brendan J O'Hara, Lara V Behrmann, Matthew B Neiditch, Christoph Benning, Christopher M Waters, Wai-Leung Ng
Sensing and responding to environmental changes is essential for bacteria to adapt and thrive, and nucleotide-derived second messengers are central signaling systems in this process. The most recently identified bacterial cyclic dinucleotide second messenger, 3', 3'-cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), was first discovered in the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae The cGAMP synthase, DncV, is encoded on the VSP-1 pathogenicity island, which is found in all El Tor isolates that are responsible for the current seventh pandemic of cholera but not in the classical biotype...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Linda Dunder, Margareta Halin Lejonklou, Lars Lind, Ulf Risérus, P Monica Lind
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor and also a suggested obesogen and metabolism-disrupting chemical. Accumulating data indicates that the fatty acid (FA) profile and their ratios in plasma and other metabolic tissues are associated with metabolic disorders. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) is a key regulator of lipid metabolism and its activity can be estimated by dividing the FA product by its precursor measured in blood or other tissues. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-dose developmental BPA exposure on tissue-specific FA composition including estimated SCD-1 activity, studied in 5- and 52-week (wk)-old Fischer 344 (F344) rat offspring...
June 6, 2018: Environmental Research
Elham Assadpour, Seid Mahdi Jafari
Today, there is an ever-growing interest on natural food ingredients both by consumers and producers in the food industry. In fact, people are looking for those products in the market which are free from artificial and synthetic additives and can promote their health. These food bioactive ingredients should be formulated in such a way that protects them against harsh process and environmental conditions and safely could be delivered to the target organs and cells. Nanoencapsulation is a perfect strategy for this situation and there have been many studies in recent years for nanoencapsulation of food components and nutraceuticals by different technologies...
June 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Dafina Petrova, María Asunción Bernabeu Litrán, Eduardo García-Mármol, Maria Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Belén Cueto-Martín, Eduardo López-Huertas, Andrés Catena, Juristo Fonollá
BACKGROUND: Micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals and long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential for children's brain development and cognitive functions. The current study investigated whether milk fortified with micronutrients and PUFA can result in improved cognitive function in mainstream school children. METHODS: One-hundred-and-nineteen children (age 8-14, 58 boys) were randomly allocated to a fortified milk group or a regular full milk control group...
June 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
V F Labrousse, Q Leyrolle, C Amadieu, A Aubert, A Sere, E Coutureau, S Grégoire, L Bretillon, V Pallet, P Gressens, C Joffre, A Nadjar, S Layé
Maternal immune activation (MIA) is a common environmental insult on the developing brain and represents a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of in utero inflammation further revealed a causal link between maternal inflammatory activation during pregnancy and behavioural impairment relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Accumulating evidence point out that proinflammatory cytokines produced both in the maternal and fetal compartments are responsible for social, cognitive and emotional behavioral deficits in the offspring...
June 4, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Mauro Tomassetti, Betiana S Garavaglia, Cecilia V Vranych, Natalia Gottig, Jorgelina Ottado, Hugo Gramajo, Lautaro Diacovich
Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), bacterium which is unable to survive out of the host for extended periods of time. Once established inside the plant, the pathogen must compete for resources and evade the defenses of the host cell. However, a number of aspects of Xcc metabolic and nutritional state, during the epiphytic stage and at different phases of infection, are poorly characterized. The 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase complex (MCC) is an essential enzyme for the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acid leucine, which prevents the accumulation of toxic intermediaries, facilitates the generation of branched chain fatty acids and/or provides energy to the cell...
2018: PloS One
Jane Maria Gervasio
Soybean oil-based lipid injectable emulsion (SO-based ILE) is an 18-carbon, ω-6 macronutrient providing a concentrated source of calories, which can be administered in or with parenteral nutrition to patients unable to tolerate or consume adequate enteral nutrition. Beyond the provision of energy, SO-based ILE provides linoleic and linolenic acid, 2 essential fatty acids necessary for the prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency. However, SO-based ILE with its high levels of ω-6 fatty acids, long-chain triglycerides, phospholipid emulsifiers, and glycerin has been associated with worsening clinical outcomes, including increase of infections, lengthier intensive care and hospital stay, and prolonged mechanical ventilation...
June 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
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