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Essential fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913851/impact-of-oxygenation-on-the-performance-of-three-non-saccharomyces-yeasts-in-co-fermentation-with-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Kirti Shekhawat, Florian F Bauer, Mathabatha E Setati
The sequential or co-inoculation of grape must with non-Saccharomyces yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains has recently become a common practice in winemaking. The procedure intends to enhance unique aroma and flavor profiles of wine. The extent of the impact of non-Saccharomyces strains depends on their ability to produce biomass and to remain metabolically active for a sufficiently long period. However, mixed-culture wine fermentations tend to become rapidly dominated by S. cerevisiae, reducing or eliminating the non-Saccharomyces yeast contribution...
December 2, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913823/mathematical-models-suggest-facilitated-fatty-acids-crossing-of-the-luminal-membrane-in-the-cardiac-muscle
#2
Efrath Barta
Long-chain fatty acids cross a few membranes on their way from the capillary blood to the cardiomyocyte cytosol, where they are utilized as an essential source of energy. Details of the transport mechanism across those membranes remained elusive despite decades of laboratory and theoretical work. Here we inspect several optional scenarios for the crossing of the luminal membrane of the endothelial cell, the first barrier that should be crossed: a passive diffusion, facilitation by receptors for albumin and facilitation by fatty acids transporters...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913621/identification-of-hepatic-lysophosphatidylcholine-acyltransferase-3-as-a-novel-target-gene-regulated-by-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE
#3
Amar Bahadur Singh, Jingwen Liu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) regulates many genes involved in lipid metabolism. Hepatic lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) has critical functions in triglycerides transport and ER stress response due to its unique ability to catalyze the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids. Previous studies identified liver X receptor as the transcription factor controlling LPCAT3 expression in mouse liver tissue. Here we show that the hepatic LPCAT3 gene is transcriptionally regulated by PPARδ...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911483/effects-of-dietary-heme-iron-and-exercise-training-on-abdominal-fat-accumulation-and-lipid-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#4
Masanori Katsumura, Shoko Takagi, Hana Oya, Shohei Tamura, Takaoki Saneyasu, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue...
December 2, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908785/disco-interacting-protein-2-regulates-axonal-bifurcation-and-guidance-of-drosophila-mushroom-body-neurons
#5
Yohei Nitta, Daisuke Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugie, Makoto Hiroi, Tetsuya Tabata
Axonal branching is one of the key processes within the enormous complexity of the nervous system to enable a single neuron to send information to multiple targets. However, the molecular mechanisms that control branch formation are poorly understood. In particular, previous studies have rarely addressed the mechanisms underlying axonal bifurcation, in which axons form new branches via splitting of the growth cone. We demonstrate that DISCO Interacting Protein 2 (DIP2) is required for precise axonal bifurcation in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons by suppressing ectopic bifurcation and regulating the guidance of sister axons...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906631/mitochondrial-purine-and-pyrimidine-metabolism-and-beyond
#6
Liya Wang
Carefully balanced deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools are essential for both nuclear and mitochondrial genome replication and repair. Two synthetic pathways operate in cells to produce dNTPs, e.g., the de novo and the salvage pathways. The key regulatory enzymes for de novo synthesis are ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and thymidylate synthase (TS), and this process is considered to be cytosolic. The salvage pathway operates both in the cytosol (TK1 and dCK) and the mitochondria (TK2 and dGK). Mitochondrial dNTP pools are separated from the cytosolic ones owing to the double membrane structure of the mitochondria, and are formed by the salvage enzymes TK2 and dGK together with NMPKs and NDPK in postmitotic tissues, while in proliferating cells the mitochondrial dNTPs are mainly imported from the cytosol produced by the cytosolic pathways...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905292/the-effect-of-iron-deficiency-on-the-temporal-changes-in-the-expression-of-genes-associated-with-fat-metabolism-in-the-pregnant-rat
#7
Susan M Hay, Harry J McArdle, Helen E Hayes, Valerie J Stevens, William D Rees
Iron is essential for the oxidative metabolism of lipids. Lipid metabolism changes during gestation to meet the requirements of the growing fetus and to prepare for lactation. The temporal effects of iron deficiency during gestation were studied in female rats fed complete or iron-deficient diets. Plasma triglycerides were elevated in the iron-deficient group throughout gestation. There were time-dependent changes in the triglyceride content of the maternal liver, falling at the midpoint of gestation and then increasing on d21...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901044/fatty-acid-metabolic-reprogramming-via-mtor-mediated-inductions-of-ppar%C3%AE-directs-early-activation-of-t-cells
#8
Mulki Angela, Yusuke Endo, Hikari K Asou, Takeshi Yamamoto, Damon J Tumes, Hirotake Tokuyama, Koutaro Yokote, Toshinori Nakayama
To fulfil the bioenergetic requirements for increased cell size and clonal expansion, activated T cells reprogramme their metabolic signatures from energetically quiescent to activated. However, the molecular mechanisms and essential components controlling metabolic reprogramming in T cells are not well understood. Here, we show that the mTORC1-PPARγ pathway is crucial for the fatty acid uptake programme in activated CD4(+) T cells. This pathway is required for full activation and rapid proliferation of naive and memory CD4(+) T cells...
November 30, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898914/postprandial-portal-fluxes-of-essential-amino-acids-volatile-fatty-acids-and-urea-nitrogen-in-growing-pigs-fed-a-high-fiber-diet-supplemented-with-a-multi-enzyme-cocktail
#9
A K Agyekum, E Kiarie, M C Walsh, C M Nyachoti
The present study investigated the effects of adding a multi-enzyme cocktail (MC) to a high-fiber diet on net portal-drained viscera (PDV) fluxes of essential AA (EAA), volatile fatty acids (VFA), and blood urea-N (BUN) in growing pigs. Five female pigs (22.8 ± 1.6 kg BW), with catheters in the portal vein, ileal vein, and carotid artery, were fed 3 isocaloric-nitrogenous diets at 4% of their BW once daily at 0900 h for 7 d in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. The diets contained corn and soybean meal with 0% (control) or 30% distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS; HF) produced from a 1:1 mixture of wheat and corn...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894899/dietary-flax-seed-oil-and-or-vitamin-e-improve-sperm-parameters-of-cloned-goats-following-freezing-thawing
#10
Rohollah Kargar, Mohsen Forouzanfar, Gholamreza Ghalamkari, Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani
Semen cryopreservation is affected by individual differences and use of clones animal from the same source is the main tool to eliminate genetic variation. Among many nutrients that are necessary for fertility, essential fatty acids and antioxidants are vital for production of healthy sperm by improving sperm membrane integrity and protecting sperm from oxidative stress. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a flax seed oil or/and Vitamin E dietary supplementation could improve semen quality of cloned bucks following semen cryopreservation...
November 25, 2016: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893806/hplc-based-mass-spectrometry-characterizes-the-phospholipid-alterations-in-ether-linked-lipid-deficiency-models-following-oxidative-stress
#11
Robin Drechsler, Shaw-Wen Chen, Blair C R Dancy, Lena Mehrabkhani, Carissa Perez Olsen
Despite the fact that the discovery of ether-linked phospholipids occurred nearly a century ago, many unanswered questions remain concerning these unique lipids. Here, we characterize the ether-linked lipids of the nematode with HPLC-MS/MS and find that more than half of the phosphoethanolamine-containing lipids are ether-linked, a distribution similar to that found in mammalian membranes. To explore the biological role of ether lipids in vivo, we target fatty acyl-CoA reductase (fard-1), an essential enzyme in ether lipid synthesis, with two distinct RNAi strategies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892502/mitochondrial-fat-oxidation-is-essential-for-lipid-induced-inflammation-in-skeletal-muscle-in-mice
#12
Jaycob D Warfel, Estrellita M Bermudez, Tamra M Mendoza, Sujoy Ghosh, Jingying Zhang, Carrie M Elks, Randall Mynatt, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar
Inflammation, lipotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, how these factors are intertwined in the development of obesity/insulin resistance remains unclear. Here, we examine the role of mitochondrial fat oxidation on lipid-induced inflammation in skeletal muscle. We used skeletal muscle-specific Cpt1b knockout mouse model where the inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation results in accumulation of lipid metabolites in muscle and elevated circulating free fatty acids...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888287/wnt-signaling-and-cellular-metabolism-in-osteoblasts
#13
REVIEW
Courtney M Karner, Fanxin Long
The adult human skeleton is a multifunctional organ undergoing continuous remodeling. Homeostasis of bone mass in a healthy adult requires an exquisite balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts; disturbance of such balance is the root cause for various bone disorders including osteoporosis. To develop effective and safe therapeutics to modulate bone formation, it is essential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms governing osteoblast differentiation and activity. Due to their specialized function in collagen synthesis and secretion, osteoblasts are expected to consume large amounts of nutrients...
November 26, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887602/combination-of-aspirin-with-essential-fatty-acids-is-superior-to-aspirin-alone-to-prevent-or-ameliorate-sepsis-or-ards
#14
EDITORIAL
Undurti N Das
It has been suggested that aspirin may be of benefit in treating sepsis and ARDS in view of its ability to block cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 activities; inhibit nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB); enhance the production of endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). Our previous studies revealed that plasma phospholipid content of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is low in patients with sepsis. This implies that beneficial actions of aspirin in sepsis and ARDS is unlikely to be obtained in view of deficiency of AA and EPA, the precursors of LXA4 and resolvins respectively that are potent anti-inflammatory compounds and enhancers of eNO generation...
November 25, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875089/the-essential-nature-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-dogs
#15
John E Bauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874013/crystal-structure-of-fabz-acp-complex-reveals-a-dynamic-seesaw-like-catalytic-mechanism-of-dehydratase-in-fatty-acid-biosynthesis
#16
Lin Zhang, Jianfeng Xiao, Jianrong Xu, Tianran Fu, Zhiwei Cao, Liang Zhu, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Xu Shen, Hualiang Jiang, Liang Zhang
Fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS) is a vital process in cells. Fatty acids are essential for cell assembly and cellular metabolism. Abnormal FAS directly correlates with cell growth delay and human diseases, such as metabolic syndromes and various cancers. The FAS system utilizes an acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a transporter to stabilize and shuttle the growing fatty acid chain throughout enzymatic modules for stepwise catalysis. Studying the interactions between enzymatic modules and ACP is, therefore, critical for understanding the biological function of the FAS system...
December 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873088/anti-inflammatory-and-insulin-sensitizing-effects-of-free-fatty-acid-receptors
#17
Junki Miyamoto, Mayu Kasubuchi, Akira Nakajima, Ikuo Kimura
Chronic low-grade inflammation in macrophages and adipose tissues can promote the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Free fatty acids (FFAs) have important roles in various tissues, acting as both essential energy sources and signaling molecules. FFA receptors (FFARs) can modulate inflammation in various types of cells and tissues; however the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects are unclear. FFARs are activated by specific FFAs; for example, GPR40 and GPR120 are activated by medium and long chain FFAs, GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by short chain FFAs, and GPR84 is activated by medium-chain FFAs...
November 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868947/diet-and-nutrients-in-the-modulation-of-infant-sleep-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
Nora Schneider, Gisella Mutungi, Javier Cubero
OBJECTIVES: The establishment of organized sleep patterns is an important developmental process during infancy. Little is known about the role of nutrition in sleep maturation. This review focuses on exploring the link between infant sleep and nutrition with the aim to provide an overview of existing literature on the impact of diet and specific nutrients on sleep modulation in infants. METHODS: An exploratory literature search was performed on the topic in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases, with a focus on publications in English...
November 21, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865799/oleic-acid-induced-angptl4-enhances-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-anoikis-resistance-and-metastasis-via-up-regulation-of-fibronectin
#19
Chih-Jie Shen, Shih-Hung Chan, Chung-Ta Lee, Wan-Chen Huang, Jhih-Peng Tsai, Ben-Kuen Chen
Obese patients have higher levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in their plasma and a higher risk of cancer than their non-obese counterparts. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of cancer metastasis by FFAs remain unclear. In this study, we found that oleic acid (OA) induced angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein expression and secretion and conferred anoikis resistance to head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). The autocrine production of OA-induced ANGPTL4 further promoted HNSCC migration and invasion...
November 16, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864678/polymorphic-variation-in-ffa-receptors-functions-and-consequences
#20
Atsuhiko Ichimura
Overfeeding of fat can cause various metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Diet provided free fatty acids (FFAs) are not only essential nutrients, but they are also recognized as signaling molecules, which stimulate various important biological functions. Recently, several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including FFA1-4, have been identified as receptors of FFAs by various physiological and pharmacological studies. FFAs exert physiological functions through these FFA receptors (FFARs) depending on carbon chain length and degree of unsaturation...
November 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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