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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603178/role-of-adipokines-in-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Wayne Bond Lau, Koji Ohashi, Yajing Wang, Hayato Ogawa, Toyoaki Murohara, Xin-Liang Ma, Noriyuki Ouchi
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the greatest cause of death, accounting for nearly one-third of all deaths worldwide. The increase in obesity rates over 3 decades is widespread and threatens the public health in both developed and developing countries. Obesity, the excessive accumulation of visceral fat, causes the clustering of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, culminating in the development of CVD. Adipose tissue is not only an energy storage organ, but an active endocrine tissue producing various biologically active proteins known as adipokines...
June 10, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533253/selexipag-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#2
Zachary R Noel, Kazuhiko Kido, Tracy E Macaulay
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability, dosing and administration, and place in therapy of selexipag, an orally administered selective prostacyclin receptor agonist for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), are reviewed. SUMMARY: The first-in-class oral prostacyclin IP receptor agonist selexipag (Uptravi, Actelion Pharmaceuticals) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in December 2015...
May 22, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460992/chemical-constituents-and-health-effects-of-sweet-potato
#3
REVIEW
Sunan Wang, Shaoping Nie, Fan Zhu
Sweet potatoes are becoming a research focus in recent years due to their unique nutritional and functional properties. Bioactive carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, conjugated phenolic acids, and minerals represent versatile nutrients in different parts (tubers, leaves, stems, and stalks) of sweet potato. The unique composition of sweet potato contributes to their various health benefits, such as antioxidative, hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antiaging effects...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359369/apolipoprotein-a2-265%C3%A2-t-c-polymorphism-interacts-with-dietary-fatty-acids-intake-to-modulate-inflammation-in-type%C3%A2-2%C3%A2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#4
Laleh Keramat, Haleh Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Gity Sotoudeh, Elham Zamani, Mohammadreza Eshraghian, Anahita Mansoori, Fariba Koohdani
OBJECTIVE: Several investigations have been conducted regarding the interaction between Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) -265 T>C polymorphism and dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on obesity in healthy individuals or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) patients. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of this interaction on inflammatory markers in T2 DM patients. METHODS: This is a comparative cross-sectional study on 180 T2 DM patients with known APOA2 genotype...
May 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867272/oryza-sativa-rice-hull-extract-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-response-in-raw264-7-macrophages-by-suppressing-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-and-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#5
Sang Keun Ha, Jeehye Sung, Inwook Choi, Yoonsook Kim
BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major cereal crop in many Asian countries and an important staple food source. Rice hulls have been reported to possess antioxidant activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the antiinflammatory effects of rice hull extract and associated signal transduction mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. RESULTS: We found that rice hull extract inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, respectively...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792868/phase-i-studies-of-acebilustat-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-food-effect-and-cyp3a-induction
#6
J S Elborn, L Bhatt, R Grosswald, S Ahuja, E B Springman
Acebilustat is a new once-daily oral antiinflammatory drug in development for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) and other diseases. It is an inhibitor of leukotriene A4 hydrolase; therefore, production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in biological fluids provides a direct measure of the pharmacodynamic (PD) response to acebilustat treatment. Here we compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) and PD between CF patients and healthy volunteers, and investigate the food effect and CYP3A4 induction in healthy volunteers. No significant differences between study populations were observed for peak plasma level (Cmax ) or exposure (AUC)...
January 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771089/short-communication-hypolipidemic-and-antiinflammatory-effects-of-fermented-maillard-reaction-products-by-lactobacillus-fermentum-h9-in-an-animal-model
#7
Nam Su Oh, Ji Hoon Koh, Mi Ri Park, Younghoon Kim, Sae Hun Kim
This study examined the effects of Maillard reaction products reacted by casein and lactose (cMRP) and of cMRP fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum H9 (F-cMRP) on hypolipidemic and antiinflammatory effects in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HD). The HD-fed rats had significantly increased hepatic triglyceride concentrations compared with the rats fed a normal diet. It was shown that treatment with simvastatin, L. fermentum H9 (H9), cMRP, and F-cMRP decreased total triglycerides in the liver compared with the HD group...
December 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662473/antidiabetic-and-antihyperlipidemic-activity-of-p-coumaric-acid-in-diabetic-rats-role-of-pancreatic-glut-2-in-vivo-approach
#8
Venkatesan Amalan, Natesan Vijayakumar, Dhananjayan Indumathi, Arumugam Ramakrishnan
P-coumaric acid (p-CA, 3-[4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-propenoic acid), the major component widely found in nutritious plant foods, has various antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer property. To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic mechanisms, via the effects on carbohydrate, lipids and lipoproteins responses in adult male albino Wistar rats were examined by treated with p-CA. Rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 40mg/kg b.w.) by intraperitonially (i.p.) 30days for the induction of experimental diabetes mellitus...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615454/bioactivity-of-phytosterols-and-their-production-in-plant-in-vitro-cultures
#9
REVIEW
Begoña Miras-Moreno, Ana Belén Sabater-Jara, M A Pedreño, Lorena Almagro
Phytosterols are a kind of plant metabolite belonging to the triterpene family. These compounds are essential biomolecules for human health, and so they must be taken from foods. β-Sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol are the main phytosterols found in plants. Phytosterols have beneficial effects on human health since they are able to reduce plasma cholesterol levels and have antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities. However, there are many difficulties in obtaining them, since the levels of these compounds produced from plant raw materials are low and their chemical synthesis is not economically profitable for commercial exploitation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494683/high-fat-diet-plus-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-fibrosis-is-alleviated-by-betaine-treatment-in-rats
#10
İlknur Bingül, A Fatih Aydın, Canan Başaran-Küçükgergin, Işın Doğan-Ekici, Jale Çoban, Semra Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Müjdat Uysal
Steatosis, the first lesion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), may progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Steatosis predisposes the liver to oxidative stress, inflammation, and cytokines. Betaine (BET) has antioxidant, antiinflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. However, the effects of BET on liver fibrosis development are unknown. Rats were treated with high-fat diet (60% of total calories from fat) for 14weeks. Carbon tetrachloride (0.2mL/kg; two times per week; i.p.) was administered to rats in the last 6weeks with/without commercial food containing BET (2%; w/w)...
October 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350161/the-effects-of-genistein-supplementation-on-fructose-induced-insulin-resistance-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#11
Said Incir, I Murat Bolayirli, Oznur Inan, M Serif Aydın, I Ahmet Bilgin, Ismet Sayan, Mukaddes Esrefoglu, Arzu Seven
AIMS: This experimental study was designed to investigate the effects of 10weeks genistein administration on oxidative stress and inflammation in serum and liver of rats fed with fructose. MAIN METHODS: 6-8weeks old, 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were included. Group 1 (control) was fed with standard chow food and 100μl/kg/day/rat dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) administered subcutaneously; group 2 (genistein) with standard chow food and 0.25mg/kg/day/rat genistein; group 3 (fructose) with standard chow food and drinking water 20% fructose, group 4 (fructose+genistein) with standard chow food, drinking water with 20% fructose and 0...
August 1, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27285147/current-status-and-prospects-for-cannabidiol-preparations-as-new-therapeutic-agents
#12
REVIEW
Pius S Fasinu, Sarah Phillips, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Larry A Walker
States and the federal government are under growing pressure to legalize the use of cannabis products for medical purposes in the United States. Sixteen states have legalized (or decriminalized possession of) products high in cannabidiol (CBD) and with restricted ∆(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (∆(9) -THC) content. In most of these states, the intent is for use in refractory epileptic seizures in children, but in a few states, the indications are broader. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology and toxicology of CBD; summarizes some of the regulatory, safety, and cultural issues relevant to the further exploitation of its antiepileptic or other pharmacologic activities; and assesses the current status and prospects for clinical development of CBD and CBD-rich preparations for medical use in the United States...
July 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151091/milk-derived-bioactive-peptides-and-their-health-promoting-effects-a-potential-role-in-atherosclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Simone Marcone, Orina Belton, Desmond J Fitzgerald
Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins are food components that, in addition to their nutritional value, retain many biological properties and have therapeutic effects in several health disorders, including cardiovascular disease. Amongst these, atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of heart attack and strokes. It is a progressive dyslipidaemic and inflammatory disease where accumulation of oxidized lipids and inflammatory cells leads to the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque in the vessel wall...
January 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133418/potential-of-tocotrienols-in-the-prevention-and-therapy-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Weiming Xia, Huanbiao Mo
Currently there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease (AD); clinical trials are underway to reduce amyloid generation and deposition, a neuropathological hallmark in brains of AD patients. While genetic factors and neuroinflammation contribute significantly to AD pathogenesis, whether increased cholesterol level is a causative factor or a result of AD is equivocal. Prenylation of proteins regulating neuronal functions requires mevalonate-derived farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP)...
May 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27116616/chemopreventive-effect-of-18%C3%AE-glycyrrhetinic-acid-via-modulation-of-inflammatory-markers-and-induction-of-apoptosis-in-human-hepatoma-cell-line-hepg2
#15
Syed Kazim Hasan, Aisha Siddiqi, Sana Nafees, Nemat Ali, Summya Rashid, Rashid Ali, Ayaz Shahid, Sarwat Sultana
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common lethal diseases worldwide and there is no effective treatment till date. Natural products derived from the plants play an important role in chemoprevention and act as therapeutic antitumor agents. Licorice is a plant that has been used in food and medicine for the treatment of various diseases. 18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (18β-GA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid obtained from the roots of licorice plant, is reported to possess various pharmacological properties such as antitumor and antiinflammatory activities...
May 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098287/antiinflammatory-antioxidant-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-crocus-sativus-l-and-its-main-constituents
#16
REVIEW
Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Tahereh Farkhondeh
Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus), commonly known as saffron, is used as a food additive, preservative, and medicinal herb. Traditionally, it has been used as an alternative treatment for different diseases. C. sativus' medicinal effects are related to its major constituents like crocins, crocetin, and safranal. According to the literature, C. sativus and its constituents could be considered as an effective treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, coronary artery diseases, asthma, bronchitis, colds, fever, diabetes, and so on...
July 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043544/the-honolulu-liver-disease-cluster-at-the-medical-center-its-mysteries-and-challenges
#17
REVIEW
Rolf Teschke, Axel Eickhoff
In 2013, physicians at the Honolulu Queen's Medical Center (QMC) noticed that seven liver disease patients reported the use of OxyELITE Pro (OEP), a widely consumed dietary supplement (DS). Assuming a temporal association between OEP use and disease, they argued that OEP was the cause of this mysterious cluster. Subsequent reexamination, however, has revealed that this QMC cohort is heterogeneous and not a cluster with a single agent causing a single disease. It is heterogeneous because patients used multiple DS's and drugs and because patients appeared to have suffered from multiple liver diseases: liver cirrhosis, liver failure by acetaminophen, hepatotoxicity by non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), resolving acute viral hepatitis by hepatitis B virus (HBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV), and suspected hepatitis E virus (HEV)...
March 31, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043511/plectranthus-amboinicus-lour-spreng-botanical-phytochemical-pharmacological-and-nutritional-significance
#18
REVIEW
Greetha Arumugam, Mallappa Kumara Swamy, Uma Rani Sinniah
Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases...
March 30, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992121/a-systematic-review-on-the-health-effects-of-plums-prunus-domestica-and-prunus-salicina
#19
REVIEW
Ezinne O Igwe, Karen E Charlton
In recent times, plums have been described as foods with health-promoting properties. Research on the health effects of plum continue to show promising results on its antiinflammatory, antioxidant and memory-improving characteristics. The increased interest in plum research has been attributed to its high phenolic content, mostly the anthocyanins, which are known to be natural antioxidants. A systematic review of literature was carried out to summarize the available evidence on the impact of plums (Prunus species; domestica and salicina) on disease risk factors and health outcomes...
May 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988520/development-of-an-antioxidant-biomaterial-by-promoting-the-deglycosylation-of-rutin-to-isoquercetin-and-quercetin
#20
Johana M Cruz-Zúñiga, Herlinda Soto-Valdez, Elizabeth Peralta, Ana María Mendoza-Wilson, M Refugio Robles-Burgueño, Rafael Auras, Nohemí Gámez-Meza
Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercetin) and quercetin have shown antioxidant, cytoprotective, vasoprotective, antiproliferative and antiinflammatory properties. The aim of this work was to determine the conversion of rutin to isoquercetin and quercetin during the production of poly(l-lactic acid) films with potential to deliver these flavonoids toward tissues, pharmaceuticals or food matrices. Three poly(l-lactic acid) formulations with 17.7, 39.6 and 39.1mg/g of rutin were prepared by the extrusion process...
August 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
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