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Clinical Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724914/enhanced-learning-through-multimodal-training-evidence-from-a-comprehensive-cognitive-physical-fitness-and-neuroscience-intervention
#1
N Ward, E Paul, P Watson, G E Cooke, C H Hillman, N J Cohen, A F Kramer, A K Barbey
The potential impact of brain training methods for enhancing human cognition in healthy and clinical populations has motivated increasing public interest and scientific scrutiny. At issue is the merits of intervention modalities, such as computer-based cognitive training, physical exercise training, and non-invasive brain stimulation, and whether such interventions synergistically enhance cognition. To investigate this issue, we conducted a comprehensive 4-month randomized controlled trial in which 318 healthy, young adults were enrolled in one of five interventions: (1) Computer-based cognitive training on six adaptive tests of executive function; (2) Cognitive and physical exercise training; (3) Cognitive training combined with non-invasive brain stimulation and physical exercise training; (4) Active control training in adaptive visual search and change detection tasks; and (5) Passive control...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713866/implications-of-the-hierarchical-structure-of-psychopathology-for-psychiatric-neuroimaging
#2
David H Zald, Benjamin B Lahey
Research into the neurobiological substrates of psychopathology has been impeded by heterogeneity within diagnostic categories, comorbidity among mental disorders, and the presence of symptoms that transcend diagnostic categories. Solutions to these issues increasingly focus neurobiological research on isolated or narrow groupings of symptoms or functional constructs rather than categorical diagnoses. Here we argue for a more integrative approach that also incorporates the broad hierarchical structure of psychopathological symptoms and their etiological mechanisms...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700651/metric-based-vs-peer-reviewed-evaluation-of-a-research-output-lesson-learnt-from-uk-s-national-research-assessment-exercise
#3
Kushwanth Koya, Gobinda Chowdhury
PURPOSE: There is a general inquisition regarding the monetary value of a research output, as a substantial amount of funding in modern academia is essentially awarded to good research presented in the form of journal articles, conferences papers, performances, compositions, exhibitions, books and book chapters etc., which, eventually leads to another question if the value varies across different disciplines. Answers to these questions will not only assist academics and researchers, but will also help higher education institutions (HEIs) make informed decisions in their administrative and research policies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694679/a-clinical-perspective-on-a-pain-neuroscience-education-approach-to-manual-therapy
#4
Adriaan Louw, Jo Nijs, Emilio J Puentedura
In recent years, there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience education (PNE) in physical therapy. There is growing evidence for the efficacy of PNE to decrease pain, disability, fear-avoidance, pain catastrophization, limited movement, and health care utilization in people struggling with pain. PNE teaches people in pain more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience including processes such as central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, allodynia, inhibition, facilitation, neuroplasticity and more...
July 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690668/white-opioids-pharmaceutical-race-and-the-war-on-drugs-that-wasn-t
#5
Julie Netherland, Helena Hansen
The US 'War on Drugs' has had a profound role in reinforcing racial hierarchies. Although Black Americans are no more likely than Whites to use illicit drugs, they are 6-10 times more likely to be incarcerated for drug offenses. Meanwhile, a very different system for responding to the drug use of Whites has emerged. This article uses the recent history of White opioids - the synthetic opiates such as OxyContin(®) that gained notoriety starting in the 1990s in connection with epidemic prescription medication abuse among White, suburban and rural Americans and Suboxone(®) that came on the market as an addiction treatment in the 2000s - to show how American drug policy is racialized, using the lesser known lens of decriminalized White drugs...
June 2017: BioSocieties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688701/basic-and-functional-effects-of-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-tes-an-introduction
#6
REVIEW
Fatemeh Yavari, Asif Jamil, Mohsen Mosayebi Samani, Liliane Pinto Vidor, Michael A Nitsche
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been gaining increased popularity in human neuroscience research during the last years. Among the emerging NIBS tools is transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), whose main modalities are transcranial direct, and alternating current stimulation (tDCS, tACS). In tES, a small current (usually less than 3mA) is delivered through the scalp. Depending on its shape, density, and duration, the applied current induces acute or long-lasting effects on excitability and activity of cerebral regions, and brain networks...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687870/-genuine-motor-phenomena-in-schizophrenic-psychoses-theoretical-background-and-definition-of-context
#7
D Hirjak, G Northoff, P A Thomann, K M Kubera, R C Wolf
Besides positive and negative symptoms, motor abnormalities have been increasingly recognized as central symptoms of schizophrenia. Recent investigations of antipsychotic-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia found significantly higher rates of genuine motor abnormalities (GMA) when compared to healthy individuals. The first part of this article introduces the historical and clinical background of GMA in schizophrenia. In the second part the relevance of scientific research and clinical implication of GMA in schizophrenia are discussed...
July 7, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684189/trends-in-global-acupuncture-publications-an-analysis-of-the-web-of-science-database-from-1988-to-2015
#8
Yen-Ying Kung, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Tsai-Feng Li, Seong-Gyu Ko, Ching-Wen Huang, Fang-Pey Chen
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is a rapidly growing medical specialty worldwide. This study aimed to analyze the acupuncture publications from 1988 to 2015 by using the Web of Science (WoS) database. Familiarity with the trend of acupuncture publications will facilitate a better understanding of existing academic research in acupuncture and its applications. METHODS: Academic articles published focusing on acupuncture were retrieved and analyzed from the WoS database which included articles published in Science Citation Index-Expanded and Social Science Citation Indexed journals from 1988 to 2015...
July 3, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675555/rna-sequencing-in-postmortem-human-brains-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#9
Chun Wu, Raphael M Bendriem, Susanna P Garamszegi, Lei Song, Chun-Ting Lee
RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), a revolutionary tool for transcriptome profiling, is becoming increasingly important for neuroscientists in studying the transcriptional landscape of the human brain. Studies using this next generation sequencing (NGS) technique have already revealed novel insights into the complexity of neurons in the human brain and pathogenesis of complex neurological diseases. In clinical neuroscience, RNA-Seq provides exciting opportunities for improving diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases by facilitating the development of pharmacotherapies able to modulate gene expression...
July 4, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675111/outcomes-of-tracheostomy-with-concomitant-and-delayed-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-in-the-neuroscience-critical-care-unit
#10
Christa O'Hana S Nobleza, Vinciya Pandian, Ravirasmi Jasti, David H Wu, Marek A Mirski, Romergryko G Geocadin
BACKGROUND: In patients with severe neurologic conditions, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is typically performed either alone or with a tracheostomy. The characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving PEG concomitantly with a tracheostomy (CTPEG) and those receiving delayed PEG (DPEG) after a tracheostomy were compared. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in a 24-bed neuroscience critical care unit (NCCU) at a tertiary care hospital. Consecutive patients admitted to the NCCU from April 2007 to July 2013 who underwent percutaneous tracheostomy and gastrostomy by the percutaneous tracheostomy team were included and grouped according to the timing of PEG placement: CTPEG versus DPEG...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673806/improved-snr-for-combined-tms-fmri-a-support-device-for-commercially-available-body-array-coil
#11
Wen-Tung Wang, Benjamin Xu, John A Butman
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool extensively used in clinical and cognitive neuroscience research. TMS has been applied during functional magnetic resonance imaging (i.e., concurrent/interleaved TMS-fMRI) to understand neural mechanisms underlying cognitive functions. However, no advanced commercial multi-channel whole-brain array MR coils can fit the large TMS coil. We developed a low-cost and easy-to-configure setup that takes advantage of the superior signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance of commercially available flexible body array coils that can accommodate the TMS coil...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669912/the-efficiency-of-retrospective-artifact-correction-methods-in-improving-the-statistical-power-of-between-group-differences-in-spinal-cord-dti
#12
Gergely David, Patrick Freund, Siawoosh Mohammadi
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising approach for investigating the white matter microstructure of the spinal cord. However, it suffers from severe susceptibility, physiological, and instrumental artifacts present in the cord. Retrospective correction techniques are popular approaches to reduce these artifacts, because they are widely applicable and do not increase scan time. In this paper, we present a novel outlier rejection approach (reliability masking) which is designed to supplement existing correction approaches by excluding irreversibly corrupted and thus unreliable data points from the DTI index maps...
June 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669605/industrial-medicinal-chemistry-insights-neuroscience-hit-generation-at-janssen
#13
REVIEW
Gary Tresadern, Frederik J R Rombouts, Daniel Oehlrich, Gregor Macdonald, Andres A Trabanco
The role of medicinal chemistry has changed over the past 10 years. Chemistry had become one step in a process; funneling the output of high-throughput screening (HTS) on to the next stage. The goal to identify the ideal clinical compound remains, but the means to achieve this have changed. Modern medicinal chemistry is responsible for integrating innovation throughout early drug discovery, including new screening paradigms, computational approaches, novel synthetic chemistry, gene-family screening, investigating routes of delivery, and so on...
June 29, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667062/epilepsy-and-optogenetics-can-seizures-be-controlled-by-light
#14
REVIEW
Jan Tønnesen, Merab Kokaia
Over the past decade, 'optogenetics' has been consolidated as a game-changing tool in the neuroscience field, by allowing optical control of neuronal activity with high cell-type specificity. The ability to activate or inhibit targeted neurons at millisecond resolution not only offers an investigative tool, but potentially also provides a therapeutic intervention strategy for acute correction of aberrant neuronal activity. As efficient therapeutic tools are in short supply for neurological disorders, optogenetic technology has therefore spurred considerable enthusiasm and fostered a new wave of translational studies in neuroscience...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663912/digital-micromirror-based-near-infrared-illumination-system-for-plasmonic-photothermal-neuromodulation
#15
Hyunjun Jung, Hongki Kang, Yoonkey Nam
Light-mediated neuromodulation techniques provide great advantages to investigate neuroscience due to its high spatial and temporal resolution. To generate a spatial pattern of neural activity, it is necessary to develop a system for patterned-light illumination to a specific area. Digital micromirror device (DMD) based patterned illumination system have been used for neuromodulation due to its simple configuration and design flexibility. In this paper, we developed a patterned near-infrared (NIR) illumination system for region specific photothermal manipulation of neural activity using NIR-sensitive plasmonic gold nanorods (GNRs)...
June 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660540/integrating-clinical-neurosciences-in-a-psychiatry-residency-training-program-a-brief-report-with-pilot-data
#16
Jacob Cookey, Michael Butterfield, Celia Robichaud, David Lovas
OBJECTIVE: A novel neuroscience curriculum was developed attempting to address the growing consensus that increased attention be given to incorporating clinical neuroscience in psychiatric residencies. METHODS: Eight 2-h sessions delivered over 2 academic years were incorporated into the teaching curriculum at one institution in which residents participated in case-based clinical neuroscience learning. Each session utilized multimodal teaching methods facilitated by two senior psychiatry residents with support from a faculty mentor...
June 28, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659848/construct-validity-and-reliability-of-a-new-spanish-empathy-questionnaire-for-children-and-early-adolescents
#17
Maria C Richaud, Viviana N Lemos, Belen Mesurado, Laura Oros
Empathy is a basic socio-emotional process of human development that involves the ability to perceive, share, and understand the emotional states of others. This process is essential to successful social functioning. However, despite its significance, empathy has been difficult to define and measure, particularly when incorporating both its emotional and cognitive aspects. The purpose of this study was to develop an Empathy Questionnaire for children aged 9-12 years based on a model of social cognitive neuroscience and to analyze its construct validity and reliability...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659145/erratum-to-a-four-part-working-bibliography-of-neuroethics-part-4-ethical-issues-in-clinical-and-social-applications-of-neuroscience
#18
Kira Becker, John R Shook, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654358/predicting-motivation-computational-models-of-pfc-can-explain-neural-coding-of-motivation-and-effort-based-decision-making-in-health-and-disease
#19
Eliana Vassena, James Deraeve, William H Alexander
Human behavior is strongly driven by the pursuit of rewards. In daily life, however, benefits mostly come at a cost, often requiring that effort be exerted to obtain potential benefits. Medial pFC (MPFC) and dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) are frequently implicated in the expectation of effortful control, showing increased activity as a function of predicted task difficulty. Such activity partially overlaps with expectation of reward and has been observed both during decision-making and during task preparation. Recently, novel computational frameworks have been developed to explain activity in these regions during cognitive control, based on the principle of prediction and prediction error (predicted response-outcome [PRO] model [Alexander, W...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654034/use-of-a-piglet-model-for-the-study-of-anesthetic-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity-aidn-a-translational-neuroscience-approach
#20
Emmett E Whitaker, Christopher Z Zheng, Bruno Bissonnette, Andrew D Miller, Tanner L Koppert, Joseph D Tobias, Christopher R Pierson, Fedias L Christofi
Anesthesia cannot be avoided in many cases when surgery is required, particularly in children. Recent investigations in animals have raised concerns that anesthesia exposure may lead to neuronal apoptosis, known as anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN). Furthermore, some clinical studies in children have suggested that anesthesia exposure may lead to neurodevelopmental deficits later in life. Nonetheless, an ideal animal model for preclinical study has yet to be developed. The neonatal piglet represents a valuable model for preclinical study, as they share a striking number of developmental similarities with humans...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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