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Clinical Neuroscience

Evan M Pucillo, Nancy Christensen-Mayer, Shelly D Poole, Denise M Whitten, Danielle Freeman, Blake R Bohe, Brandon R Swensen, A Gordon Smith, Nicholas E Johnson
BACKGROUND: Team-based care has been shown to offer more comprehensive benefits to patients when compared to standard physician-based care alone in clinics for chronic conditions. However, apart from grant-funded multidisciplinary clinics, there are no reports on the usage of same-day physical therapy (PT) consults within a daily outpatient neuromuscular disease (NMD) physician clinic. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of same-day PT consults at the University of Utah's outpatient Clinical Neurosciences Center...
2016: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Davide Amato, Clare L Beasley, Margaret K Hahn, Anthony C Vernon
Antipsychotic drugs, all of which block the dopamine D2 receptor to a greater or lesser extent, are the mainstay for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Engaging in a deeper understanding of how antipsychotics act on the brain and body, at the cellular, molecular and physiological level is vital to comprehend both the beneficial and potentially harmful actions of these medications and stimulate development of novel therapeutics. To address this, we review recent advances in our understanding of neuroadaptations to antipsychotics, focusing on (1) treatment efficacy, (2) impact on brain volume and (3) evidence from human post-mortem studies that attempt to dissect neuropathological effects of antipsychotic drugs from organic schizophrenia neurobiology and (4) cardio-metabolic side effects...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Christopher Baethge, Michaela Jänner, Wolfgang Gaebel, Jaroslav Malevani
Hallucinations are at the core of the diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, and many neuroscience studies focus on hallucinations. However, there is a lack of data on prevalence, subtyping, and clinical correlates of hallucinations as well as on the comparison of hallucinating schizophrenia versus hallucinating schizoaffective patients. Analysis of all psychopathology evaluations is based on the AMDP scale in a German psychiatric university hospital between 2007 and 2013 regarding patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (diagnosed according to ICD-10)...
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Roisin Bartlam, Rajiv Mohanraj
BACKGROUND: Seizures can lead to cardiac arrhythmias by a number of mechanisms including activation/inhibition of cortical autonomic centers, increase in vagal tone through activation of brainstem reflex centers, and respiratory failure. Ictal asystole (IA) is a potential mechanism underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We analyzed the clinical features of 5 patients who developed IA requiring pacemaker implantation. METHODS: Patients with ictal arrhythmias were identified from the video-telemetry and ambulatory EEG database at Greater Manchester Neurosciences Centre, as well as an independent epilepsy residential care facility...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Barbara Schildkrout
A new nosology for mental disorders is needed as a basis for effective scientific inquiry. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases diagnoses are not natural, biological categories, and these diagnostic systems do not address mental phenomena that exist on a spectrum. Advances in neuroscience offer the hope of breakthroughs for diagnosing and treating major mental illness in the future. At present, a neuroscience-based understanding of brain/behavior relationships can reshape clinical thinking...
October 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Giuseppe Riva, Rosa M Baños, Cristina Botella, Fabrizia Mantovani, Andrea Gaggioli
During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
P Fourneret, H Desombre
INTRODUCTION: For a decade, the concept of irritability has known a renewed interest in infant and child psychopathology. Indeed, longitudinal follow-up studies clearly highlighted their predictive value - in the short, medium and long terms - of a broad field of behavioral disorders and emotion dysregulation. This dimensional and transnosographic approach of irritability, coupled with the latest neuroscience data, points out that irritability could be the equivalent of a psychopathological marker, covering both a neurobiological, cognitive and emotional component...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Tyler A Johnson, Laura Milan-Lobo, Tao Che, Madeline Ferwerda, Eptisam Lambo, Nicole L McIntosh, Fei Li, Li He, Nicholas Lorig-Roach, Phillip Crews, Jennifer Lynne Whistler
Opioid therapeutics are excellent analgesics, whose utility is compromised by dependence. Morphine (1) and its clinically relevant derivatives such as OxyContin® (4), Vicodin® (5) and Dilaudid® (6) are "biased" agonists at the µ opioid receptor (OR), wherein they engage G-protein signaling but poorly engage β-arrestin and the endocytic machinery. In contrast, the endorphins, met-enkephalin (14) and β-endorphin (15), endogenous peptide agonists for ORs, are more potent analgesics then 1, show reduced liability for tolerance and dependence, and engage both G-protein and β-arrestin pathways as "balanced" agonists...
October 17, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
D Gowanlock R Tervo, Bum-Yeol Hwang, Sarada Viswanathan, Thomas Gaj, Maria Lavzin, Kimberly D Ritola, Sarah Lindo, Susan Michael, Elena Kuleshova, David Ojala, Cheng-Chiu Huang, Charles R Gerfen, Jackie Schiller, Joshua T Dudman, Adam W Hantman, Loren L Looger, David V Schaffer, Alla Y Karpova
Efficient retrograde access to projection neurons for the delivery of sensors and effectors constitutes an important and enabling capability for neural circuit dissection. Such an approach would also be useful for gene therapy, including the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by pathological spread through functionally connected and highly distributed networks. Viral vectors, in particular, are powerful gene delivery vehicles for the nervous system, but all available tools suffer from inefficient retrograde transport or limited clinical potential...
October 6, 2016: Neuron
E Carlino, A Piedimonte, F Benedetti
Placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, for they have always been used as comparators for the validation of new treatments. By contrast, today they represent an active field of research, and, due to the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually be viewed as a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience. There is not a single placebo effect, but many, with different mechanisms across different medical conditions and therapeutic interventions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Raj K Kalapatapu, Maria I Ventura, Deborah E Barnes
BACKGROUND: Substance use is an important clinical issue in the older adult population. As older adults are susceptible to cognitive disorders, the intersection of the fields of substance use and cognitive neuroscience is an active area of research. Prior studies of alcohol use and cognitive performance are mixed, and inconsistencies may be due to under- or over-adjustment for confounders. AIM: This manuscript adds to this literature by conducting a secondary analysis of self-reported lifetime history of alcohol use and cognitive performance in older adults (n = 133)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
Faranak Farzan, Marine Vernet, Mouhsin M D Shafi, Alexander Rotenberg, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
The concurrent combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is a powerful technology for characterizing and modulating brain networks across developmental, behavioral, and disease states. Given the global initiatives in mapping the human brain, recognition of the utility of this technique is growing across neuroscience disciplines. Importantly, TMS-EEG offers translational biomarkers that can be applied in health and disease, across the lifespan, and in humans and animals, bridging the gap between animal models and human studies...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Ditza A Zachor, Esther Ben-Itzchak
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders which occurs with numerous medical conditions. In previous research, subtyping in ASD has been based mostly on cognitive ability and ASD symptom severity. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether specific medical conditions in ASD are associated with unique behavioral profiles. The medical conditions included in the study were macrocephaly, microcephaly, developmental regression, food selectivity, and sleep problems. The behavioral profile was composed of cognitive ability, adaptive skills, and autism severity, and was examined in each of the aforementioned medical conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Israel Liberzon, James L Abelson
Progress in clinical and affective neuroscience is redefining psychiatric illness as symptomatic expression of cellular/molecular dysfunctions in specific brain circuits. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been an exemplar of this progress, with improved understanding of neurobiological systems subserving fear learning, salience detection, and emotion regulation explaining much of its phenomenology and neurobiology. However, many features remain unexplained and a parsimonious model that more fully accounts for symptoms and the core neurobiology remains elusive...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Over the past 2 decades there has been a dramatic shift in understanding of personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). What was historically viewed as an entrenched pattern of antagonistic, interpersonally dependent, and uncorrectable conduct is now seen as the outcome of complex-yet modifiable-developmental processes. The borderline label, which once inspired such harsh opprobrium in clinical communities that early diagnosis was considered taboo, is now increasingly applied to adolescents who are receiving effective treatment and desisting from a borderline trajectory...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García, Sol Esteves, Adrián Yoris, Edinson Muñoz, Lucila Reynaldo, Marcos Luis Pietto, Federico Adolfi, Facundo Manes
Multiple disorders once jointly conceived as 'nervous diseases' became segregated by the distinct institutional traditions forged in neurology and psychiatry. As a result, each field specialized in the study and treatment of a subset of such conditions. Here we propose new avenues for interdisciplinary interaction through a triangulation of both fields with social neuroscience. To this end, we review evidence from five relevant domains (facial emotion recognition, empathy, theory of mind, moral cognition, social context assessment), highlighting their common disturbances across neurological and psychiatric conditions and discussing their multiple pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Michael Bodnar, Ashok K Malla, Carolina Makowski, M Mallar Chakravarty, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage
BACKGROUND: Current neuroscience literature has related treatment with aripiprazole to improved memory performance and subcellular changes in the hippocampus. AIMS: To explore the volumetric changes in hippocampal grey matter in people with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) treated with second-generation antipsychotics. METHOD: Baseline and 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance images were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were estimated by using FreeSurfer and MAGeT-Brain...
March 2016: BJPsych Open
Vincenzo Romei, Gregor Thut, Juha Silvanto
Progress in cognitive neuroscience relies on methodological developments to increase the specificity of knowledge obtained regarding brain function. For example, in functional neuroimaging the current trend is to study the type of information carried by brain regions rather than simply compare activation levels induced by task manipulations. In this context noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) in the study of cognitive functions may appear coarse and old fashioned in its conventional uses. However, in their multitude of parameters, and by coupling them with behavioral manipulations, NTBS protocols can reach the specificity of imaging techniques...
September 30, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
Simona Ferrante, Noelia Chia Bejarano, Emilia Ambrosini, Antonio Nardone, Anna M Turcato, Marco Monticone, Giancarlo Ferrigno, Alessandra Pedrocchi
It has been largely suggested in neuroscience literature that to generate a vast variety of movements, the Central Nervous System (CNS) recruits a reduced set of coordinated patterns of muscle activities, defined as muscle synergies. Recent neurophysiological studies have recommended the analysis of muscle synergies to finely assess the patient's impairment, to design personalized interventions based on the specific nature of the impairment, and to evaluate the treatment outcomes. In this scope, the aim of this study was to design a personalized multi-channel functional electrical stimulation (FES) controller for gait training, integrating three novel aspects: (1) the FES strategy was based on healthy muscle synergies in order to mimic the neural solutions adopted by the CNS to generate locomotion; (2) the FES strategy was personalized according to an initial locomotion assessment of the patient and was designed to specifically activate the impaired biomechanical functions; (3) the FES strategy was mapped accurately on the altered gait kinematics providing a maximal synchronization between patient's volitional gait and stimulation patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
P Moore, C Jackson, K Mutch, A Methley, C Pollard, S Hamid, A Jacob
OBJECTIVE: This study outlines the development of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM), an instrument to obtain self-reported health status for neuromyeltis optica (NMO), a disabling neurological condition. DESIGN: Development was conducted in accordance with international guidance for PROMs including systematic review of existing literature, item generation guided by qualitative interviews, health-related quality of life conceptual framework and clinical expert panel and cognitive interviews with NMO patients...
September 30, 2016: BMJ Open
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