Read by QxMD icon Read

Clinical Neuroscience

Kristina Jakob, Hanna Ehrentreich, Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Luise Reimers, Esther K Diekhof
Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA) and current 17ß-estradiol (E2) level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP) and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) affects reinforcement learning capacity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marlysa B Sullivan, Matt Erb, Laura Schmalzl, Steffany Moonaz, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Stephen W Porges
Yoga therapy is a newly emerging, self-regulating complementary and integrative healthcare (CIH) practice. It is growing in its professionalization, recognition and utilization with a demonstrated commitment to setting practice standards, educational and accreditation standards, and promoting research to support its efficacy for various populations and conditions. However, heterogeneity of practice, poor reporting standards, and lack of a broadly accepted understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in yoga therapy limits the structuring of testable hypotheses and clinical applications...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sevdalina Kandilarova, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Ivo D Popivanov, Stefan Kostianev
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we have attempted to replicate the findings of altered emotional processing in depressed patients compared with healthy controls by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging during passive viewing of positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Pictures System. METHODS: Nineteen medicated depressed patients and 19 sex and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during presentation of affective pictures in a block design...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Steven H Baete, Jingyun Chen, Ying-Chia Lin, Xiuyuan Wang, Ricardo Otazo, Fernando E Boada
A novel approach is presented for group statistical analysis of diffusion weighted MRI datasets through voxelwise Orientation Distribution Functions (ODF). Recent advances in MRI acquisition make it possible to use high quality diffusion weighted protocols (multi-shell, large number of gradient directions) for routine in vivo study of white matter architecture. The dimensionality of these data sets is however often reduced to simplify statistical analysis. While these approaches may detect large group differences, they do not fully capitalize on all acquired image volumes...
March 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Eline A J Willemse, Ann De Vos, Elizabeth M Herries, Ulf Andreasson, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Wiesje M van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Dan Crimmins, Jack H Ladenson, Eugeen Vanmechelen, Henrik Zetterberg, Anne M Fagan, Kaj Blennow, Maria Bjerke, Charlotte E Teunissen
BACKGROUND: Neurogranin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) correlates with cognitive decline and is a potential novel biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. We investigated the analytical and diagnostic performance of 3 commonly used neurogranin assays in the same cohort of patients to improve the interpretability of CSF neurogranin test results. METHODS: The neurogranin Singulex assay from Washington University, St. Louis, MO (WashU); ELISA from ADx Neurosciences; and ELISA from Gothenburg University, Mölndal, Sweden (UGot), were compared using silver staining and Western blot after gel electrophoresis...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Roberta Ronchi, Hyeong-Dong Park, Olaf Blanke
Research in clinical and human neuroscience indicates that important brain mechanisms of self-consciousness are based on the integration of multisensory bodily signals (i.e., bodily self-consciousness: BSC), including signals coming from outside our body (i.e., exteroceptive signals, such as tactile, auditory, and visual information) and the inside of our body (i.e., interoceptive signals). In this chapter, we discuss selected behavioral and neuroimaging studies about how multisensory integration generates and modulates BSC in humans, with particular relevance to parietal mechanisms...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Emiel Cracco, Lara Bardi, Charlotte Desmet, Oliver Genschow, Davide Rigoni, Lize De Coster, Ina Radkova, Eliane Deschrijver, Marcel Brass
Automatic imitation is the finding that movement execution is facilitated by compatible and impeded by incompatible observed movements. In the past 15 years, automatic imitation has been studied to understand the relation between perception and action in social interaction. Although research on this topic started in cognitive science, interest quickly spread to related disciplines such as social psychology, clinical psychology, and neuroscience. However, important theoretical questions have remained unanswered...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Sushma Yerram, Nakul Katyal, Keerthivaas Premkumar, Premkumar Nattanmai, Christopher R Newey
Background: Seizures are a considerable complication in critically ill patients. Their incidence is significantly high in neurosciences intensive care unit patients. Seizure prophylaxis with anti-epileptic drugs is a common practice in neurosciences intensive care unit. However, its utility in patients without clinical seizure, with an underlying neurological injury, is somewhat controversial. Body: In this article, we have reviewed the evidence for seizure prophylaxis in commonly encountered neurological conditions in neurosciences intensive care unit and discussed the possible prognostic role of continuous electroencephalography monitoring in detecting early seizures in critically ill patients...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
L A Rafferty, P E Cawkill, S A M Stevelink, K Greenberg, N Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Dementia is currently incurable, irreversible and a major cause of disability for the world's older population. The association between mental health difficulties, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), and dementia has a long history within the civilian population. Despite the increased importance of this link within the military veteran population, who suffer a greater propensity of mental health difficulties and consist largely of over 65s, attention is only recently being paid to the salience of such an association for this group...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel, Aurelio Cortese, Toshinori Chiba, J D Knotts, Mitsuo Kawato, Hakwan Lau
Can "hardwired" physiological fear responses (e.g., for spiders and snakes) be reprogramed unconsciously in the human brain? Currently, exposure therapy is among the most effective treatments for anxiety disorders, but this intervention is subjectively aversive to patients, causing many to drop out of treatment prematurely. Here we introduce a method to bypass the subjective unpleasantness in conscious exposure, by directly pairing monetary reward with unconscious occurrences of decoded representations of naturally feared animals in the brain...
March 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ana Deligiannis
This article explores how the body and imagination operate as pathways of knowledge through the use of Movement as Active Imagination in clinical practice. This method activates the transcendent function, thus encouraging new therapeutic responses. A philosophical perspective (Spinoza, Nietzsche, Merleau-Ponty) and some concepts from neuroscience (embodied cognition, somatic markers, image schema, mirror neurons, neuronal plasticity) will accompany us throughout this work, illustrated with a clinical vignette...
April 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Jeffrey J Olney, Shelley M Warlow, Erin E Naffziger, Kent C Berridge
Affective neuroscience research has revealed that reward contains separable components of 'liking', 'wanting', and learning. Here we focus on current 'liking' and 'wanting' findings and applications to clinical disorders. 'Liking' is the hedonic impact derived from a pleasant experience, and is amplified by opioid and related signals in discrete sites located in limbic-related brain areas. 'Wanting' refers to incentive salience, a motivation process for reward, and is mediated by larger systems involving mesocorticolimbic dopamine...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Stephen Keddie, Ashok Adams, Andrew R C Kelso, Benjamin Turner, Klaus Schmierer, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Andrea Malaspina, Gavin Giovannoni, Ian Basnett, Alastair J Noyce
BACKGROUND: Whilst the dangers of 'legal highs' have been widely publicised in the media, very few cases of the neurological syndrome associated with the inhalation of nitrous oxide (N2 O) have been reported. Here we set out to raise awareness of subacute degeneration of the spinal cord arising from recreational N2 O use so that formal surveillance programs and public health interventions can be designed. METHODS: Case series documenting the clinical and investigational features of ten consecutive cases of subacute degeneration of the spinal cord presenting to a hospital with a tertiary neurosciences service in East London...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Bob O Vogel, Joanna Stasch, Henrik Walter, Andres H Neuhaus
The mismatch negativity (MMN) deficit in schizophrenia is a consistently replicated finding and is considered a potential biomarker. From the cognitive neuroscience perspective, MMN represents a cortical correlate of the prediction error, a fundamental computational operator that may be at the core of various cognitive and clinical deficits observed in schizophrenia. The impact of emotion on cognitive processes in schizophrenia is insufficiently understood, and its impact on basic operators of cortical computation is largely unknown...
February 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Bethan Jenkins, Philip C Calder, Luise V Marino
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Critically ill adults have increased nutrition risk. Prior to procedures patients are often fasted, leading to nutritional deficits. The use of fasting guidelines may therefore help reduce deficits from accumulating. The aim of this work was to determine the impact on nutrition support delivery following the implementation of fasting guidelines in addition to characterizing staff knowledge of the guidelines. DESIGN: Retrospective data were collected on n = 74 patients at two different time points; prior to launch of fasting guidelines and post launch, with regards to estimated nutritional requirements, nutritional targets, volume of enteral nutrition (EN) delivered and periods of fasting...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Diogo Telles-Correia
A problem underlying the mind brain gap is the complex integration among the disciplines involved in it: neurosciences, clinical psychiatry and psychology, and philosophy of science. Research in neurosciences and clinical psychiatry requires a positioning in relation to some conceptual/philosophical aspects. These are related to the models of interrelationship of the brain and the mind, to explanatory approaches in psychiatry, and to conceptual issues such as dimensionality versus categories, symptoms versus disorders, and neurobiological correlates versus clinical determination of mental disorder...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Chunliang Feng, Benjamin Becker, Wenhao Huang, Xia Wu, Simon B Eickhoff, Taolin Chen
The emotional Stroop task (EST) is among the most influential paradigms used to probe attention-related or cognitive control-related emotional processing in healthy subjects and clinical populations. The neuropsychological mechanism underlying the emotional Stroop effect has attracted extensive and long-lasting attention in both cognitive and clinical psychology and neuroscience; however, a precise characterization of the neural substrates underlying the EST in healthy and clinical populations remains elusive...
February 26, 2018: NeuroImage
Elaine Setiawan, Sophia Attwells, Alan A Wilson, Romina Mizrahi, Pablo M Rusjan, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Sarita Sharma, Stephen Kish, Sylvain Houle, Jeffrey H Meyer
BACKGROUND: People with major depressive disorder frequently exhibit increasing persistence of major depressive episodes. However, evidence for neuroprogression (ie, increasing brain pathology with longer duration of illness) is scarce. Microglial activation, which is an important component of neuroinflammation, is implicated in neuroprogression. We examined the relationship of translocator protein (TSPO) total distribution volume (VT ), a marker of microglial activation, with duration of untreated major depressive disorder, and with total illness duration and antidepressant exposure...
February 26, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
H Ronald Zielke, Deborah C Mash
Brain biospecimen banking requires centralized resources, national networks for referral of donors, trained personnel to interact with grieving families, and scientific staff to process the biospecimens. Process development of quality control standards is needed to meet the specific requirements of emerging genomic and proteomic technologies. Attention has to be paid to agonal factors and postmortem interval, tissue processing, neuropathology review, and long-term storage. Samples of both diseased and unaffected normal tissues are required with age- and gender-matched control tissues...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Tania Pietrzak, Christina Lohr, Beverly Jahn, Gernot Hauke
We make the case for the possible integration of affect experience induced via embodiment techniques with CBT for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings. Theoretically we propose a possible integration of cognitive behavioural theory, neuroscience, embodied cognition and important processes of client change outcomes such as the therapeutic alliance to enhance client outcomes. We draw from evidence of bidirectional effects between embodiment modes of bottom-up (sensory-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top-down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes such as CBT in psychotherapy...
February 26, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"