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Clinical Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151089/capgras-syndrome-and-other-delusional-misidentification-syndromes
#1
Alain Barrelle, J-P Luauté
The delusional misidentification syndromes (DMS) are a group of disorders, characterized by patients mistaking the identity of people they know, although they recognize them physically. The term DMS is an umbrella term which may cover disorders whose definition extends to objects other than people, such as animals, places, or familiar material objects. The most common and best known DMS is Capgras syndrome. In this disorder, the misidentification leads to the delusional conviction that a close friend or relative has been replaced by an identical - or almost identical - "double," whose original has disappeared...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125408/improving-stroke-transitions-development-and-implementation-of-a-social-work-case-management-intervention
#2
Anne K Hughes, Amanda T Woodward, Michele C Fritz, Mathew J Reeves
Strokes impact over 800,000 people every year. Stroke care typically begins with inpatient care and then continues across an array of healthcare settings. These transitions are difficult for patients and caregivers, with psychosocial needs going unmet. Our team developed a case management intervention for acute stroke patients and their caregivers aimed at improving stroke transitions. The intervention focusses on four aspects of a successful care transition: support, preparedness, identifying and addressing unmet needs, and stroke education...
November 10, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123945/the-anatomical-basis-for-dystonia-the-motor-network-model
#3
REVIEW
H A Jinnah, Vladimir Neychev, Ellen J Hess
Background: The dystonias include a clinically and etiologically very diverse group of disorders. There are both degenerative and non-degenerative subtypes resulting from genetic or acquired causes. Traditionally, all dystonias have been viewed as disorders of the basal ganglia. However, there has been increasing appreciation for involvement of other brain regions including the cerebellum, thalamus, midbrain, and cortex. Much of the early evidence for these other brain regions has come from studies of animals, but multiple recent studies have been done with humans, in an effort to confirm or refute involvement of these other regions...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121820/which-computer-use-behaviours-are-most-indicative-of-cognitive-decline-insights-from-an-expert-reference-group
#4
Samuel Couth, Gemma Stringer, Iracema Leroi, Alistair G Sutcliffe, Ann Gledson, Davide Bruno, Kathryn R McDonald, Daniela Montaldi, Ellen Poliakoff, Jonathan Rust, Jennifer C Thompson, Laura Je Brown
Computer use is becoming ubiquitous among older adults. As computer use depends on complex cognitive functions, measuring individuals' computer-use behaviours over time may provide a way to detect changes in their cognitive functioning. However, it is uncertain which computer-use behaviour changes are most likely to be associated with declines of particular cognitive functions. To address this, we convened six experts from clinical and cognitive neurosciences to take part in two workshops and a follow-up survey to gain consensus on which computer-use behaviours would likely be the strongest indicators of cognitive decline...
November 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119634/the-cerebral-basis-of-parkinsonian-tremor-a-network-perspective
#5
Rick C Helmich
Tremor in Parkinson's disease is a poorly understood sign. Although it is one of the clinical hallmarks of the disease, its pathophysiology remains unclear. It is clear that tremor involves different neural mechanisms than bradykinesia and rigidity, the other core motor signs of Parkinson's disease. In particular, the role of dopamine in tremor has been heavily debated given clinical observations that tremor has a variable response to dopaminergic medication. From a neuroscience perspective, tremor is also a special sign; unlike other motor signs, it has a clear electrophysiological signature (frequency, phase, and power)...
November 9, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118218/consciousness-regained-disentangling-mechanisms-brain-systems-and-behavioral-responses
#6
Johan F Storm, Mélanie Boly, Adenauer G Casali, Marcello Massimini, Umberto Olcese, Cyriel M A Pennartz, Melanie Wilke
How consciousness (experience) arises from and relates to material brain processes (the "mind-body problem") has been pondered by thinkers for centuries, and is regarded as among the deepest unsolved problems in science, with wide-ranging theoretical, clinical, and ethical implications. Until the last few decades, this was largely seen as a philosophical topic, but not widely accepted in mainstream neuroscience. Since the 1980s, however, novel methods and theoretical advances have yielded remarkable results, opening up the field for scientific and clinical progress...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118216/circuit-and-synaptic-plasticity-mechanisms-of-drug-relapse
#7
Yan Dong, Jane R Taylor, Marina E Wolf, Yavin Shaham
High rates of relapse to drug use during abstinence is a defining feature of human drug addiction. This clinical scenario has been studied at the preclinical level using different animal models in which relapse to drug seeking is assessed after cessation of operant drug self-administration in rodents and monkeys. In our Society for Neuroscience (SFN) session entitled "Circuit and Synaptic Plasticity Mechanisms of Drug Relapse," we will discuss new developments of our understanding of circuits and synaptic plasticity mechanisms of drug relapse from studies combining established and novel animal models with state-of-the-art cellular, electrophysiology, anatomical, chemogenetic, and optogenetic methods...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117033/challenges-of-cerebral-perfusion-pressure-measurement
#8
Sarah L Livesay, Molly M McNett, Monica Keller, DaiWai M Olson
Monitoring cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is recommended by a number of clinical practice guidelines and is a routine function performed by critical care neuroscience nurses. However, several studies highlight theoretical and practice variations in the measurement of CPP regarding the location of the arterial pressure transducer during measurement. Agreement on the technique and process for obtaining valid measurements is lacking. This article identifies the challenges associated with CPP measurement and highlights opportunities for standardizing CPP measurement to improve consistency in care and findings reported in the research literature...
December 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111859/effect-of-physical-therapy-management-of-nonspecific-low-back-pain-with-exercise-addiction-behaviors-a-case-series
#9
Sudarshan Anandkumar, Murugavel Manivasagam, Vivian Tie Suk Kee, Uta Meyding-Lamade
This case series describes two patients, aged 35 and 45 years, respectively, who presented with chronic nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) having exercise addiction (EA) behaviors. Diagnosis of EA was based on clinical findings, exercising patterns and withdrawal symptoms along with high scores in the EA inventory. This report is a potential first-time description of the successful physical therapy management of NSLBP associated with EA utilizing pain neuroscience education (with individualized curriculum), mindfulness, breathing, quota-based reduction in exercises and modification of exercises into social participation, pleasure activities and hobbies...
November 7, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111773/factors-to-consider-when-reviewing-and-reconciling-research-findings-methodological-statistical-and-theoretical
#10
Sally J Robinson
Neuroscience is a rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field that is changing the way research is conducted and theories are developed. However, variability between studies and apparently discrepant findings may contribute to difficulties identifying commonalities that can help inform and enhance clinical practice. This article presents a framework to consider when reviewing neuropsychological studies, such that apparent discrepancies in findings may be considered in unison to provide informed theoretical understanding...
November 7, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111450/interpersonal-dysfunction-in-borderline-personality-a-decision-neuroscience-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Michael N Hallquist, Nathan T Hall, Alison M Schreiber, Alexandre Y Dombrovski
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by disadvantageous decisions that are often expressed in close relationships and associated with intense negative emotions. Although functional neuroimaging studies of BPD have described regions associated with altered social cognition and emotion processing, these correlates do not inform an understanding of how brain activity leads to maladaptive choices. Drawing on recent research, we argue that formal models of decision-making are crucial to elaborating theories of BPD that bridge psychological constructs, behavior, and neural systems...
September 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107620/lacking-quality-in-research-is-behavioral-neuroscience-affected-more-than-other-areas-of-biomedical-science
#12
Anton Bespalov, Thomas Steckler
There are many reasons why novel therapeutics fail in clinical trials but these failures are often attributed to lacking quality of preclinical data. These problems are not limited to any specific therapeutic area, academic or industrial research and are due in large part to several generic factors influencing research quality (e.g., related to definition of pre-specified endpoints, principles of study design and analysis, biased reporting, and lack of proper training). Yet, Neuroscience drug discovery is often said to be affected more than the other fields...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106679/toward-a-common-language-for-measuring-patient-mobility-in-the-hospital-reliability-and-construct-validity-of-interprofessional-mobility-measures
#13
Erik H Hoyer, Daniel L Young, Lisa M Klein, Julie Kreif, Kara Shumock, Stephanie Hiser, Michael Friedman, Annette Lavezza, Alan Jette, Kitty S Chan, Dale M Needham
Background: The lack of common language among interprofessional inpatient clinical teams is an important barrier to achieving inpatient mobilization. In The Johns Hopkins Hospital, the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) Inpatient Mobility Short Form (IMSF), also called "6-Clicks,"and the Johns Hopkins Highest Level of Mobility (JH-HLM) are part of routine clinical practice. The measurement characteristics of these tools when used by both nurses and physical therapists for interprofessional communication or assessment are unknown...
November 2, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105063/distinguishing-characteristics-of-headache-in-nontraumatic-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#14
Brian Mac Grory, Linh Vu, Shawna Cutting, Evadne Marcolini, Christopher Gottschalk, David Greer
INTRODUCTION: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening emergency that is frequently missed due to its varied and often subtle presentation. The most common presentation of SAH is with a severe headache. The classical adjective used in SAH is "thunderclap"; however, this has not been well defined in the literature, rendering it a challenge to triage patients in clinical practice presenting with severe headache. METHODS: We undertook a prospective, observational study at a tertiary academic medical center examining the clinical characteristics of the presenting headache in SAH...
November 4, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099679/photobiomodulation-in-neuroscience-a-summary-of-personal-experience
#15
Shimon Rochkind
OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes personal experience with laser photobiomodulation and its potentials for the treatment of peripheral and central nerve system injuries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Laser photobiomodulation was shown to induce nerve cell activation, have a positive effect on metabolism of the nerve cells, and to stimulate nerve sprouting processes. Studies investigating the effects of laser photobiomodulation on injured peripheral nerves in rats reported immediate protective effects which increase the functional activity of the nerve, decrease or prevent scar tissue formation at the injured site, prevent or decrease degeneration in corresponding motor neurons of the spinal cord, and significantly increase axonal growth and myelinization...
November 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091541/a-multilevel-social-neuroscience-perspective-on-radicalization-and-terrorism
#16
Jean Decety, Clifford I Workman
Why are some people capable of sympathizing with and/or committing acts of political violence, such as attacks aimed at innocent targets? Attempts to construct terrorist profiles based on individual and situational factors, such as clinical, psychological, ethnic, and socio-demographic variables, have largely failed. Although individual and situational factors must be at work, it is clear that they alone cannot explain how certain individuals are radicalized. In this paper, we propose that a comprehensive understanding of radicalization and of how it may lead to political violence requires the integration of information across multiple levels of analysis and interdisciplinary perspectives from evolutionary theory, social, personality and cognitive psychology, political science and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074231/the-engage-study-integrating-neuroimaging-virtual-reality-and-smartphone-sensing-to-understand-self-regulation-for-managing-depression-and-obesity-in-a-precision-medicine-model
#17
Leanne M Williams, Adam Pines, Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Lisa G Rosas, Monica Kullar, Matthew D Sacchet, Olivier Gevaert, Jeremy Bailenson, Philip W Lavori, Paul Dagum, Brian Wandell, Carlos Correa, Walter Greenleaf, Trisha Suppes, L Michael Perry, Joshua M Smyth, Megan A Lewis, Elizabeth M Venditti, Mark Snowden, Janine M Simmons, Jun Ma
Precision medicine models for personalizing achieving sustained behavior change are largely outside of current clinical practice. Yet, changing self-regulatory behaviors is fundamental to the self-management of complex lifestyle-related chronic conditions such as depression and obesity - two top contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. To optimize treatments and address these burdens, behavior change and self-regulation must be better understood in relation to their neurobiological underpinnings...
October 7, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#18
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062068/survey-of-electrically-evoked-responses-in-the-retina-stimulus-preferences-and-oscillation-among-neurons
#19
David Tsai, John W Morley, Gregg J Suaning, Nigel H Lovell
Electrical stimulation is an important tool in neuroscience research and clinically. In the retina, extensive work has revealed how the retinal ganglion cells respond to extracellular electrical stimulation. But little is known about the responses of other neuronal types, and more generally, how the network responds to stimulation. We conducted a survey of electrically evoked responses, over a range of pulse amplitudes and pulse widths, for 21 cell types spanning the inner two layers of the rabbit retina. It revealed: (i) the evoked responses of some neurons were charge insensitive; (ii) pulse-width sensitivity varied between cell types, allowing preferential recruitment of cell types; and (iii) 10-20 Hz damped oscillations across retinal layers...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060605/mapping-the-full-vascular-network-in-the-mouse-brain-at-submicrometer-resolution
#20
Junseok Lee, Wookyung An, Yoonsuck Choe
Mapping the microvascular networks in the brain can lead to significant scientific and clinical insights. We developed a serial sectioning microscopy technique called the Knife-Edge Scanning Microscopy (KESM) to section and image the entire mouse brain at submicrometer resolution. In our effort to map the entire vascular network in the mouse brain, we perfused the vessels with India ink, and used KESM to image the prepared brain. This results in about 1.5 TB of raw image data which poses a serious challenge in terms of analysis...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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