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Alginic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914250/chitosan-nanoparticles-as-carrier-systems-for-the-plant-growth-hormone-gibberellic-acid
#1
Anderson Espirito Santo Pereira, Paula Mayara Silva, Jhones Luis Oliveira, Halley Caixeta Oliveira, Leonardo Fernandes Fraceto
This work concerns the development of nanocarriers composed of alginate/chitosan (ALG/CS) and chitosan/tripolyphosphate (CS/TPP) for the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA3). ALG/CS nanoparticles with and without GA3 presented mean size of 450±10nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.3, zeta potential of -29±0.5mV, concentrations of 1.52×10(11) and 1.92×10(11) nanoparticles mL(-1), respectively, and 100% encapsulation efficiency. CS/TPP nanoparticles with and without GA3 presented mean size of 195±1nm, PDI of 0...
November 23, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913828/engineering-and-evolution-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-to-produce-biofuels-and-chemicals
#2
Timothy L Turner, Heejin Kim, In Iok Kong, Jing-Jing Liu, Guo-Chang Zhang, Yong-Su Jin
To mitigate global climate change caused partly by the use of fossil fuels, the production of fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has been attempted. The conversion of various sugars from renewable biomass into biofuels by engineered baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is one major direction which has grown dramatically in recent years. As well as shifting away from fossil fuels, the production of commodity chemicals by engineered S. cerevisiae has also increased significantly. The traditional approaches of biochemical and metabolic engineering to develop economic bioconversion processes in laboratory and industrial settings have been accelerated by rapid advancements in the areas of yeast genomics, synthetic biology, and systems biology...
December 3, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911010/screening-of-mercury-resistant-and-indole-3-acetic-acid-producing-bacterial-consortium-for-growth-promotion-of-cicer-arietinum-l
#3
Aatif Amin, Zakia Latif
Mercury resistant (Hg(R) ) bacteria were screened from industrial effluents and effluents-polluted rhizosphere soils near to districts Kasur and Sheikhupura, Pakistan. Out of 60 isolates, three bacterial strains, Bacillus sp. AZ-1, Bacillus cereus AZ-2, and Enterobacter cloacae AZ-3 showed Hg-resistance as 20 μg ml(-1) of HgCl2 and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production as 8-38 μg ml(-1) . Biochemical and molecular characterization of selected bacteria was confirmed by 16S ribotyping. Mercury resistant genes merA, merB, and merE of mer operon in Bacillus spp...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909924/tailor-made-biocatalysts-based-on-scarcely-studied-acidic-horseradish-peroxidase-for-biodegradation-of-reactive-dyes
#4
Barbara S Janović, Milica Lj Mićić Vićovac, Zoran M Vujčić, Miroslava T Vujčić
Peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) have enormous biotechnological applications. Usage of more abundant, basic isoforms of peroxidases in diagnostic kits and/or in immunochemistry has led to under exploitation and disregard of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) acidic isoforms. Therefore, acidic horseradish peroxidase (HRP-A) isoenzyme was used for the preparation of a biocatalyst with improved ability in dye decolorization. Ten biocatalysts were prepared by covalent binding of enzyme to chitosan and alginate, adsorption followed by cross-linking on inorganic support (aluminum oxide), and encapsulation in spherical calcium alginate beads via polyethylene glycol...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902319/description-of-gramella-forsetii-sp-nov-a-marine-flavobacteriaceae-isolated-from-north-sea-water-and-emended-description-of-gramella-gaetbulicola-cho-et-al-2011
#5
Irina Panschin, Mareike Becher, Susanne Verbarg, Cathrin Spröer, Manfred Rohde, Marga Schüler, Rudolf I Amann, Jens Harder, Brian J Tindall, Richard L Hahnke
The strain KT0803T was isolated from coastal eutrophic surface waters of Helgoland Roads near the island of Helgoland, North Sea, Germany. The taxonomic position of the strain, previously known as 'Gramella forsetii' KT0803, was investigated by a polyphasic approach. The strain was Gram-stain negative, chemo-organotrophic, heterotrophic, strictly aerobic, oxidase and catalase positive, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and had orange-yellow carotenoid pigments, but was negative for flexirubin-type pigments. It grew optimally at 22-25 °C, pH 7...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902294/actinocrinis-puniceicyclus-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-actinobacterium-isolated-from-an-acidic-spring-in-kootenay-national-park-canada
#6
Joong-Jae Kim, Colbran E Marjerrison, Sabrina L Cornish Shartau, Allyson L Brady, Christine E Sharp, W Irene C Rijpstra, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Peter Schumann, Stephen E Grasby, Peter F Dunfield
An aerobic, mildly acidophilic actinobacterium was isolated from the Ochre Beds bog in Kootenay National Park, Canada. Cells of isolate OB1T were Gram-positive, non-motile, pink-to purple-pigmented filaments. The pH range for growth was 3.5 - 6.5 (optimum 5.5), and the temperature range was 13-37 oC. The major cellular fatty acids were 16:0 iso (28.5 %), 15:0 iso (14.6 %) and 15:0 anteiso (14.3 %), and the major polar lipid was phosphohexose. The major quinone was menaquinone-11 (MK-11) and the peptidoglycan type was A1γ...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900876/effects-of-production-methods-and-protective-ingredients-on-the-viability-of-probiotic-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-r0011-in-air-dried-alginate-beads
#7
Claude P Champagne, Yves Raymond, Yves Arcand
The goal of this study was to use a microencapsulation technology to prepare air-dried concentrated cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011. The cultures were microencapsulated in alginate beads, which were added to a growth medium to allow cell multiplication inside the matrix; the beads were recovered, dipped in protective solutions, and air-dried. The effects of fermentation technology and of the composition of the protective solutions on subsequent survival during air-drying were examined. The cells prepared under a constant pH of 6...
August 26, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884673/fabrication-and-characterization-of-chitosan-crosslinked-poly-alginic-acid-nanohydrogel-for-adsorptive-removal-of-cr-vi-metal-ion-from-aqueous-medium
#8
Gaurav Sharma, Mu Naushad, Ala'a H Al-Muhtaseb, Amit Kumar, Mohammad Rizwan Khan, Susheel Kalia, Shweta, Manju Bala, Arush Sharma
In this study, chitosan-crosslinked-poly (alginic acid) nanohydrogel (CN-cl-PL(AA)NHG) was synthesized by co-polymerization method. It was used an effective adsorbent for the exclusion of Cr(VI) metal ion from aqueous medium. The synthesized nanohydrogel was characterized by FTIR, SEM and TEM. The TEM images clearly indicated the appearance of smooth surface with average size of particles ranging from 30 to 80nm. The effect of different adsorption parameters like agitation time, temperature, initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dosage was studied and optimized...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864999/a-synthetic-toolbox-for-the-in-situ-formation-of-functionalized-homo-and-heteropolysaccharide-based-hydrogel-libraries
#9
Nick Dibbert, Andreas Krause, Julio-Cesar Rios-Camacho, Ina Gruh, Andreas Kirschning, Gerald Dräger
A synthetic toolbox for the introduction of aldehydo and hydrazido groups into the polysaccharides hyaluronic acid, alginate, dextran, pullulan, glycogen, and carboxymethyl cellulose and their use for hydrogel formation is reported. Upon mixing differently functionalized polysaccharides derived from the same natural precursor, hydrazone cross-linking takes place, which results in formation of a hydrogel composed of one type of polysaccharide backbone. Likewise, hydrogels based on two different polysaccharide strands can be formed after mixing the corresponding aldehydo- and hydrazido-modified polysaccharides...
November 16, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860429/antibacterial-nanocomposite-bone-filler-based-on-silver-nanoparticles-and-polysaccharides
#10
Davide Porrelli, Andrea Travan, Turco Gianluca, Matteo Crosera, Borgogna Massimiliano, Ivan Donati, Sergio Paoletti, Gianpiero Adami, Eleonora Marsich
Injectable bone fillers represent an attractive strategy for the treatment of bone defects. These injectable materials should be biocompatible, capable of supporting cell growth and possibly able to exert antibacterial effects. In this work, nanocomposite microbeads based on alginate, chitlac, hydroxyapatite and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. The dried microbeads displayed a rapid swelling in contact with simulated body fluid and maintained their integrity for more than 30 days. The evaluation of silver leakage from the microbeads showed that the antibacterial metal is slowly released in saline solution, with less than 6% of silver released after 1 week...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851980/co-delivery-of-zinc-and-5-aminosalicylic-acid-from-alginate-n-succinyl-chitosan-blend-microspheres-for-synergistic-therapy-of-colitis
#11
Haogang Duan, Shaoyu Lü, Hongyan Qin, Chunmei Gao, Xiao Bai, Yuhui Wei, Xin'an Wu, Mingzhu Liu, Xinyu Zhang, Zhen Liu
The present study developed novel zinc ion cross-linked alginate/N-succinyl-chitosan (NSC) blend microspheres (MS) for co-delivery of zinc and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) for synergistic therapy of colitis. Physicochemical characterization of blend MS was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). In vitro release studies demonstrated that blend MS has a pH-dependent release property. Both 5-ASA and zinc have lower release in acid medium and higher release in colonic environment...
November 13, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842850/alginate-gels-with-a-combination-of-calcium-and-chitosan-oligomer-mixtures-as-crosslinkers
#12
Yiming Feng, Georg Kopplin, Kimihiko Sato, Kurt I Draget, Kjell M Vårum
Alginates are polysaccharides that are widely used in relation to their ability to form gels. Recently we reported that alginates may also form gels with chitosan oligomers as crosslinkers (Khong, Aarstad, Skjåk-Bræk, Draget, & Vårum, 2013). The purpose of the present study was to characterize alginate gels crosslinked with calcium and chitosan oligomers. Using two different alginates of similar molecular weights but different chemical composition, i.e. guluronic acid content of 46 and 68%, we found that both alginates could form homogeneous gels with calcium and chitosan oligomers separately and without syneresis...
January 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826002/3d-culture-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-rgd-alginate-hydrogel-improves-retinal-tissue-development
#13
Nicola C Hunt, Dean Hallam, Ayesha Karimi, Carla B Mellough, Jinju Chen, David H W Steel, Majlinda Lako
: No treatments exist to effectively treat many retinal diseases. Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and neural retina can be generated from human embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs/hiPSCs). The efficacy of current protocols is, however, limited. It was hypothesised that generation of laminated neural retina and/or RPE from hiPSCs/hESCs could be enhanced by 3D culture in hydrogels. hiPSC- and hESC-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) were encapsulated in 0.5% RGD-alginate; 1% RGD-alginate; hyaluronic acid (HA) or HA/gelatin hydrogels and maintained until day 45...
November 5, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818697/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-natural-remedy-for-the-treatment-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-a-double-blinded-randomized-controlled-study
#14
Umberto Alecci, Francesco Bonina, Andrea Bonina, Luisa Rizza, Santi Inferrera, Carmen Mannucci, Gioacchino Calapai
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common, chronic, relapsing symptom. Often people self-diagnose and self-treat it even though health-related quality of life is significantly impaired. In the lack of a valid alternative approach, current treatments focus on suppression of gastric acid secretion by the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), but people with GER have a significantly lower response rate to therapy. We designed a randomized double-blinded controlled clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a formulation based on sodium alginate/bicarbonate in combination with extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus-indica and Olea europaea associated with polyphenols (Mucosave®; verum), on GER-related symptoms...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813412/a-sliding-contact-dynamic-force-spectroscopy-method-for-interrogating-slowly-forming-polymer-crosslinks
#15
Kate Alexandra Bowman, Olav Andreas Aarstad, Bjørn Torger Stokke, Gudmund Skjåk-Bræk, Andrew N Round
Dynamic Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy (SMFS), conducted most commonly using AFM, has become a widespread and valuable tool for understanding the kinetics and thermodynamics of fundamental molecular processes such as ligand-receptor interactions and protein unfolding. Where slowly forming bonds are responsible for the primary characteristics of a material, as is the case in crosslinks in some polymer gels, care must be taken to ensure that a fully equilibrated bond has first formed before its rupture can be interpreted...
November 4, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799039/polymer-based-novel-lung-targeted-delivery-systems
#16
Enas Elmowafy, Rihab Osman, Rania A H Ishak
BACKGROUND: Due to its unique features, the respiratory tract had received great attention as a promising non-invasive route for drug administration to achieve both local and systemic effects. Efforts spent to tailor systems able to overcome the lung defence mechanisms and biological barriers are followed in this review. Aerodynamic diameter, morphology, lung deposition and drug release profiles are the main criteria describing the selected new smart lung targeted delivery systems. METHODS: Novel systems such as nanoparticles, nano-embedded-in microparticles (NEM), small microparticles (MP), large porous particles (LPP), PulmospheresTM and polymeric micelles are used to passively target different areas in the respiratory tract...
October 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793679/effect-of-crosslinking-functionality-on-microstructure-mechanical-properties-and-in-vitro-cytocompatibility-of-cellulose-nanocrystals-reinforced-poly-vinyl-alcohol-sodium-alginate-hybrid-scaffolds
#17
Anuj Kumar, Yujin Lee, Doyeon Kim, Kummara Madhusudana Rao, Jisoo Kim, Soyoung Park, Adnan Haider, Do Hyun Lee, Sung Soo Han
Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced poly (vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate hybrid scaffolds were fabricated by using freeze casting and freeze drying method. In this study, the effect of crosslinking agents such as calcium chloride, orthophosphoric acid, and borax on morphological, structural, thermal, mechanical, and cytocompatibility (cell adhesion and proliferation) properties was investigated. The results showed that the change in type of crosslinking agent significantly changed the properties of the hybrid scaffolds...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792228/high-drug-loading-and-ph-responsive-targeted-nanocarriers-from-alginate-modified-spions-for-anti-tumor-chemotherapy
#18
Na Peng, Bo Wu, Lei Wang, Weiyang He, Ziye Ai, Xingjian Zhang, Yanfeng Wang, Lin Fan, Qifa Ye
To increase the accumulation of nanocarriers at the tumor site and reduce premature drug leakage, we fabricated alginate modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with magnetic targeting capability for pH-responsive release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) in tumor-cell microenvironments. The drug loading content (DLC) of SPION-4 was as high as 48.98% with a stable size of 135 nm, whereas the DLC of SPION-2 (amine-functionalized SPIONs as the control) was 7.58%. The in vitro release studies revealed that the acidic environment (pH 6...
October 28, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785506/a-benchtop-capillary-flow-layer-by-layer-cf-lbl-platform-for-rapid-assembly-and-screening-of-biodegradable-nanolayered-films
#19
Ziye Dong, Ling Tang, Caroline C Ahrens, Zhenya Ding, Vi Cao, Steven Castleberry, Jiangtao Yan, Wei Li
Capillary flow layer-by-layer (CF-LbL) is a microfluidic platform for high throughput preparation and screening of nanolayered polymer films. Using a simple benchtop version of CF-LbL, we systematically studied the effects of various flow conditions and channel geometries on the thickness and surface roughness of the resulting films. We also investigated the biocompatibility and degradation behaviors of a series of enzymatically-degradable films made from naturally derived polymers, i.e. either alginate or hyaluronic acid as the anionic species and poly-l-arginine as the positive species...
October 27, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776240/the-attachment-of-colloidal-particles-to-environmentally-relevant-surfaces-and-the-effect-of-particle-shape
#20
Coy P McNew, Negin Kananizadeh, Yusong Li, Eugene J LeBoeuf
Despite the prevalence of nonspherical colloidal particles, the role of particle shape in the transport of colloids is largely understudied. This study investigates the attachment of colloidal particles onto environmentally relevant surfaces while varying particle shape and ionic strength. Using quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy measurements, the role of particle shape was elucidated and possible mechanisms discussed. The attachment of both spherical and stretched polystyrene colloidal particles onto a smooth alginate-coated silica surface showed qualitative agreement with DLVO theory...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
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