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Alginic acid

Coy P McNew, Negin Kananizadeh, Yusong Li, Eugene J LeBoeuf
Despite the prevalence of nonspherical colloidal particles, the role of particle shape in the transport of colloids is largely understudied. This study investigates the attachment of colloidal particles onto environmentally relevant surfaces while varying particle shape and ionic strength. Using quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy measurements, the role of particle shape was elucidated and possible mechanisms discussed. The attachment of both spherical and stretched polystyrene colloidal particles onto a smooth alginate-coated silica surface showed qualitative agreement with DLVO theory...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
S Takeshita, T Oda
Alginate-degrading enzyme, alginate lyase, catalyzes the cleavage of glycosidic 1-4 O-linkages between uronic acid residues of alginate by a β-elimination reaction leaving a 4-deoxy-l-erythro-hex-4-ene pyranosyluronate as nonreducing terminal end. The enzymes from a wide variety of sources such as marine molluscs, seaweeds, and marine bacteria have been discovered and studied not only from a point of view of enzymological interest of enzyme itself but also for elucidation of fine chemical structure of alginate, structure-activity relationship of alginate, and biological activities and physicochemical features of the enzymatic digestion products...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Simon Felz, Salah Al-Zuhairy, Olav Andreas Aarstad, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Yue Mei Lin
To evaluate and develop methodologies for the extraction of gel-forming extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), EPS from aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was extracted using six different methods (centrifugation, sonication, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), formamide with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), formaldehyde with NaOH and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) with heat and constant mixing). AGS was collected from a pilot wastewater treatment reactor. The ionic gel-forming property of the extracted EPS of the six different extraction methods was tested with calcium ions (Ca(2+))...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Christe Sonia Mary, Sasikumar Swamiappan
Purpose: Floating drug delivery system reduces the quantity of drug intake and the risk of overloading the organs with excess drug. Methods: In the present study, we prepared the blends of sodium alginate with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a matrix, sodium hydrogen carbonate as a pore forming agent, methyl cellulose as a binder and barium chloride containing 10% acetic acid as a hardening agent. Different ratios of pore forming agent to the polymer blend was used to prepare the floating beads with different porosity and morphology...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Jaleh Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein Nazemiyeh, Maryam Maghsoodi, Farzaneh Lotfipour
Purpose: Psylliumseeds are used in traditional herbal medicine to treat various disorders. Moreover, as a soluble fiber, psyllium has potential to stimulate bacterial growth in digestive system. We aimed to substitute alkali-extractable polysaccharides of psyllium for alginate in beads with second coat of poly-l-lysine to coat Lactobacillus acidophilus. Methods: Beads were prepared using extrusion technique. Poly-l-lysine as second coat was incorporated on optimum alginate/psyllium beads using immersion technique...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Yosra Ben-Fadhel, Sabrina Saltaji, Mohamed Ali Khlifi, Stephane Salmieri, Khanh Dang Vu, Monique Lacroix
The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs), organic acid (OA) salts and natamycin, a natural antifungal produced during fermentation by the bacterium Streptomyces natalensis, was assessed against four pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Aspergillus niger). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of each antimicrobial (AM) was assessed to determine their efficiency on tested microbial species in order to select the most efficient. Then, the interactions between different antimicrobial compounds showing the lowest MIC were determined by the checkerboard method...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Riccardo Calafiore, Giuseppe Basta, Pia Montanucci
Microencapsulation technology, based on use of alginic acid biopolymers, has been devised many years ago. However, when intended for enveloping human islets for transplantation purposes, the method needs to be up-scaled and implemented with care being taken to comply with simple but important measures. It is almost indispensable to rely on an ultrapurified alginic polymers: in fact, any, even minimal, alginate contamination with endotoxins, pyrogens, and proteins could provoke the host's inflammatory reaction upon graft, with heavy adverse consequences on the capsules immunoprotective properties, hence on graft survival per se...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
William F Kendall, Emmanuel C Opara
Application of microencapsulation to the immunoisolation of pancreatic islets holds promise for expanding the use of islet transplantation as a treatment option for Type 1 diabetes. It is generally believed that successful development of a reliable methodology will ideally allow for transplantation of pancreatic islets that are protected from the immune system, thereby obviating the need for the use of immunosuppressive drugs and their attendant side effects. In addition, this technology has the potential to expand the donor pool as islets from nonhuman donors could be used as xenografts in human patients...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xingliang Dai, Cheng Ma, Qing Lan, Tao Xu
Glioma is still difficult to treat because of its high malignancy, high recurrence rate, and high resistance to anticancer drugs. An alternative method for research of gliomagenesis and drug resistance is to use in vitro tumor model that closely mimics the in vivo tumor microenvironment. In this study, we established a 3D bioprinted glioma stem cell model, using modified porous gelatin/alginate/fibrinogen hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix. Glioma stem cells achieved a survival rate of 86.92%, and proliferated with high cellular activity immediately following bioprinting...
October 11, 2016: Biofabrication
Chao Feng, Jing Li, Yuzhi Mu, Ming Kong, Yang Li, Mazhar Ali Raja, Xiao Jie Cheng, Ya Liu, Xi Guang Chen
The primary constraints for efficient oral delivery of anticancer drugs include the efflux pump function of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for anticancer drugs and the barriers to drug absorption in gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To improve bypassing P-gp drug efflux pumps and oral bioavailability of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), Multilayer micro-dispersing system (MMS) was constructed by co-immobilization of DOX loaded chitosan/carboxymethyl chitosan nanogels (DOX:CS/CMCS-NGs), along with quercetin (Qu) in the core of multilayer sodium alginate beads (DOX:NGs/Qu-M-ALG-Beads)...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Francesca Uberti, Claudio Bardelli, Vera Morsanuto, Sabrina Ghirlanda, Claudio Molinari
BACKGROUND: Gastric diseases are a worldwide problem in modern society, as reported in the USA, in the range of 0.5-2 episodes/year/person and an incidence of 5-100 episodes/1000/week according to seasons and age. There is convincing evidence that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of acute gastric injury. Acid secreted from gastric parietal cells determines mucosal injuries which in turn cause inflammation and oxidative stress. Consequent inflammation produces free radicals by mitochondria thus causing lipid peroxidation, oxidative and acidic stress, which can lead to cell apoptosis...
October 7, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Jinyu Li, Qin Wang, Wei Zhi, Jianxin Wang, Bo Feng, Shuxin Qu, Yandong Mu, Jie Weng
Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds combined with a drug delivery system have attracted much attention for bone tissue engineering. In this study, an easy and highly efficient method was developed to immobilize salvianolic acid B (Sal B)-loaded chitosan (CS) microspheres three dimensionally and homogeneously on the surface of HA scaffolds pre-coated with alginate. Porous HA scaffolds were prepared via a template-leaching process and CS microspheres (used as drug carriers) were fabricated by an emulsion method...
October 7, 2016: Biomedical Materials
Qiang-Song Wang, Gui-Fang Wang, Jie Zhou, Li-Na Gao, Yuan-Lu Cui
In recent years, oral colon specific drug delivery system has been paid more attention in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As the special pH condition in gastrointestinal tract, the challenge for treatment of IBD was that the colon drug delivery system should endure the low pH in stomach and release drugs quickly in high pH in colon. Icariin with the poor solubility and low bioavailability limited the treatment of many diseases in clinic. In this study, the protective mechanism of alginate-chitosan microspheres loaded with icariin were investigated with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)/ethanol induced colonic mucosal injury in rats...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Urška Potočar, Samo Hudoklin, Mateja Erdani Kreft, Janja Završnik, Krešimir Božikov, Mirjam Fröhlich
Cell therapies present a feasible option for the treatment of degenerated cartilaginous and intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues. Microenvironments of these tissues are specific and often differ from the microenvironment of cells that, could be potentially used for therapy, e.g. human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC). To ensure safe and efficient implantation of hASC, it is important to evaluate how microenvironmental conditions at the site of implantation affect the implanted cells. This study has demonstrated that cartilaginous tissue-specific osmolarities ranging from 400-600 mOsm/L affected hASC in a dose- and time-dependent fashion in comparison to 300 mOsm/L...
2016: PloS One
Ruyun Lou, Weiting Yu, Yizhe Song, Ying Ren, Huizhen Zheng, Xin Guo, Yunfei Lin, Guoyu Pan, Xiuli Wang, Xiaojun Ma
Galactose moieties are covalently coupled with sodium alginate to enhance liver-specific functions in microcapsules owing to the specific interaction between the galactose moieties and the asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs) of hepatocytes. In this study, galactosylated alginate (L-NH2-OH-alginate) based microcapsules with desirable stability and a suitable 3D microenvironment are designed and fabricated for primary hepatocyte applications. The designed L-NH2-OH-alginate is fabricated via the application of ethylenediamine grafted lactobionic acid (L-NH2) onto the hydroxyl groups of sodium alginate so that the negatively charged carboxyl groups intact in L-NH2-OH-alginate can effectively bond with Ca(2+) to form a stable three-dimensional gel network; a subsequent reaction with polycations forms a stable membrane of microcapsules...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Arn Mignon, Dries Devisscher, Geert-Jan Graulus, Birgit Stubbe, José Martins, Peter Dubruel, Nele De Belie, Sandra Van Vlierberghe
Polysaccharides, and especially alginate, can be useful for self-healing of cracks in concrete. Instead of weak electrostatic bonds present within calcium alginate, covalent bonds, by methacrylation of the polysaccharides, will result in mechanically stronger superabsorbent polymers (SAPs). These methacrylated alginate chains as backbone are combined with two acrylic monomers in a varying molar fraction. These SAPs show a moisture uptake capacity up to 110% their own weight at a relative humidity of 95%, with a negligible hysteresis...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Huizhen Zheng, Meng Gao, Ying Ren, Ruyun Lou, Hongguo Xie, Weiting Yu, Xiudong Liu, Xiaojun Ma
A pH-responsive carrier based on an ethylenediaminetetraacetic-calcium-alginate (EDTA-Ca-Alg) system was developed by controlling the release of Ca(2+). The system remained in the solution state at neutral pH since EDTA completely chelated the Ca(2+). In contrast, a hydrogel immediately formed when the pH was below 4.0, which triggered the in situ release of Ca(2+) from the EDTA-Ca compound and led to alginate-Ca binding. Taking advantage of the pH sensitivity, we prepared hydrogel microspheres with uniform size to entrap Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 through emulsification...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Nazareth Eliana Ceschan, Verónica Bucalá, María Verónica Ramírez-Rigo, Hugh David Charles Smyth
The inhalatory route has emerged as an interesting non-invasive alternative for drug delivery. This allows both pulmonary (local) or systemic treatments (via alveolar absorption). Further advantages in terms of stability, dose and patient preference have often lead researchers to focus on dry powder inhaler delivery systems. Atenolol is an antihypertensive drug with low oral bioavailability and gastrointestinal side effects. Because atenolol possesses adequate permeation across human epithelial membranes, it has been proposed as a good candidate for inhalatory administration...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Andrew S Marriott, Andrew J Hunt, Ed Bergström, Jane Thomas-Oates, James H Clark
The effect of pyrolysis rate on the properties of alginic acid-derived carbonaceous materials, termed Starbon(®), was investigated. Thermal Gravimetry-IR was used to prepare porous carbons up to 800 °C at several rates and highlighted increased CO2 production at higher pyrolysis rates. N2 porosimetry of the resultant carbons shows how pyrolysis rate affects both the mesopore structure and thus surface area and surface energy. Surface capacity of these carbons was analysed by methylene blue dye adsorption...
September 2016: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis
D A Leiman, B P Riff, S Morgan, D C Metz, G W Falk, B French, C A Umscheid, J D Lewis
In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and erosive esophagitis, treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is highly effective. However, in some patients, especially those with non-erosive reflux disease or atypical GERD symptoms, acid suppressive therapy with PPIs is not as successful. Alginates are medications that work through an alternative mechanism by displacing the post-prandial gastric acid pocket. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the benefit of alginate-containing compounds in the treatment of patients with symptoms of GERD...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
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