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Alginic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226936/electrosynthesis-of-magnetoresponsive-microrobot-for-targeted-drug-delivery-using-calcium-alginate
#1
Chengzhi Hu, Katharina Riederer, Michael Klemmer, Salvador Pane, Bradley J Nelson, Chengzhi Hu, Katharina Riederer, Michael Klemmer, Salvador Pane, Bradley J Nelson, Salvador Pane, Katharina Riederer, Bradley J Nelson, Michael Klemmer, Chengzhi Hu
Targeted drug delivery systems deliver drugs precisely to a specific targeted site inside the body, and can also release the drugs with controlled kinetics to prolong the efficacy of single dose administration. The advantageous properties of hydrogels make them attractive for use in the area of drug delivery. Calcium alginate is a pH sensitive hydrogel stable in acidic media and soluble in basic media. This enables the hydrogel to absorb and release aqueous solutions at certain ranges of pH values. By absorbing an aqueous solution containing a drug, an active drug release can be triggered at a specified range of pH value...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218329/dopamine-assisted-fixation-of-drug-loaded-polymeric-multilayers-to-osteoarticular-implants-for-tuberculosis-therapy
#2
Dan Li, Litao Li, Yunlong Ma, Yaping Zhuang, Dawei Li, Hong Shen, Xing Wang, Fei Yang, Yuanzheng Ma, Decheng Wu
Currently, the major issues in the treatment of osteoarticular tuberculosis (TB) after implant placement are low drug concentration at the infected focus and drug resistance resulting from the long-term chemotherapy. The application of drug-loaded polymeric multilayers on implantable devices offers a promising solution to the problems. Herein, a poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel film embedded with isoniazid (INH)-loaded alginate microparticles was fixed to Ti implants via adhesive polydopamine, subsequently capped by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) membranes for the sustained and localized delivery of the anti-TB drug...
February 20, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216576/identification-of-2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate-kinase-and-2-keto-3-deoxy-d-phosphogluconate-aldolase-in-an-alginate-assimilating-bacterium-flavobacterium-sp-strain-umi-01
#3
Ryuji Nishiyama, Akira Inoue, Takao Ojima
Recently, we identified an alginate-assimilating gene cluster in the genome of Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01, a member of Bacteroidetes. Alginate lyase genes and a 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH) reductase gene in the cluster have already been characterized; however, 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (KDG) kinase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase genes, i.e., flkin and flald, still remained uncharacterized. The amino acid sequences deduced from flkin and flald showed low identities with those of corresponding enzymes of Saccharophagus degradans 2-40(T), a member of Proteobacteria (Kim et al...
February 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208715/biotransformation-and-detoxification-of-xylidine-orange-dye-using-immobilized-cells-of-marine-derived-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-d3
#4
Prabha Devi, Solimabi Wahidullah, Farhan Sheikh, Rochelle Pereira, Niteen Narkhede, Divya Amonkar, Supriya Tilvi, Ram Murthy Meena
Lysinibacillus sphaericus D3 cell-immobilized beads in natural gel sodium alginate decolorized the xylidine orange dye 1-(dimethylphenylazo)-2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid sodium salt in the laboratory. Optimal conditions were selected for decolorization and the products formed were evaluated for toxicity by disc diffusion assay against common marine bacteria which revealed the non-toxic nature of the dye-degraded products. Decolorization of the brightly colored dye to colorless products was measured on an Ultra Violet-Vis spectrophotometer and its biodegradation products monitored on Thin Layer Chromatographic plate and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)...
February 8, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207245/regenerable-polyelectrolyte-membrane-for-ultimate-fouling-control-in-forward-osmosis
#5
Yan Kang, Sunxiang Zheng, Casey Finnerty, Michael J Lee, Baoxia Mi
This study demonstrated the feasibility of using regenerable polyelectrolyte membranes to ultimately control the irreversible membrane fouling in a forward osmosis (FO) process. The regenerable membrane was fabricated by assembling multiple polyethyleneimine (PEI) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) bilayers on a polydopamine-functionalized polysulfone support. The resulting membrane exhibited higher water flux and lower solute flux in FO mode (with the active layer facing feed solution) than in PRO mode (with the active layer facing draw solution) using trisodium citrate as draw solution, most likely due to the unique swelling behavior of the polyelectrolyte membrane...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187348/ferrous-iron-peroxymonosulfate-oxidation-as-a-pretreatment-for-ceramic-ultrafiltration-membrane-control-of-natural-organic-matter-fouling-and-degradation-of-atrazine
#6
Xiaoxiang Cheng, Heng Liang, An Ding, Xiaobin Tang, Bin Liu, Xuewu Zhu, Zhendong Gan, Daoji Wu, Guibai Li
Ferrous iron/peroxymonosulfate (Fe(II)/PMS) oxidation was employed as a pretreatment method for ultrafiltration process to control membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter, including humic acid (HA), sodium alginate (SA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and their mixture (HA-SA-BSA). To evaluate the mechanism of fouling mitigation, the effects of Fe(II)/PMS pretreatment on the characteristics of feed water were examined. The degradation of atrazine (ATZ) was also investigated and the species of generated radicals were preliminarily determined...
February 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170428/comparative-study-on-the-in-vitro-effects-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-seaweed-alginates-on-human-gut-microbiota
#7
Shaofeng Bai, Huahai Chen, Liying Zhu, Wei Liu, Hongwei D Yu, Xin Wang, Yeshi Yin
Alginates pertain to organic polysaccharides that have been extensively used in food- and medicine-related industries. The present study obtained alginates from an alginate overproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 mutant by screening transposon mutagenesis libraries. The interaction between bacterial and seaweed alginates and gut microbiota were further studied by using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that both bacterial and seaweed alginates can be completely degraded by fecal bacteria isolated from study volunteers, indicating that a minor structural difference between bacterial and seaweed alginates (O-acetylation and lack of G-G blocks) didn't affect the digestion of alginates by human microbiota...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161663/is-there-a-cause-and-effect-relationship-between-physicochemical-properties-and-cell-behavior-of-alginate-based-hydrogel-obtained-after-sterilization
#8
Hao Yu, Ghislaine Cauchois, Jean-François Schmitt, Nicolas Louvet, Jean-Luc Six, Yun Chen, Rachid Rahouadj, Céline Huselstein
Alginate-based hydrogel scaffolds are widely used in the field of cartilage regeneration and repair. If the effect of autoclaving on the alginate powder is well known, it is not the same for the possible effects of the sterilization UV treatment on the properties of the hydrogel after polymerization. To select an effective sterilization treatment of alginate-based materials, one must find what are inter-relationship between the characteristics (chemical, physical and mechanical) of alginate-based hydrogel during sterilization, and what consequences have affected on cell behavior...
January 25, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154171/novel-molecular-insights-into-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-marine-bacterial-alginate-lyase-alygc-from-polysaccharide-lyase-family-6
#9
Fei Xu, Fang Dong, Peng Wang, Hai-Yan Cao, Chun-Yang Li, Ping-Yi Li, Xiu-Hua Pang, Yu-Zhong Zhang, Xiu-Lan Chen
Alginate lyases that degrade alginate via a β-elimination reaction fall into seven polysaccharide lyase (PL) families. While the structures and catalytic mechanisms of alginate lyases in the other PL families have been clarified, those in family PL6 are yet unrevealed. Here, the crystal structure of AlyGC, a PL6 alginate lyase from marine bacterium Glaciecola chathamensis S18K6(T), was solved, and its catalytic mechanism was illustrated. AlyGC is a homodimeric enzyme and adopts a structure distinct from other alginate lyases...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143741/orally-targeted-delivery-of-tripeptide-kpv-via-hyaluronic-acid-functionalized-nanoparticles-efficiently-alleviates-ulcerative-colitis
#10
Bo Xiao, Zhigang Xu, Emilie Viennois, Yuchen Zhang, Zhan Zhang, Mingzhen Zhang, Moon Kwon Han, Yuejun Kang, Didier Merlin
Overcoming adverse effects and selectively delivering drug to target cells are two major challenges in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Lysine-proline-valine (KPV), a naturally occurring tripeptide, has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory responses of colonic cells. Here, we loaded KPV into hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized polymeric nanoparticles (NPs). The resultant HA-KPV-NPs had a desirable particle size (∼272.3 nm) and a slightly negative zeta potential (∼-5.3 mV). These NPs successfully mediated the targeted delivery of KPV to key UC therapy-related cells (colonic epithelial cells and macrophages)...
January 28, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142500/hyaluronic-acid-collagen-hydrogel-as-an-alternative-to-alginate-for-long-term-immunoprotected-islet-transplantation
#11
Stephen Harrington, S Janette Williams, Sonia Rawal, Karthik Ramachandran, Lisa Stehno-Bittel
Alginate has long been the material of choice for immunoprotection of islets for its low cost and ability to easily form microspheres. Unfortunately, this seaweed-derived material is notoriously prone to fibrotic overgrowth in vivo, resulting in premature graft failure. The purpose of this study was to test an alternative, hyaluronic acid (HA-COL), for in vitro function, viability and allogeneic islet transplant outcomes in diabetic rats. In vitro studies indicated that the HA-COL gel had diffusion characteristics that would allow small molecules like glucose and insulin to enter and exit the gel, while larger molecules (70 and 500kD dextrans) were impeded from diffusing past the gel edge in 24 hours...
January 31, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138928/analysis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1-biofilm-protein-profile-after-exposure-to-n-butanolic-cyclamen-coum-extract-alone-and-in-combination-with-ciprofloxacin
#12
Morvarid Shafiei, Ahya Abdi-Ali, Fereshteh Shahcheraghi, Hojatollah Vali, Hossein Shahbani Zahiri, Kambiz Akbari Noghabi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-related infections are the major cause of premature death in cystic fibrosis patients. Strategies to induce biofilm dispersal are of interest, because of their potential in preventing biofilm-related infections. Our previous work demonstrated that n-butanolic Cyclamen coum extract with ciprofloxacin could eliminate 1- and 3-day-old P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. To gain new insights into the role of C. coum extract and its synergistic effect with ciprofloxacin in eliminating P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with mass spectrometry-based protein identification were used...
January 30, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138910/spray-dried-thiolated-chitosan-coated-sodium-alginate-multilayer-microparticles-for-vaginal-hiv-microbicide-delivery
#13
Jianing Meng, Vivek Agrahari, Miezan J Ezoulin, Sudhaunshu S Purohit, Tao Zhang, Agostino Molteni, Daniel Dim, Nathan A Oyler, Bi-Botti C Youan
It is hypothesized that novel thiolated chitosan-coated multilayer microparticles (MPs) with enhanced drug loading are more mucoadhesive than uncoated MPs and safe in vivo for vaginal delivery of topical anti-HIV microbicide. Formulation optimization is achieved through a custom experimental design and the alginate (AG) MPs cores are prepared using the spray drying method. The optimal MPs are then coated with the thiolated chitosan (TCS) using a layer-by-layer method. The morphological analysis, in situ drug payload, in vitro drug release profile, and mucoadhesion potential of the MPs are carried out using scanning electron microscopy, solid-state (31)P NMR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, fluorescence imaging and periodic acid Schiff method, respectively...
January 30, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137463/validated-hplc-method-for-the-pharmacokinetic-study-of-oral-extended-release-cefpodoxime-proxetil-chitosan-alginate-beads-in-rabbits
#14
Ali Mujtaba, Kanchan Kohli
The aim of this study is to develop a simple and applicable HPLC method for the detection of cefpodoxime acid (CFA) in rabbit plasma after oral administration of cefpodoxime proxetil (CFP) loaded chitosan-alginate (CH-ALG) beads formulation. CFP is a prodrug that is deesterified in vivo to its active metabolite CFA to exhibit antibiotic activity. Chromatographic separation of CFA and internal standard (IS) was achieved by a RP18(C18), Phenomenax®100, (250×4.6mm) with the mobile phase consisting of (0.02mol/l (20mM) ammonium acetate solution and acetonitrile (92:8, v/v, pH=4...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134392/chitosan-based-water-propelled-micromotors-with-strong-antibacterial-activity
#15
Jorge A M Delezuk, Doris E Ramírez-Herrera, Berta Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Joseph Wang
A rapid and efficient micromotor-based bacteria killing strategy is described. The new antibacterial approach couples the attractive antibacterial properties of chitosan with the efficient water-powered propulsion of magnesium (Mg) micromotors. These Janus micromotors consist of Mg microparticles coated with the biodegradable and biocompatible polymers poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), alginate (Alg) and chitosan (Chi), with the latter responsible for the antibacterial properties of the micromotor. The distinct speed and efficiency advantages of the new micromotor-based environmentally friendly antibacterial approach have been demonstrated in various control experiments by treating drinking water contaminated with model Escherichia coli (E...
January 30, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127888/insulin-delivery-to-the-brain-using-intracranial-implantation-of-alginate-encapsulated-pancreatic-islets
#16
Konstantin Bloch, Alexey Vanichkin, Irit Gil-Ad, Pnina Vardi, Abraham Weizman
There is increasing evidence supporting a link between cognitive dysfunctions and impaired brain insulin signalling. Insulin therapy has previously been tested as an approach to ameliorate brain insulin resistance and deficiency in patients with various brain disorders. However, current strategies for insulin delivery to the brain may induce severe hypoglycaemia when injected peripherally or show poor uptake when delivered intranasally. Recently, we have shown that intracranial transplantation of naked pancreatic islets increased insulin content in the brain and attenuated cognitive dysfunctions without altering peripheral glucose homeostasis in rats with schizophrenia-like syndrome...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121619/bioenergetics-of-lactate-vs-acetate-outside-tca-enhanced-the-hydrogen-evolution-levels-in-two-newly-isolated-strains-of-the-photosynthetic-bacterium-rhodopseudomonas
#17
Amal W Danial, Ahmed M Abdel Wahab, Houssam H Arafat, Refat Abdel-Basset
Two local hydrogen-evolving strains of purple nonsulfur bacteria have been isolated, characterized, and identified as Rhodopseudomonas sp. TUT (strains Rh1 and Rh2). Lactate followed by succinate and malate supported the highest amounts of H2 production, growth (O.D.660nm, proteins and bacteriochlorphyll contents), nitrogenase activity, and uptake hydrogenase; the least of which was acetate. Alginate-immobilized cells evolved higher hydrogen amounts than free cell counterparts. Rh1 was more productive than Rh2 at all circumstances...
January 25, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116573/viscosity-reducing-bulky-salt-excipients-prevent-gelation-of-protein-but-not-carbohydrate-solutions
#18
Awanish Kumar, Alexander M Klibanov
The problem of gelation of concentrated protein solutions, which poses challenges for both downstream protein processing and liquid formulations of pharmaceutical proteins, is addressed herein by employing previously discovered viscosity-lowering bulky salts. Procainamide-HCl and the salt of camphor-10-sulfonic acid with L-arginine (CSA-Arg) greatly retard gelation upon heating and subsequent cooling of the model proteins gelatin and casein in water: Whereas in the absence of additives the proteins form aqueous gels within several hours at room temperature, procainamide-HCl for both proteins and also CSA-Arg for casein prevent gel formation for months under the same conditions...
January 23, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110141/synchrotron-fourier-transform-infrared-mapping-a-novel-approach-for-membrane-fouling-characterization
#19
Ming Xie, Wenhai Luo, Stephen R Gray
We described a synchrotron-based infrared (IR) microscopic method to characterize fouling layer induced by organic foulants and colloidal silica in membrane distillation (MD). This technique, utilizing the ultrahigh brightness of synchrotron infrared source, enables spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio that was obtained from micrometer-sized samples. Our results showed that synchrotron IR mapping was able to resolve the foulant spatial distribution in combined fouling in MD. Synchrotron IR mapping showed the spatial distribution of binary foulant (i...
January 11, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067840/effect-of-film-forming-alginate-chitosan-polyelectrolyte-complex-on-the-storage-quality-of-pork
#20
Dominika Kulig, Anna Zimoch-Korzycka, Żaneta Król, Maciej Oziembłowski, Andrzej Jarmoluk
Meat is one of the most challenging food products in the context of maintaining quality and safety. The aim of this work was to improve the quality of raw/cooked meat by coating it with sodium alginate (A), chitosan (C), and sodium alginate-chitosan polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) hydrosols. Antioxidant properties of A, C, and PEC hydrosols were determined. Subsequently, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), sensory quality of raw/cooked pork coated with experimental hydrosols, and antimicrobial efficiency of those hydrosols on the surface microbiota were analysed...
January 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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