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Alginic acid

Q Shen, R Yasmeen, J Marbourg, L Xu, J L Yu, P Fadda, A Flechtner, L J Lee, P G Popovich, O Ziouzenkova
Innervation is a fundamental basis for function and survival of tissues. In the peripheral tissues, degenerative diseases create a neurotoxic metabolic milieu that either causes neurodegeneration or fails to sustain regenerative growth and reinnervation of injured/diseased tissues. Encapsulation of cells producing neurotrophic factors can augment axon growth and neuron survival; however, sustained innervation in vivo requires a combination of factors promoting axon growth and guidance pathway that are released in a tissue-specific context...
October 28, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Mohammad G Dekamin, Zahra Karimi, Zahra Latifidoost, Siamand Ilkhanizadeh, Hamed Daemi, M Reza Naimi-Jamal, Mehdi Barikani
Alginic acid, a widely used naturally occurring carbohydrate which is generally derived from brown seaweeds, can be considered as a bifunctional heterogeneous and green biopolymeric organocatalyst. Alginic acid, without any post-modification with active Bronsted or Lewis acid centers, was found to be a highly active, cost-effective, commercially-available, renewable and recoverable heterogeneous biopolymeric organocatalyst for the expeditious synthesis of polyhydroquinolines (PHQs). Polyhydroquinolines were synthesized from the four-component Hantzsch reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, different aldehydes, ammonium acetate and cyclic 1,3-diones under mild conditions in high to quantitative yields, 75-97%, using alginic acid...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Amr Hefnawy, Islam A Khalil, Ibrahim M El-Sherbiny
AIM: Facile development of polysaccharides-based carrier system for efficient delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) to the brain. METHODS: DOX was nanocomplexed with alginate (Alg) followed by incorporation into chitosan (Cs) nanomatrices. The resulting carriers were optimized to have a net positive charge improving their delivery across the blood-brain barrier. The optimum DOX-loaded nanosystem was targeted to brain tissue via loading into various nasal dosage forms. RESULTS: The pH-dependent ionization of both DOX and Alg was found to have a significant effect on DOX entrapment efficiency which was improved from 4% at slightly acidic media to 85% using different pHs...
November 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
S K Mohamed, Sh H Hegazy, N A Abdelwahab, A M Ramadan
This research aimed to synthesize natural polymer nanocomposite and employ it for coupled adsorption- photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet. Sodium alginate-g-poly (acrylic acid-co- cinnamic acid) and its composites with ZnO nanorods and graphene oxide sheets were synthesized and characterized using FT-IR, XRD, SEM, HR-TEM and DR/UV-Vis spectroscopy. The adsorption efficiency of samples for crystal violet has been studied in the dark. The effect of different parameters as pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the adsorption efficiency of the synthesized sample has been examined...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zhiyao Ma, Chao Shan, Jialiang Liang, Meiping Tong
Selenium (Se) could enter the environment through different anthropogenic sources, posing potential health risk. The removal of trace Se(IV) from water by hematite coated magnetic nanoparticle (MNP@hematite) under different solution conditions was investigated through batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Se(IV) by MNP@hematite was 25.0 mg/g.100 μg/L of Se(IV) could be rapidly decreased to below 10 μg/L by 0.1 g/L of MNP@hematite in 10 min. MNP@hematite could effectively remove Se(IV) in a wide pH range from 4 to 9...
November 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Steve S Ho, Andrew T Keown, Bennett Addison, J Kent Leach
The adhesion and migration of cells entrapped in engineered materials is regulated by available adhesive ligands. Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) spheroids injected into damaged tissues promote repair, their transplantation in biomaterials which regulate cell migration from the aggregate may further enhance their therapeutic potential. Alginate hydrogels were modified with Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid (RGD) at increasing concentrations, and osteogenically induced human MSC spheroids were entrapped to assess cell migration, survival, and differentiation...
November 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Perla Ayala, Erbin Dai, Michael Hawes, Liying Liu, Ovijit Chaudhuri, Carolyn A Haller, David J Mooney, Elliot L Chaikof
Effective biomaterial options for tissue repair and regeneration are limited. Current biologic meshes are derived from different tissue sources and are generally sold as decellularized tissues. This work evaluated two collagen based bioengineered constructs and a commercial product in a model of abdominal full thickness defect repair. To prepare the bioengineered construct, collagen type 1 from porcine skin was isolated using an acid solubilization method. After purification, the collagen was formed into collagen sheets that were physically bonded to form a mechanically robust construct that was subsequently laser micropatterned with pores as a means to promote tissue integration (collagen only construct)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Xiaoli Liu, Line Hagner Nielsen, Sylvia Natalie Klodzinska, Hanne Mørck Nielsen, Haiyan Qu, Lars Porskjær Christensen, Jukka Rantanen, Mingshi Yang
Wound dressings should ideally be able to maintain high humidity, remove excess wound exudate, permit thermal insulation, provide certain mechanical strength, and in some cases deliver antibiotics to prevent infections. Until now, none of the existing wound dressing products can meet all these requirements. To design a wound dressing with as many of the aforementioned features as possible, in this study, we attempted to prepare ciprofloxacin (CIP), an antibiotic, loaded electrospun hydrophobic poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibrous mats modified with hydrophilic sodium alginate (ALG) microparticles...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Tetsuro Akashi, Kazuhide Matsumoto, Risa Hashimoto
Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) is a common and serious complication in patients receiving enteral nutrition, making continuation of enteral nutrition difficult. Semi-solid enteral nutrients were developed to prevent feeding-related GER. Semi-solid enteral nutrients have high viscosity and, therefore, are typically administered through a large-diameter percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. Recently, a new formula (Mermed(®), Mermed Plus(®)) was introduced that uses alginate, which behaves like a gelatin in acidic conditions...
October 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
A L Torres, S J Bidarra, M T Pinto, P C Aguiar, E A Silva, C C Barrias
Efficient cell delivery strategies are urgently needed to improve the outcome of cell-based pro-angiogenic therapies. This study describes the design of an injectable cell delivery platform, based on biomaterial-guided morphogenesis principles. Soft high-mannuronic acid alginate microgels, oxidized and functionalized with integrin-binding peptides, provided adequate biochemical/biomechanical cues for the co-assembly of mesenchymal stem cells and outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC) into pre-vascularized microtissues...
October 31, 2017: Biomaterials
Edoardo Savarino, Patrizia Zentilin, Elisa Marabotto, Gaia Pellegatta, Claudia Coppo, Matteo Brunacci, Pietro Dulbecco, Vincenzo Savarino
In the past, the attention of physiologists and doctors has been mainly focused on the key role of acid in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but increasing evidence that 20-40% of reflux patients respond not at all or only partially to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has underlined the concept that factors other than acid are implicated in its development and the elicitation of symptoms. Among these, impaired mucosal integrity, particularly in most patients with non-erosive reflux disease, has recently been reincluded and the reinforcement of defensive mechanisms and/or its protection has been reappointed as a renewed therapeutic target for the management of GERD patients...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Piotr Salachna, Monika Grzeszczuk, Marcin Soból
Recently, agricultural and horticultural sectors have shown an increased interest in the use of biopolymers and their derivatives as growth biostimulators. So far, coating is a little known method of applying the biostimulators. Our three-year study investigated coating the bulbs of Ornithogalum saundersiae with chitooligosaccharide (COS), sodium alginate, carrageenan, gellan gum and xanthan gum. The coating method was based on the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes. The COS with 48,000 g mol(-1) molecular weight was contained by means of controlled free-radical degradation...
November 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
B Kaczmarek, A Sionkowska
BACKGROUND: This review provides a report on recent advances in the field of drug release from matrixes made of natural polymers. Such matrixes have attracted not only academic but also practical attention in the case of several biopolymers since these can be used for biomedical purposes due to their interesting properties. Herein, the properties of natural polymers such as proteins and polysaccharides are discussed in general. Selected detailed examples of drug release profiles from biopolymer matrixes have also been collected from scientific literature and practical work, and commented on...
November 3, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Yu-Min Kung, Wen-Hung Hsu, Meng-Chieh Wu, Jiunn-Wei Wang, Chung-Jung Liu, Yu-Chung Su, Chao-Hung Kuo, Fu-Chen Kuo, Deng-Chyang Wu, Yao-Kuang Wang
The management of proton pump inhibitor-refractory GERD (rGERD) is a challenge in clinical practice. Since up to one-third of patients with typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation) are not satisfied with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, new drug development targeting different pathophysiologies of GERD is imperative. At present, no other drugs serve as a more potent acid suppression agent than PPIs. As an add-on therapy, histamine type-2 receptor antagonists, alginates, prokinetics and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation inhibitors have some impact on the subgroups of rGERD, but greater effectiveness and fewer adverse effects for widespread use are required...
November 6, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Yuly A Ramírez-Tapias, Aldana S Lapasset Laumann, Claudia N Britos, Cintia W Rivero, Jorge A Trelles
Enzyme immobilization using hydrogels is a low-cost and effective system for the degradation of bulk pectin derived from orange industry residues. Polygalacturonases obtained from four different bacterial strains of Streptomyces genus were immobilized in alginate gel and assayed for pectin hydrolysis. The enzyme from Streptomyces halstedii ATCC 10897 proved to be superior and more stable within the alginate matrix. Furthermore, a new strategy to improve alginate bead stability using a mixture of calcium and strontium is reported; this technique allowed enhancing the mechanical properties by combining different amounts of these cations for ionotropic gelation...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
Annalucia Stanisci, Olav A Aarstad, Anne Tøndervik, Håvard Sletta, Lene B Dypås, Gudmund Skjåk-Bræk, Finn L Aachmann
A family of seven mannuronan C5-epimerases (AlgE1-AlgE7) produced by Azotobacter vinelandii is able to convert β-d-mannuronate (M) to its epimer α-l-guluronate (G) in alginates. Even sharing high sequence homology at the amino acid level, they produce distinctive epimerization patterns. The introduction of new G-blocks into the polymer by in vitro epimerization is a strategy to improve the mechanical properties of alginates as biomaterial. However, epimerization is hampered when the substrate is modified or in the gelled state...
January 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sun Woo Jung, June-Ho Byun, Se Heang Oh, Tae Ho Kim, Ji-Sung Park, Gyu-Jin Rho, Jin Ho Lee
We prepared in situ gelling alginate (ALG)/hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels with a controllable gelation rate using CaSO4 as a crosslinking agent and Na2HPO4 as a crosslinking retardation agent. The ALG/HA hydrogels provided sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilized in the hydrogels over 5 weeks. The BMP-2-immobilized ALG/HA hydrogels with different ALG/HA ratios were investigated for their in vitro osteogenic differentiation behavior of human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) and in vivo bone regeneration behavior using an animal model (mandibular defect model of miniature pigs)...
January 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Fengxiang Wang, Shouzhi He, Bin Chen
Pharmacotherapy were the mainstream methods for the treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), one of the leading causes of blindness. Due to the negligible side-effects, retinoic acid (RA) was considered to be a promising candidate drug. However, it was still a challenge to deliver drugs into vitreous with both long-term efficiency and biosafety. Sodium alginate was considered to be an excellent drug carrier owing to its controlled size, good biocompatibility and degradability. Based on a one-time synthetic strategy of preparing RA-sodium alginate microspheres, the study was aimed to establish a non-toxic and effective RA slow release platform...
November 2, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Gurjant Singh, Mahesh Kulharia
Bacterial biofilm is a protective, slippery and slimy coat secreted by bacterial cells. It helps in attaching to moisturized surfaces during colonization. Alginate is an important component as it is essential for retention of water and nutrients in biofilms. It is a polysaccharide consisting of β-D-mannuronic acid (M) and α-L-guluronic acid (G) monomers with 1-4 linkage. The alginate lyase (AlgL) secreted by certain bacteria is capable of degrading alginate into oligo-uronides by β-elimination of the glycosidic bond...
2017: Bioinformation
Chai-Yee Chin, Juriyati Jalil, Pei Yuen Ng, Shiow-Fern Ng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: M.oleifera is a medicinal plant traditionally used for skin sores, sore throat and eye infections. Recently, the wound healing property of the leaves of M. oleifera was has been well demonstrated experimentally in both in vivo and in vitro models. However, there is a lack of research which focuses on formulating M.oleifera into a functional wound dressing. In this study, the M.oleifera leaf standardized aqueous extract with highest potency in vitro migration was formulated into a film for wound healing application...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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