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Bian Jang, Madhappan Santha Moorthy, Panchanathan Manivasagan, Li Xu, Kyeongeun Song, Kang Dae Lee, Minseok Kwak, Junghwan Oh, Jun-O Jin
In advanced cancer therapy, the combinational therapeutic effect of photothermal therapy (PTT) using near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) and anti-cancer drug delivery-mediated chemotherapy has been widely applied. In the present study, using a facile, low-cost, and solution-based method, we developed and synthesized fucoidan, a natural polymer isolated from seaweed that has demonstrated anti-cancer effect, and coated NPs with it as an ideal candidate in chemo-photothermal therapy against cancer cells...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Michael Y Roleda, Jorunn Skjermo, Hélène Marfaing, Rósa Jónsdóttir, Céline Rebours, Anna Gietl, Dagmar B Stengel, Udo Nitschke
This study represents a large-scale investigation into iodine contents in three commercially important and edible seaweed species from the North Atlantic: the brown algae Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta, and the red alga Palmaria palmata. Variability among and within species were explored in terms of temporal and spatial variations in addition to biomass source. Mean iodine concentration in bulk seaweed biomass was species-specific: Saccharina > Alaria > Palmaria. Iodine contents of Saccharina biomass were similar between years and seasons, but varied significantly between sampling locations and biomass sources...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Maria Hayes
By 2050, the world population is estimated to reach 9.6 billion, and this growth continues to require more food, particularly proteins. Moreover, the Westernisation of society has led to consumer demand for protein products that taste good and are convenient to consume, but additionally have nutritional and health maintenance and well-being benefits. Proteins provide energy, but additionally have a wide range of functions from enzymatic activities in the body to bioactivities including those associated with heart health, diabetes-type 2-prevention and mental health maintenance; stress relief as well as a plethora of other health beneficial attributes...
March 14, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Kris Niño G Valdehuesa, Kristine Rose M Ramos, Llewelyn S Moron, Imchang Lee, Grace M Nisola, Won-Keun Lee, Wook-Jin Chung
The continued research in the isolation of novel bacterial strains is inspired by the fact that native microorganisms possess certain desired phenotypes necessary for recombinant microorganisms in the biotech industry. Most studies have focused on the isolation and characterization of strains from marine ecosystems as they present a higher microbial diversity than other sources. In this study, a marine bacterium, W5C, was isolated from red seaweed collected from Yeosu, South Korea. The isolate can utilize several natural polysaccharides such as agar, alginate, carrageenan, and chitin...
March 13, 2018: Current Microbiology
Eva Rothäusler, Hannes Reinwald, Boris A López, Fadia Tala, Martin Thiel
The persistence of floating seaweeds, which depends on abiotic conditions but also herbivory, had previously been mostly tested in outdoor mesocosm experiments. In order to investigate if the obtained mesocosm results of high seaweed persistence under natural environmental conditions and under grazing pressure can be extrapolated to field situations, we conducted in situ experiments. During two summers (2007 and 2008), Macrocystis pyrifera was tethered (for 14 days) to lines in the presence and absence of the amphipod Peramphithoe femorata at three sites (Iquique, Coquimbo, Calfuco)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Aditi Wagle, Su Hui Seong, Bing Tian Zhao, Mi Hee Woo, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura is a brown seaweed widely used in Korea and Japan, and it contains different therapeutically active constituents. In the present study, we investigated the activities of glycyrrhizin isolated from H. fusiformis, including its metabolites, 18α- and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid against Alzheimer's disease (AD) via acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibition. Among these three compounds, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (IC50  = 8...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Regina Elizondo-González, Eduardo Quiroz-Guzmán, Cristina Escobedo-Fregoso, Paola Magallón-Servín, Alberto Peña-Rodríguez
Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1) for wastewater bioremediation, and (2) using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE) resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE). Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE) resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR) compared to the other treatments ( p  < 0...
2018: PeerJ
Wei Song, Zongling Wang, Xuelei Zhang, Yan Li
Ulva prolifera is the major causative species in the green tide, a serious marine ecological disaster, which bloomed in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea of China. However, it is also a popular edible seaweed and its extracts exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract of U. prolifera (EUP) on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in high-fat-diet- (HFD-) treated mice. HFD-treated mice obtained drinking water containing 2% or 5% EUP...
2018: BioMed Research International
Antonio-Javier Gallego, Pablo Gil, Antonio Pertusa, Robert B Fisher
In this work, we use deep neural autoencoders to segment oil spills from Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been much exploited for ocean surface monitoring, especially for oil pollution detection, but few approaches in the literature use SLAR. Our sensor consists of two SAR antennas mounted on an aircraft, enabling a quicker response than satellite sensors for emergency services when an oil spill occurs. Experiments on TERMA radar were carried out to detect oil spills on Spanish coasts using deep selectional autoencoders and RED-nets (very deep Residual Encoder-Decoder Networks)...
March 6, 2018: Sensors
Bruno Briani, Marina N Sissini, Leidson A Lucena, Manuela B Batista, Iara O Costa, José M C Nunes, Caroline Schmitz, Fernanda Ramlov, Marcelo Maraschin, Nathalie Korbee, Leonardo Rörig, Paulo A Horta, Félix L Figueroa, José B Barufi
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA) are ultraviolet screen substances synthesized by marine algae. The physiological function of these substances is related to cellular protection against UV radiation and as a protective mechanism against oxidative stress. These substances can be found mainly in the ocean, among red seaweeds. Its concentration in organisms has been related to ultraviolet radiation and availability of inorganic nitrogen in the environment. We start our study of MAA content in different species to understand if environmental conditions influence the concentration of MAAs in red seaweeds...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Phycology
T Leema Roseline, N M Sachindra
Acinetobacter strain PS12B was isolated from marine sediment and was found to be a good candidate to degrade agar and produce agarase enzyme. The extracellular agarase enzyme from strain PS12B was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography. The specific activity of the crude enzyme which was 1.52 U increased to 45.76 U, after two-stage purification, with an enzyme yield of 9.76%. Purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 24 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for activity of purified agarase were found to be 8...
March 5, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Vivien F Taylor, Zhigang Li, Vicki Sayarath, Thomas J Palys, Kevin R Morse, Rachel A Scholz-Bright, Margaret R Karagas
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pornpimol Phuengmaung, Daisuke Fujiwara, Wasana Sukhumsirichart, Tatsuji Sakamoto
In previous reports, we characterized four endo-xylanases produced by Streptomyces sp. strain SWU10 that degrade xylans to several xylooligosaccharides. To obtain a set of enzymes to achieve complete xylan degradation, a β-d-xylosidase gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein, named rSWU43A, was characterized. SWU43A is composed of 522 amino acids and does not contain a signal peptide, indicating that the enzyme is an intracellular protein. SWU43A was revealed to contain a Glyco_hydro_43 domain and possess the three conserved amino acid residues of the glycoside hydrolase family 43 proteins...
May 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Fabíola Helena Dos Santos Fogaça, Cristina Soares, Marta Oliveira, Ricardo N Alves, Ana L Maulvault, Vera L Barbosa, Patrícia Anacleto, João Avelar Magalhães, Narcisa M Bandarra, Maria João Ramalhosa, Simone Morais, António Marques
This work aimed to determine the effect of culinary practices on the contamination level and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seafood. The selected farmed seafood species (marine shrimp, clams and seaweed) were commercially available in Portugal. The mean concentrations of PAHs varied between 0.23 and 51.8 µg kg-1 , with the lowest value being observed in raw shrimp and the highest in dried seaweed. The number of compounds detected in seaweed and clams (naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(j)fluoranthene) were higher than in shrimp (fluorene and pyrene)...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Research
Thanamegam Kaviarasan, Murugaiah Santhosh Gokul, Santhaseelan Henciya, Krishnan Muthukumar, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Rathinam Arthur James
Trace metals concentrations were studied for three different seasons on four seaweed species (Halimeda gracilis, Padina pavonica, Sargassum swartzii and Turbinaria ornata) from Wandoor area of southern Andaman Island. Though diversified seaweed population records in the study area, the studied four species were predominantly present in all the seasons. The observed average levels on trace metals concentrations were Cd 0-0.311 µg/g, Cr 0.002-0.334 µg/g, Cu 0.003-0.291 µg/g, Mn 0.118-7.736 µg/g, Pb 0-0...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Lisa Ryan, Maxine P Bonham
This study investigated the impact of a polyphenol-rich seaweed extract on postprandial glycaemia in healthy adults, and, as a secondary outcome, the influence of ethnicity on these outcomes. Thirty-eight volunteers (26 non-Asian, 12 Asian) aged 19 to 56 years participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised cross-over trial. Participants each consumed a low (500 mg), and high (2000 mg) dose of the polyphenol-rich brown seaweed ( Fucus vesiculosus ) extract, as well as a cellulose placebo (2000 mg), 30 min prior to 50 g of available carbohydrate from white bread...
February 27, 2018: Nutrients
Ayaka Nakashima, Koji Yamada, Osamu Iwata, Ryota Sugimoto, Kohei Atsuji, Taro Ogawa, Naoko Ishibashi-Ohgo, Kengo Suzuki
β-Glucans are a class of polysaccharides consisting of D-glucose units that are polymerized primarily via the β-1,3 glycosidic bonds, in addition to the β-1,4 and/or β-1,6 bonds. They are present in various food products such as cereals, mushrooms, and seaweeds and are known for their numerous effects on the human body, depending on their structures, which are diverse. The major physicochemical properties of β-glucans include their antioxidant property, which is responsible for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and their role as dietary fiber for preventing the absorption of cholesterol, for promoting egestion, and for producing short-chain fatty acids in the intestine...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Banani Kundu, Mohamed R Eltohamy, Vamsi K Yadavalli, Rui Luis Reis, Hae-Won Kim
The assembly of natural proteinaceous biopolymers into macro-scale architectures is of great importance in synthetic biology, soft-material science and regenerative therapy. The self-assembly of protein tends to be limited due to anisotropic interactions among protein molecules, poor solubility and stability. Here, we introduce a unique platform to self-immobilize diverse proteins (fibrous and globular, positively and negatively charged, low and high molecular weight) using silicon surfaces with pendant -NH2 groups via a facile one step diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) method...
February 28, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Celso A Hernández, Carlos Sangil, Alessandra Fanai, José Carlos Hernández
Primary production and respiration rates were studied for six seaweed species (Cystoseira abies-marina, Lobophora variegata, Pterocladiella capillacea, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina pavonica and Corallina caespitosa) from Subtropical North-East Atlantic, to estimate the combined effects of different pH and temperature levels. Macroalgal samples were cultured at temperature and pH combinations ranging from current levels to those predicted for the next century (19, 21, 23, 25 °C, pH: 8.1, 7.7 and 7.4)...
February 22, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Linney Duarte, Rosa M Viejo
Empirical work on the dynamics of range limits of species distributions often lack replications of edge populations. We compared the local environment and performance of two groups of geographically peripheral populations of the foundation intertidal alga Fucus serratus L. at its southern range boundary in the NW Iberian Peninsula. Two populations were located on the Western Galician coast in large embayments or rias, and the other two on a Northern open coastal stretch in Lugo province. Sharp differences were detected in the local environment and performance of the two groups of populations...
February 12, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
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