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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319772/thermochemical-conversion-pathways-of-kappaphycus-alvarezii-granules-through-study-of-kinetic-models
#1
Prasanta Das, Dibyendu Mondal, Subarna Maiti
Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed belongs to the class of red alga (Rhodophyta). The granules obtained after recovery of "sap" (liquid plant stimulant) from freshly harvested alga is a promising biomass feedstock for energy application. Herein we report the kinetic behaviour of the granules using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at different heating rates in N2 atmosphere and thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis. Sawdust as lignocellulosic biomass is considered for comparative study. Four different kinetic models (i) multilinear regression technique, (ii) Friedman method, (iii) Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method and (iv) Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) method are used to evaluate the apparent activation energy (Ea), the pre-exponential factor (Aα) and the overall reaction order (n)...
March 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317773/comprehensive-chlorophyll-composition-in-the-main-edible-seaweeds
#2
Kewei Chen, José Julián Ríos, Antonio Pérez-Gálvez, María Roca
Natural chlorophylls present in seaweeds have been studied regarding their biological activities and health benefit effects. However, detailed studies regarding characterization of the complete chlorophyll profile either qualitatively and quantitatively are scarce. This work deals with the comprehensive spectrometric study of the chlorophyll derivatives present in the five main coloured edible seaweeds. The novel complete MS(2) characterization of five chlorophyll derivatives: chlorophyll c2, chlorophyll c1, purpurin-18 a, pheophytin d and phytyl-purpurin-18 a has allowed to obtain fragmentation patterns associated with their different structural features...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316345/warming-has-stronger-direct-than-indirect-effects-on-benthic-microalgae-in-a-seaweed-system-in-spring
#3
Franziska Julie Werner, Birte Matthiessen
Using outdoor mesocosms we investigated the relative importance of the direct and indirect (here: altered grazing) effects of seawater warming on benthic microalgae in a Baltic Sea Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae) system during the spring season. Seawater warming had a positive main effect on microalgal total biomass accrual and growth rate and on total mesograzer abundance and biomass. Moreover, under the existing resource-replete conditions in spring the direct positive effect of warming on microalgae was stronger than its indirect negative effect through enhanced grazing...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315161/the-effect-of-live-feeds-bathed-with-the-red-seaweed-asparagopsis-armata-on-the-survival-growth-and-physiology-status-of-sparus-aurata-larvae
#4
S Castanho, G Califano, F Soares, R Costa, L Mata, P Pousão-Ferreira, L Ribeiro
Larval rearing is affected by a wide range of microorganisms that thrive in larviculture systems. Some seaweed species have metabolites capable of reducing the bacterial load. However, no studies have yet tested whether including seaweed metabolites on larval rearing systems has any effects on the larvae development. This work assessed the development of Sparus aurata larvae fed preys treated with an Asparagopsis armata product. Live prey, Brachionus spp. and Artemia sp., were immersed in a solution containing 0...
March 17, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300437/botanicals-with-dermatologic-properties-derived-from-first-nations-healing
#5
Sophia Colantonio, Jason K Rivers
INTRODUCTION: Plants and algae have played a central role in the treatment of skin conditions in both traditional First Nations healing and in modern dermatology. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence supporting the dermatological use of seaweed, witch hazel, bearberry, and mayapple. METHODS: Four plants and algae used in traditional First Nations treatments of skin disease were selected based on expert recommendations. Several databases were searched to identify relevant citations without language restrictions...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295812/hybridization-between-two-cryptic-filamentous-brown-seaweeds-along-the-shore-analysing-pre-and-post-zygotic-barriers-in-populations-of-individuals-with-varying-ploidy-levels
#6
Alejandro E Montecinos, Marie-Laure Guillemin, Lucia Couceiro, Akira F Peters, Solenn Stoeckel, Myriam Valero
We aimed to study the importance of hybridization between two cryptic species of the genus Ectocarpus, a group of filamentous algae with haploid-diploid life cycles that include the principal genetic model organism for the brown algae. In haploid-diploid species, the genetic structure of the two phases of the life cycle can be analysed separately in natural populations. Such life cycles provide a unique opportunity to estimate the frequency of hybrid genotypes in diploid sporophytes and meiotic recombinant genotypes in haploid gametophytes allowing the effects of reproductive barriers preventing fertilization or preventing meiosis to be untangle...
March 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295810/local-adaptation-along-an-environmental-cline-in-a-species-with-an-inversion-polymorphism
#7
Maren Wellenreuther, Hanna Rosenquist, Peter Jaksons, Keith Larson W
Polymorphic inversions are ubiquitous across the animal kingdom and are frequently associated with clines in inversion frequencies across environmental gradients. Such clines are thought to result from selection favouring local adaptation, however, empirical tests are scarce. The seaweed fly Coelopa frigida has an α/β inversion polymorphism and previous work demonstrated that the α inversion frequency declines from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea, and is correlated with changes in tidal range, salinity, algal composition and wrackbed stability...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295223/spatial-scale-mediates-the-effects-of-biodiversity-on-marine-primary-producers
#8
Matthew E S Bracken, James G Douglass, Valerie Perini, Geoffrey C Trussell
Most studies evaluating the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning are conducted at a single location, limiting our understanding of how diversity-function relationships may change when measured across different spatial scales. We conducted a species-removal experiment at 3 sites nested in each of 3 regions along the rocky intertidal coastline of the Gulf of Maine, USA, to evaluate the potential for scale-dependent effects of species loss on the biomass of intertidal seaweed assemblages. We randomly assigned 50 plots in the mid-intertidal zone at each site to one of 5 treatments (n = 10 plots each): an un-manipulated control, a polyculture plot that contained our 3 target seaweed species, and three monoculture plots...
March 15, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290654/new-ulvan-degrading-polysaccharide-lyase-family-structure-and-catalytic-mechanism-suggests-convergent-evolution-of-active-site-architecture
#9
ThirumalaiSelvi Ulaganathan, Michal T Boniecki, Elizabeth Foran, Vitaliy Buravenkov, Naama Mizrachi, Ehud Banin, William Helbert, Miroslaw Cygler
Ulvan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide biosynthesized by green seaweed and contains predominantly rhamnose, xylose and uronic acids sugars. Ulvan-degrading enzymes have only recently been identified added to the CAZy (www.cazy.org) database, but neither their structure nor catalytic mechanism(s) are yet known. One of the new ulvan lyases was discovered in Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain PLSV and is encoded by the gene PLSV_3936. This enzyme cleaves the glycosidic bond between 3-sulfated rhamnose (R3S) and glucuronic acid (GluA) or iduronic acid (IdoA) via a -elimination mechanism...
March 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289905/expression-profile-of-desiccation-tolerance-factors-in-intertidal-seaweed-species-during-the-tidal-cycle
#10
Camila Fierro, Camilo López-Cristoffanini, Andrés Meynard, Carlos Lovazzano, Francisco Castañeda, Eduardo Guajardo, Loretto Contreras-Porcia
The transcriptional modulation of desiccation tolerance factors in P. orbicularis explains its successful recuperation after water deficit. Differential responses to air exposure clarify seaweed distribution along intertidal rocky zones. Desiccation-tolerant seaweed species, such as Pyropia orbicularis, can tolerate near 96% water loss during air exposure. To understand the phenotypic plasticity of P. orbicularis to desiccation, several tolerance factors were assessed by RT-qPCR, Western-blot analysis, and enzymatic assays during the natural desiccation-rehydration cycle...
March 13, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288186/diet-and-biliary-tract-cancer-risk-in-shanghai-china
#11
Shakira M Nelson, Yu-Tang Gao, Leticia M Nogueira, Ming-Chang Shen, Bingsheng Wang, Asif Rashid, Ann W Hsing, Jill Koshiol
Trends in biliary tract cancer incidence rates have increased in Shanghai, China. These trends have coincided with economic and developmental growth, as well as a shift in dietary patterns to a more Westernized diet. To examine the effect of dietary changes on incident disease, we evaluated associations between diet and biliary tract cancers amongst men and women from a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Biliary tract cancer cases were recruited from 42 collaborating hospitals in urban Shanghai, and population-based controls were randomly selected from the Shanghai Household Registry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284712/subchronic-toxicity-and-anti-hsv-1-activity-in-experimental-animal-of-dolabelladienetriol-from-the-seaweed-dictyota-pfaffii
#12
Valéria Garrido, Caroline Barros, Vanessa A Melchiades, Rainomar Raimundo Fonseca, Sergio Pinheiro, Patrícia Ocampo, Valéria L Teixeira, Diana N Cavalcanti, Viveca Giongo, Norman A Ratcliffe, Gerlinde Teixeira, Izabel Christina N P Paixão
This study examined in rats the subchronic toxicity and anti- HSV-1activity after oral administration of dolabelladienetriol (D1), a diterpene isolated from the seaweed Dictyota pfaffii. In subchronic toxicity (SCT) tests, female rats received D1 by gavage 15 mg/kg/day (n = 5) for 50 days, and general behavior, death, hematological, biochemical and histological changes in the liver, kidney, stomach, and duodenum were determined. For the anti-HSV-1 activity, female mice were infected and treated orally with a dose of 20 mg/kg (n = 5) twice a day with D1 and any lesions in the skin were then recorded for 18 days...
March 8, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280387/ulva-lactuca-polysaccharides-prevent-wistar-rat-breast-carcinogenesis-through-the-augmentation-of-apoptosis-enhancement-of-antioxidant-defense-system-and-suppression-of-inflammation
#13
Gamal-Eldein F Abd-Ellatef, Osama M Ahmed, Eman S Abdel-Reheim, Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid
BACKGROUND: Recently, several research studies have been focused on the isolation and function of the polysaccharides derived from different algal species, which revealed multiple biological activities such as antioxidant and antitumor activities. This study assesses the possible breast cancer chemopreventive properties of common seaweeds, sea lettuce, Ulva lactuca (ulvan) polysaccharides using in vitro bioassays on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and an in vivo animal model of breast carcinogenesis...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279809/historical-biogeography-of-the-highly-diverse-brown-seaweed-lobophora-dictyotales-phaeophyceae
#14
Christophe Vieira, Olga Camacho, Zhongmin Sun, Suzanne Fredericq, Frederik Leliaert, Claude Payri, Olivier De Clerck
The tropical to warm-temperate marine brown macroalgal genus Lobophora (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) recently drew attention because of its striking regional diversity. In this study we reassess Lobophora global species diversity, and species distributions, and explore how historical factors have shaped current diversity patterns. We applied a series of algorithmic species delineation techniques on a global mitochondrial cox3 dataset of 598 specimens, resulting in an estimation of 98-121 species. This diversity by far exceeds traditional diversity estimates based on morphological data...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278122/cadmium-lead-mercury-and-arsenic-in-animal-feed-and-feed-materials-trend-analysis-of-monitoring-results
#15
Paulien Adamse, H J Ine Van der Fels-Klerx, Jacob de Jong
This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated...
March 2, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274882/vacuum-sealing-drainage-as-a-pre-surgical-adjunct-in-the-treatment-of-complex-open-hand-injuries-report-of-17-cases
#16
Xiao-Feng Niu, Jian-Hua Yi, Guo-Qin Zha, Jun Hu, Yun-Jiang Liu, Liang-Bao Xiao
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted to explore the use of the vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) technique in complex hand injuries. The aim of this study was to report outcomes in patients with complex hand injuries receiving VSD as a coadjuvant treatment prior to second-stage surgery. METHODS: This case series study retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent VSD for treatment of hand injuries. Inclusion criteria for the study were: (1) traumatic soft tissue defects of the hand and wrist, accompanied by different degrees of injury and exposure of bone, tendon, or blood vessel; (2) the wound surface of hand and wrist was seriously contaminated and direct wound closure was not possible; and (3) the soft tissues of hand and wrist were seriously lacerated or avulsed, and showed necrosis or acute infection...
March 5, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270090/low-genetic-but-high-morphological-variation-over-more-than-1000%C3%A2-km-coastline-refutes-omnipresence-of-cryptic-diversity-in-marine-nematodes
#17
Daniel Apolônio Silva de Oliveira, Wilfrida Decraemer, Tom Moens, Giovanni Amadeu Paiva Dos Santos, Sofie Derycke
BACKGROUND: The resilience of ecosystems to negative impacts is generally higher when high gene flow, species diversity and genetic diversity are present. Population genetic studies are suitable to investigate genetic diversity and estimate gene flow between populations. Seaweed beds form a dynamic shallow water ecosystem influenced by climate change and human exploitation, as such, seaweed beds are a particularly powerful model to investigate ecosystem resilience in coastal areas. We studied the population genetic structure of the new nematode species Paracanthonchus gynodiporata associated with seaweeds in northeastern Brazil...
March 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267615/microwave-assisted-step-reduced-extraction-of-seaweed-gelidiella-aceroso-cellulose-nanocrystals
#18
Suman Singh, Kirtiraj K Gaikwad, Su-Il Park, Youn Suk Lee
In the present work, cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from seaweed by microwave-assisted alkali treatment, bleaching, and an acid hydrolysis process. Microwave-assisted alkali treatment reduces the heating time and eliminates the traditional dewaxing process. This is different from the commonly adopted procedure for cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) synthesis, in which CNC synthesis generally follows the dewaxing process. Further, samples obtained after each stage of treatment were characterized and final samples were freeze-dried for further characterization...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258045/fine-tuning-transmission-electron-microscopy-methods-to-evaluate-the-cellular-architecture-of-ulvacean-seaweeds-chlorophyta
#19
D R Farias, C Simioni, E Poltronieri, Z L Bouzon, C K Macleod
Chemical fixation is a critical step in the analysis of the ultrastructure of seaweeds because the wrong approach can compromise the ability to distinguish fine-scale cellular composition. Fixation agents, fixation time and type of tissue are important factors to consider for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and not every protocol is suitable for all cell types. We evaluated a range of fixation agents, post-fixation time and dehydration solutions to determine a TEM protocol for seaweeds in the Family Ulvaceae...
February 20, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257116/valorization-of-lipids-from-gracilaria-sp-through-lipidomics-and-decoding-of-antiproliferative-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#20
Elisabete da Costa, Tânia Melo, Ana S P Moreira, Carina Bernardo, Luisa Helguero, Isabel Ferreira, Maria Teresa Cruz, Andreia M Rego, Pedro Domingues, Ricardo Calado, Maria H Abreu, Maria Rosário Domingues
The lipidome of the red seaweed Gracilaria sp., cultivated on land-based integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) system, was assessed for the first time using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS and MS/MS). One hundred and forty-seven molecular species were identified in the lipidome of the Gracilaria genus and distributed between the glycolipids classes monogalactosyl diacylglyceride (MGDG), digalactosyl diacylglyceride (DGDG), sulfoquinovosyl monoacylglyceride (SQMG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglyceride (SQDG), the phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC), lyso-PC, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), lyso-PG, phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatic acid (PA), inositolphosphoceramide (IPC), and betaine lipids monoacylglyceryl- and diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethyl homoserine (MGTS and DGTS)...
March 2, 2017: Marine Drugs
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