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Vijayraja Dhanraj, Jeyaprakash Karuppaiah, Rengasamy Balakrishnan, Namasivayam Elangovan
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease due to dopaminergic neuron degeneration. It mostly affects the aged population, leads to memory decline and loss of motor coordination. The present study investigates the neuroprotective role of myricetin a flavonol isolated from the brown seaweed Turbinaria ornata in rotenone induced Drosophila model of PD. Rotenone administration led to dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, dopamine depletion, impaired muscular coordination, gait disturbances, memory decline oxidative stress and apoptosis...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
Kazunori Oyama, Takahiro Shimoda, Makoto Miyagawa, Mizuki Sone, Jiro Yokoyama, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Tomokazu Fukuda
Human epigenetic studies suggest that consumption of seaweed prevents mammary cancer, which possibly is explained by iodine daily intake. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of dietary intake of iodine-enriched eggs on mammary tumor incidence caused by the expression of activated type ErbB2. Female transgenic mice were divided into three groups, and fed a basic diet, a diet supplemented with ordinary eggs, or with iodine-enriched eggs. The number of mammary tumors greater than 5 mm in diameter was recorded in mice at 6 months of age...
May 16, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Mark Joseph Desamero, Shigeru Kakuta, James Kenn Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Satoshi Hachimura, Masaya Takamoto, Jun Nakayama, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Shigeru Kyuwa
β-Glucan refers to a heterogeneous group of chemically defined storage polysaccharides containing β-(1,3)-d-linked glucose polymers with branches connected by either β-(1,4) or β-(1,6) glycosidic linkage. To date, an extensive amount of scientific evidence supports their multifunctional biological activities, but their potential involvement in the progression of premalignant lesions remains to be clarified. A4gnt KO mice that lack α1,4-N-acetylglucosamine-capped O-glycans in gastric gland mucin are a unique animal model for gastric cancer because the mutant mice spontaneously develop gastric cancer through hyperplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence...
May 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Wentong Zhao, Xiaoqing Lu, Manickam Selvaraj, Wei Wei, Zhifeng Jiang, Nabi Ullah, Jie Liu, Jimin Xie
Low-cost electrocatalysts play an important role in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Particularly, transition metal phosphides (TMPs) are widely applied in the development of HER electrocatalysts. To improve the poor electrochemical reaction kinetics of HER, we introduce a facile way to synthesize carbon core-shell materials containing cobalt phosphide nanoparticles embedded in different graphene aerogels (GAs) (CoP@C-NPs/GA-x (x = 5, 10 and 20)) using seaweed biomass as precursors. The synthesized CoP@C-NPs/GA-5 exhibits efficient catalytic activity with small overpotentials of 120 and 225 mV at current densities of 10 mA cm-2, along with the low Tafel slopes of 57 and 66 mV dec-1, for HER in acidic and alkaline electrolytes, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Matthew E S Bracken, Nyssa J Silbiger, Genevieve Bernatchez, Cascade J B Sorte
Predicting the impacts of ocean acidification in coastal habitats is complicated by bio-physical feedbacks between organisms and carbonate chemistry. Daily changes in pH and other carbonate parameters in coastal ecosystems, associated with processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, often greatly exceed global mean predicted changes over the next century. We assessed the strength of these feedbacks under projected elevated CO2 levels by conducting a field experiment in 10 macrophyte-dominated tide pools on the coast of California, USA...
2018: PeerJ
Yuqin Xiong, Rui Yang, Xiaoxiao Sun, Huatian Yang, Haimin Chen
A variety of different symbiotic microbial communities are harbored on the surface of seaweeds, the interactions of which depend upon nutritional exchanges between the microbes and the hosts. Metabolomic profiling is able to provide a comprehensive and unbiased snapshot of the metabolites associated with seaweed-microbe interactions. In this study, the relationships between phycosphere bacteria and the red alga Pyropia haitanensis were investigated on a metabolomic basis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the pathways of the interactions between the seaweed and its associated phycospheric microbes were revealed...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Zelong Zhao, Yongjia Pan, Jingwei Jiang, Shan Gao, Hongjuan Sun, Ying Dong, Pihai Sun, Xiaoyan Guan, Zunchun Zhou
Bacteria are the most abundant organisms in natural environment and dominant drivers of multiple geochemical functions. Drawing a global picture of microbial community structure and understanding their ecological status remain a grand challenge. As a typical artificial process, aquaculture provides a large amount of foods and creates great economic benefits for human beings. However, few studies are aimed at the microbial community in the aquaculture environment of aquatic plants. We analyzed microbial communities from 21 water samples in a coastal aquaculture area during the whole cultural process of Undaria pinnatifida by using high-throughout sequencing of 16S rRNA gene...
May 8, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Ramachandran Ishwarya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Suganya Subbaiah, Abdul Khudus Nazar, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Mohammed N Al-Anbr
The green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using phytochemical from marine seaweeds is a fast-growing research field in nanotechnology. Here, the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was achieved using the hot water extract of Sargassum wightii. The hot water extract prepared from S. wightii (H Sw) and ZnO NPs were studied by UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and XRD. Then, both products were evaluated for antibiofilm activity towards aquatic pathogens. The nanoparticles' immunostimulating potential on green tiger prawns, Penaeus semisulcatus was studied through immersion and dietary administration...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Owen S Wangensteen, Creu Palacín, Magdalena Guardiola, Xavier Turon
Biodiversity assessment of marine hard-bottom communities is hindered by the high diversity and size-ranges of the organisms present. We developed a DNA metabarcoding protocol for biodiversity characterization of structurally complex natural marine hard-bottom communities. We used two molecular markers: the "Leray fragment" of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COI), for which a novel primer set was developed, and the V7 region of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S). Eight different shallow marine littoral communities from two National Parks in Spain (one in the Atlantic Ocean and another in the Mediterranean Sea) were studied...
2018: PeerJ
Camilla Silva de Figueiredo, Suellen Maria Pinto de Menezes Silva, Lucas Silva Abreu, Evandro Ferreira da Silva, Marcelo Sobral da Silva, George Emmanuel Cavalcanti de Miranda, Vicente Carlos de O Costa, Mireille Le Hyaric, José Pinto de Siqueira Junior, José Maria Barbosa Filho, Josean Fechine Tavares
One new diterpene (4R,7R,14S)-4α,7α-diacetoxy-10-one-14α-hydroxydolasta-1(15),8-diene (1), and five known compounds (4R,7R,14S)-4α,7α-diacetoxy-14α-hydroxydolasta-1(15),8-diene (2), (4R,14S)-4α,14α-dihydroxydolasta-1(15),8-diene (3), (4S,9R,14S)-4α-acetoxy-9β,14α-dihydroxydolasta-1(15),7-diene (4), 4-acetoxy-14-hydroxydolasta-1(15),7,9-triene (5) and isolinearol (6), were isolated from Canistrocarpus cervicornis. In this study, dolastane diterpenes were isolated from the alga C. cervicornis and evaluated as modifiers of antibiotic activity in Staphylococcus aureus: SA-1199B, which overexpresses the norA gene RN-4220, which encodes for the protein efflux of macrolides (MRSA), and IS-58 which has the gene encoding the protein TetK...
May 7, 2018: Natural Product Research
Miranda B Haggerty, Todd W Anderson, Jeremy D Long
Although trophic cascades were originally believed to be driven only by predators eating prey, there is mounting evidence that such cascades can be generated in large part via non-consumptive effects. This is especially important in cascades affecting habitat-forming foundation species that in turn, influence associated communities. Here, we use laboratory and field experiments to identify a trait-mediated indirect interaction between predators and an abundant kelp in a marine temperate reef system. Predation risk from a microcarnivorous fish, the señorita, suppressed grazing by the host-specific seaweed limpet, which in turn, influenced frond loss of the habitat-forming feather boa kelp...
May 5, 2018: Ecology
Ping Zou, Xueli Lu, Changliang Jing, Yuan Yuan, Yi Lu, Chengsheng Zhang, Lei Meng, Hongtao Zhao, Yiqiang Li
Soil salinity is one of the major issues worldwide that affects plant growth and reduces agricultural productivity. Seaweed polysaccharides have been shown to promote crop growth and improve the resistance of plant to abiotic stresses. Pyropia yezoensis is a commercially important edible red alga in Southeast Asia. However, there is little research on the application of polysaccharides from P. yezoensis in agriculture. The molecular weight (MW) of polysaccharides influences their properties. Therefore, in this study, four representative polysaccharides from P...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Eun-Young Kim, Youn Hee Choi, Taek-Jeong Nam
The objective of the present study was to identify peptides, based on active components of the red algae seaweed Pyropia yezoensis, able to inhibit the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is associated with aging and oxidative activities. Phycobilin, specific to red algae, covalently binds with water‑soluble proteins. There are three types of pigment bound proteins, known as phycobiliproteins (PBPs): Phycoerythrin (PE), phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC). In the present study, PBPs reported previously to have antioxidant activities in P...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Roberto Buonomo, Rosa M Chefaoui, Ricardo Bermejo Lacida, Aschwin H Engelen, Ester A Serrão, Laura Airoldi
Climate change is inducing shifts in species ranges across the globe. These can affect the genetic pools of species, including loss of genetic variability and evolutionary potential. In particular, geographically enclosed ecosystems, like the Mediterranean Sea, have a higher risk of suffering species loss and genetic erosion due to barriers to further range shifts and to dispersal. In this study, we address these questions for three habitat-forming seaweed species, Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. amentacea and C...
April 25, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Jae-Young Kim, Young Min Kwon, In-Sung Kim, Jeong-A Kim, Da-Yoon Yu, Bishnu Adhikari, Sang-Suk Lee, In-Soon Choi, Kwang-Keun Cho
The intestinal microbial communities play critical roles in various aspects of body function of the host. Prebiotics, such as dietary fiber, can affect health of the host by altering the composition of intestinal microbiota. Although brown seaweed Laminaria japonica is rich in dietary fiber, studies on its prebiotic potential are quite rare. In this study, basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with dried L. japonica (DLJ), heat-treated dried L. japonica (HLJ), or heated dried L. japonica with added fructooligosaccharide (FHLJ) was fed to rats for 16 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Kajal Chakraborty, Dexy Joseph
Ethyl acetate extracts of seaweeds were chromatographically fractionated to yield 14-methyl pentyl tetrahydro-8-hydroxy-10-methylnaphthalene-8-carboxylate (1) and tetrahydro-4-isopropyl-9-(9, 14-dimethyldec-9-enyl)-pyran-1-one (2) from Sargassum ilicifolium, whereas Padina gymnospora afforded dihydro-2-(10-(hydroxymethyl)-7,15-dimethyl-9-oxoundec-11-enyl)-2-methyl-2H-pyran-1(4H)-one (3) and 1-(decahydro-1-hydroxy-7-methyl-8-vinylnaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (4) as major constituents. Compound 1 displayed significantly higher antioxidant activity (IC50  < 1 mg/mL, p < 0...
September 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Keiji Sasuga, Tomoya Yamanashi, Shigeru Nakayama, Syuetsu Ono, Koji Mikami
The red seaweed Pyropia yezoensis has been demonstrated to be a novel resource for the production of high-quality agar. P. yezoensis is grown for the food industry in large-scale Japanese mariculture operations. However, discolored P. yezoensis is mostly discarded as an industrial waste, although it has some kind of utility values. Here, we evaluated the utility of discolored P. yezoensis as a resource for agar production. The quality of agar from the discolored seaweed was comparable to that from normal seaweed...
April 26, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Minseok Yoon, Suengmok Cho
In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that marine polyphenol phlorotannins promote sleep through the benzodiazepine site of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA ) receptors. In this follow-up study, the sleep-promoting effects of triphlorethol A, one of the major phlorotannin constituents, were investigated. The effect of triphlorethol A on sleep-wake architecture and profiles was evaluated based on electroencephalogram and electromyogram data from C57BL/6N mice and compared with the well-known hypnotic drug zolpidem...
April 24, 2018: Marine Drugs
Wenlei Wang, Fei Teng, Yinghui Lin, Dehua Ji, Yan Xu, Changsheng Chen, Chaotian Xie
Pyropia haitanensis, a high-yield commercial seaweed in China, is currently undergoing increasing levels of high-temperature stress due to gradual global warming. The mechanisms of plant responses to high temperature stress vary with not only plant type but also the degree and duration of high temperature. To understand the mechanism underlying thermal tolerance in P. haitanensis, gene expression and regulation in response to short- and long-term temperature stresses (SHS and LHS) was investigated by performing genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for a high temperature tolerant strain (HTT)...
2018: PloS One
S Rajaboopathi, S Thambidurai
In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) functionalized with seaweed (Padina gymnospora) extract was investigated. Thus synthesized AgNPs were coated on cotton fabric by pad try-cure method using citric acid as a cross linking agent. The chemical linkage of colloidal AgNPs onto the cellulosic structure are characterized and confirmed by FTIR, SEM, EDX and AFM analysis. The optical, crystalline and morphological features of the functionalized AgNPs were confirmed by UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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