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Profile keratitis

Oriel Spierer, Darlene Miller, Terrence P O'Brien
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are emerging corneal pathogens, which are closely related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and have intrinsic resistance to many commonly available antimicrobials. The purpose of this study is to compare the in vitro efficacy of 12 antimicrobial agents against A. xylosoxidans , S. maltophilia and P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from clinical cases of keratitis. METHODS: Recovered corneal isolates (n=58) were identified and extracted from the Microbiology Data Bank of the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Ananya Tupaki-Sreepurna, Vijayakishore Thanneru, Sangeetha Natarajan, Savitri Sharma, Anjana Gopi, Murugan Sundaram, Anupma Jyoti Kindo
Availability of molecular methods, gene sequencing, and phylogenetic species recognition have led to rare fungi being recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Fungal keratitis and onychomycosis are fairly common mycoses in the tropics, especially among outdoor workers and enthusiasts. The frequently isolated etiological agents belong to genera Candida, Aspergillus, and Fusarium. Within the genus Fusarium, known to be recalcitrant to prolonged antifungal treatment and associated with poor outcome, members of the Fusarium solani species complex are reported to be most common, followed by members of the Fusarium oxysporum SC and the Fusarium fujikuroi SC (FFSC)...
February 14, 2018: Mycopathologia
Sotiria Palioura, Allister Gibbons, Darlene Miller, Terrence P OʼBrien, Eduardo C Alfonso, Oriel Spierer
PURPOSE: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an uncommon cause of infectious keratitis, is difficult to treat because of its resistance to multiple antibiotics. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical features, antibiotic susceptibility profile, and outcomes of S. maltophilia keratitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of records from 1987 to 2016 identified 26 eyes of 26 patients who were treated at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute for an S. maltophilia corneal ulcer...
March 2018: Cornea
Hatice Ataş, Müzeyyen Gönül, Aysun Gökçe, Mutlu Acar, Canan Gürdal
Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) may overlap localized scleroderma (morphea) lesions with linear depression (en coup de sabre [ECDS]). Overlap case with PRS and ECDS was presented. Enophthalmos, uveitis, ocular torticollis, keratic linear precipitates, and anti-double-stranded DNA positivity were identified. Subendothelial keratic precipitates detected by an in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy were the first profiled in the literature. Patients must be evaluated and followed up carefully by their clinics to prevent misdiagnosis and unnecessary procedures such as surgery of ocular torticollis as muscular torticollis...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Saad J Taj-Aldeen
The resistance among various opportunistic Fusarium species to different antifungal agents has emerged as a cause of public health problems worldwide. Considering the significance of multi-drug resistant (MDR), this paper emphasizes the problems associated with MDR and the need to understand its clinical significance to combat microbial infections. The search platform PubMed/MEDLINE and a review of 32 cases revealed a common multidrug-resistant profile exists, and clinically relevant members of Fusarium are intrinsically resistant to most currently used antifungals...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Prerana Sharma, Sanjukta Guha, Prashant Garg, Sanhita Roy
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and is the major cause of corneal infection worldwide that secret several virulent toxins through its type III secretion system (T3SS). In defense against pathogenic insults, epithelial cells and macrophages express antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are essential components of host immune response. In this study, we have determined the expression of several AMPs in patients with P. aeruginosa corneal infection. We also used an in vitro model of infection using human corneal epithelial cells and macrophages to determine the gene expression of AMPs and cellular response to wild-type and T3SS mutant P...
January 9, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Tsui-Kang Hsu, Jung-Sheng Chen, Bing-Mu Hsu, Yu-Pin Chen, Tsai-Hsueh Leu, Tung-Yi Huang, Yu-Wen Hsu, Shu-Fen Wu
Acanthamoeba spp. are ubiquitous, opportunistic potential human pathogens, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and keratitis. They are classified as protozoa, and they include at least 20 different genotypes (T1-T20) based on variation in the 18S rRNA gene. Acanthamoeba spp. are diverse in their production of toxins and in their ability to resist environmental factors. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a rapid genotyping method for Acanthamoeba spp. in aquatic environments. Although the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method for analysing microbial genotypes is potentially useful for rapid identification of aquatic environmental species, the technique has been compromised by artificial DGGE profiles in which many DNA fragments of identical sequences are segregated and displayed as different bands...
December 17, 2017: Parasitology Research
Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin, Hailay Gebreyesus, Ataklti Hailu Atsbaha, Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom, Muthupandian Saravanan
BACKGROUND: Bacteria are the major contributor of ocular infections worldwide. Ocular infections, if left untreated, can damage the structures of the eye with possible blindness and visual impairments. This work was aimed to review the bacterial profile of ocular infections. METHODS: Literature search was made in different electronic databases; the review was systematically made to get concrete findings. RESULTS: As far as this review, Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the leading isolates in ocular infections...
November 25, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
Prafulla K Maharana, Pranita Sahay, M Sujeeth, Deepali Singhal, Anubha Rathi, Jeewan S Titiyal, Namrata Sharma
PURPOSE: To assess the pattern of microbial keratitis after accelerated corneal collagen cross-linkage (aCXL) in patients with keratoconus. METHOD: The medical records of cases of keratoconus that underwent aCXL from June 2014 to May 2017 were reviewed. Cases that developed microbial keratitis after aCXL were included in the study. The clinical, microbiological profile and the treatment outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 532 eyes that underwent aCXL, 7 cases developed microbial keratitis during the study period...
November 2, 2017: Cornea
Hui K Gan, David A Reardon, Andrew B Lassman, Ryan Merrell, Martin van den Bent, Nicholas Butowski, Zarnie Lwin, Helen Wheeler, Lisa Fichtel, Andrew M Scott, Erica J Gomez, JuDee Fischer, Helen Mandich, Hao Xiong, Ho-Jin Lee, Wijith P Munasinghe, Lisa A Roberts-Rapp, Peter J Ansell, Kyle D Holen, Priya Kumthekar
Background: We recently reported an acceptable safety and pharmacokinetic profile of depatuxizumab mafodotin (depatux-m), formerly called ABT-414, plus radiation and temozolomide in newly diagnosed glioblastoma (Arm A). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of depatux-m, either in combination with temozolomide in newly diagnosed or recurrent glioblastoma (Arm B) or as monotherapy in recurrent glioblastoma (Arm C). Methods: In this multicenter phase 1 dose escalation study, patients received depatux-m (0...
October 25, 2017: Neuro-oncology
Kalpana Babu, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Bhagya Sudheer, Ankush Kawali, Deepika C Parameswarappa, Vibha Pal, Mariamma Philips
PURPOSE: To analyze and compare the clinical profile of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) patients in a South Indian patient population aged <60 years and ≥60 years and determine the risk factors for recurrence of ocular inflammation. METHODS: Retrospective study of 249 cases between 2006 and 2016 from two tertiary referral eye centres in south india. RESULTS: Out of 249 cases, 189 cases were <60 years (Group 1) and 60 cases were aged ≥60 years (Group2)...
October 26, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Soraya Mediero, Ana Boto de Los Bueis, Karina Spiess, Mariana Díaz-Almirón, Almudena Del Hierro Zarzuelo, Isabel Villalaín Rodes, Adela García Perea
INTRODUCTION: To study antibiotic susceptibility in bacterial keratitis (BK), its profile over 10 years and its influence on ophthalmological practice. METHODS: Retrospective review of BK with positive corneal scraping over a 10-year period. Risk factors for keratitis, visual acuity (VA), empirical topical treatment, corneal infection characteristics and outcomes were analyzed for BK due to Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Propionibacterium acnes...
October 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Anubha Rathi, Brijesh Takkar, Namrata Sharma
Uveitis is the most common ocular manifestation of syphilis, while scleritis is rare. A case of nodular scleritis, peripheral keratitis and uveitis in a patient with genital ulcer is presented in this report. This patient had a clinical profile suggestive of syphilis, though the serology was negative for treponemal antibodies. Other possible differential diagnosis imitating syphilis are discussed.
October 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Shweta Agarwal, Geetha Iyer, Bhaskar Srinivasan, Mamta Agarwal, Shobha Panchalam Sampath Kumar, Lily K Therese
PURPOSE: To report the clinical profile and role of perioperative adjunctive measures to reduce the risk of recurrence in Pythium insidiosum keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 10 eyes of 10 patients with P. insidiosum keratitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR DNA sequencing. RESULTS: 7out of 10 patients were from urban locales, and none had any obvious history of injury with vegetative matter and were being treated for fungal keratitis...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Andrew G Gallagher, Keri McLean, Rosalind M K Stewart, Don A Wellings, Heather E Allison, Rachel L Williams
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a more efficient drug delivery device to overcome the limitations of current drop therapy for the treatment of fungal keratitis. Methods: Amphotericin B (AmpB), 0 to 30 μg/mL, was associated with a poly-ε-lysine (pεK) hydrogel. Fungicidal effect against Candida albicans was assessed at 18 and 42 hours by optical density (OD600) and growth on agar. Tear film dilution effect was mimicked by storage of AmpB pεK gels in 3...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Matthew Hao Lee, Robin Geoffrey Abell, Biswadev Mitra, Merv Ferdinands, Rasik B Vajpayee
PURPOSE: To assess incidence, risk factors, presentation and final visual outcome of patients with Acanthamoebakeratitis (AK) treated at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital (RVEEH), Melbourne, Australia, over an 18-year period. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases of AK managed at RVEEH between January 1998 and May 2016 was performed. Data collected included age, gender, affected eye, signs and symptoms, time between symptoms and diagnosis, risk factors, presenting and final visual acuity (VA), investigations, medical treatment, surgical interventions and length of follow-up...
August 27, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Konduri Ranjith, Bhavani Sontam, Savitri Sharma, Joveeta Joseph, Kanchana N Chathoth, Kalyana C Sama, Somasheila I Murthy, Sisinthy Shivaji
Purpose: To determine the type of Candida species in ocular infections and to investigate the relationship of antifungal susceptibility profile to virulence factors. Methods: Fifty isolates of yeast-like fungi from patients with keratitis, endophthalmitis, and orbital cellulitis were identified by Vitek-2 compact system and DNA sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of the rRNA gene, followed by phylogenetic analysis for phenotypic and genotypic identification, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Fiona Stapleton, Thomas Naduvilath, Lisa Keay, Cherry Radford, John Dart, Katie Edwards, Nicole Carnt, Darwin Minassian, Brien Holden
PURPOSE: This study investigated independent risk factors and causative organisms in microbial keratitis in daily disposable contact lens (CL)-wearers. METHODS: A multisite prospective case-control study was undertaken. Cases were daily disposable CL-wearers attending Moorfields Eye Hospital with microbial keratitis and those reported through a one-year surveillance study in Australia and in New Zealand. A population-based telephone survey identified daily disposable CL-wearing controls...
2017: PloS One
Viviane P Sant'Ana, Annette S Foronda, Denise de Freitas, Linda C Carrijo-Carvalho, Fábio Ramos de Souza Carvalho
Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba that causes severe corneal infection (Acanthamoeba keratitis) and produces a variety of extracellular enzymes, called exoproteome. Since physicochemical characters are suggested being associated with therapeutic profile and clinical severity of the infection, we investigated the physicochemical properties of proteolysis mediated by amoebic exoproteome. Corneal scraping was collected from a patient who showed typical symptoms of acute Acanthamoeba keratitis. Axenic amoeba was phylogenetically identified by 18S rDNA sequencing analysis...
November 2017: Current Microbiology
Christophe Baudouin, Maite Sainz de la Maza, Mourad Amrane, Jean-Sébastien Garrigue, Dahlia Ismail, Francisco C Figueiredo, Andrea Leonardi
PURPOSE: The SANSIKA study evaluated the efficacy/safety of 0.1% (1 mg/mL) cyclosporine A cationic emulsion (CsA CE) for treating dry eye disease (DED) with severe keratitis. The double-masked phase demonstrated that CsA CE was effective in reducing corneal damage and ocular surface inflammation, and was well-tolerated over 6 months. Here we report efficacy and safety findings of SANSIKA's open-label extension (OLE). METHODS: In this multicenter, double-masked, phase III study, patients with severe DED (corneal fluorescein staining [CFS] grade 4, modified Oxford scale) were randomized to once-daily CsA CE (Ikervis®) or its vehicle for 6 months, followed by 6-month open-label, once-daily CsA CE (CsA CE/CsA CE and vehicle/CsA CE groups)...
July 1, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
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