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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528404/a-direct-comparison-of-the-effects-of-the-antiretroviral-drugs-stavudine-tenofovir-and-the-combination-lopinavir-ritonavir-on-bone-metabolism-in-a-rat-model
#1
M M Conradie, M van de Vyver, E Andrag, M Conradie, W F Ferris
Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may induce metabolic complications in HIV patients on long-term therapy that can affect bone health. In this study, the effects of the ARVs Stavudine (d4T), Tenofovir (TDF) and Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) on bone metabolism and lipodystrophy were directly compared in rats to negate the consequences of HIV-associated confounding factors. Healthy 12-14-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 40) were divided into four treatment groups and received an oral animal equivalent dose of either Stavudine (6...
May 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528342/an-insight-into-the-changes-in-skin-texture-and-properties-following-dietary-intervention-with-a-nutricosmeceutical-containing-a-blend-of-collagen-bioactive-peptides-and-antioxidants
#2
Licia Genovese, Andrea Corbo, Sara Sibilla
BACKGROUND: Skin aging is a multifactorial phenomenon which causes alterations in skin physiological functions and, most visibly, phenotypic changes. In particular, during the aging process, hyaluronic acid, collagen, and elastin fibers undergo structural and functional changes. AIMS: This study aimed to give an insight into the photo-protective benefits and efficacy of an oral liquid nutricosmeceutical containing collagen bioactive peptides and antioxidants to counteract the signs of aging...
May 20, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528075/adopting-the-new-world-health-organization-diagnostic-criteria-for-gestational-diabetes-how-the-prevalence-changes-in-a-high-risk-region-in-australia
#3
Vincent W Wong, Andrew Lin, Hamish Russell
AIMS: In this study, we assessed changes in prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a region with diverse cultural backgrounds in Australia under the new World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria, with reference to the woman's ethnicity, age and pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We recorded results of all 75-gram oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed on pregnant women between February and December 2015 together with their demographic details, and determined the prevalence of GDM based on the old Australian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society (ADIPS) and the new WHO criteria respectively...
April 25, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527158/asymptomatic-cryptococcal-antigenemia-in-people-living-with-hiv-plhiv-with-severe-immunosuppression-is-routine-crag-screening-indicated-in-india
#4
S Anuradha, Abhaya Narayana H, Richa Dewan, Ravinder Kaur, K Rajeshwari
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a common, life-threatening opportunistic infection (OI) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Serum Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) positivity is predictive of future occurrence of CM and pre-emptive treatment reduces its mortality. Routine CrAg screening among PLHIV is not adopted by India's national programme. This study evaluated the prevalence of CrAg and assessed CrAg positivity in predicting all-cause mortality among PLHIV. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care, public health facility in New Delhi, India...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527104/low-income-as-a-multiplicative-risk-factor-for-oral-pain-and-dental-problems-among-u-s-veteran-smokers
#5
Terrell A Hicks, Sarah M Wilson, Shaun P Thomas, Paul A Dennis, Julia M Neal, Patrick S Calhoun
PURPOSE: Compared to the United States (U.S.) general population, military veterans are at an increased risk of experiencing dental problems. This study documented associations between cigarette use and measures of dental/oral concern in a population of U.S. veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. METHOD: A cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans Health and Needs Study, a study of U...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526915/dietary-behaviors-in-psoriasis-patient-reported-outcomes-from-a-u-s-national-survey
#6
Ladan Afifi, Melissa J Danesh, Kristina M Lee, Kevin Beroukhim, Benjamin Farahnik, Richard S Ahn, Di Yan, Rasnik K Singh, Mio Nakamura, John Koo, Wilson Liao
INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis patients demonstrate high interest in the role of diet on their skin condition. However, data are lacking to describe dietary interventions among psoriasis patients and associated outcomes. This study aims to identify common dietary habits, interventions and perceptions among patients with psoriasis, and to examine patient-reported skin outcomes in response to these interventions. METHODS: We administered a 61-question survey to the National Psoriasis Foundation membership asking psoriasis patients about dietary habits, modifications, skin responses, and perceptions...
May 19, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526794/raffinose-induces-biofilm-formation-by-streptococcus-mutans-in-low-concentrations-of-sucrose-by-increasing-production-of-extracellular-dna-and-fructan
#7
Ryo Nagasawa, Tsutomu Sato, Hidenobu Senpuku
Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries and causes tooth decay by forming a firmly attached biofilm on tooth surfaces. Biofilm formation is induced by the presence of sucrose, which is a substrate for the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides, but not in the presence of oligosaccharides. Nonetheless, in this study, we found that raffinose, which is an oligosaccharide with an intestinal regulatory function and antiallergic effect, induced biofilm formation by S. mutans in a mixed culture with sucrose which was at concentrations less than those required to induce biofilm formation directly...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526785/effects-of-arginine-on-growth-virulence-gene-expression-and-stress-tolerance-by-streptococcus-mutans
#8
Brinta Chakraborty, Robert A Burne
Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of oral biofilms and a primary etiologic agent of human dental caries. The bacteria associated with dental caries have a potent ability to produce organic acids from dietary carbohydrates and to grow and metabolize in acidic conditions. In contrast, many commensal bacteria produce ammonia through the arginine deiminase system (ADS), which moderates the pH of oral biofilms. Arginine metabolism by the ADS is a significant deterrent to the initiation and progression of dental caries...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526570/role-of-medicinal-plants-on-growth-performance-and-immune-status-in-fish
#9
REVIEW
Elham Awad, Amani Awaad
Disease outbreaks increase proportionally with increases in intensive aquaculture. Natural products including medicinal plants have been known from thousands of years for treating some human diseases. It is well known that many active compounds are responsible for potential bio-activities. For that reason, there has been considerable interest in the use of medicinal plants in aquaculture with a view to providing safe and eco-friendly compounds for replacing antibiotics and chemical compounds as well as to enhance immune status and control fish diseases...
May 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526331/prevalence-of-oral-human-papillomavirus-by-vaccination-status-among-young-adults-18-30years-old
#10
Jacqueline M Hirth, Mihyun Chang, Vicente A Resto
BACKGROUND: Although there is evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may protect against oral HPV infection, no current research has demonstrated this in the general population. METHODS: We used repeated cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2009 and 2014. Participants 18-30years who indicated whether they had received the HPV vaccine and provided an adequate oral sample were included (N=3040)...
May 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526080/post-weaning-diarrhea-in-pigs-risk-factors-and-non-colistin-based-control-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, John Morris Fairbrother, Francis Beaudry, Ann Letellier
Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) is one of the most serious threats for the swine industry worldwide. It is commonly associated with the proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the pig intestine. Colistin, a cationic antibiotic, is widely used in swine for the oral treatment of intestinal infections caused by E. coli, and particularly of PWD. However, despite the effectiveness of this antibiotic in the treatment of PWD, several studies have reported high rates of colistin resistant E. coli in swine...
May 19, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526074/oral-health-behaviour-in-migrant-and-non-migrant-adults-in-germany-the-utilization-of-regular-dental-check-ups
#12
Fabian Erdsiek, Dorothee Waury, Patrick Brzoska
BACKGROUND: Migrants in many European countries including Germany tend to utilize preventive measures less frequently than the majority population. Little is known about the dental health of migrants as well as about their oral health behaviour, particularly in the adult population. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the uptake of annual dental check-ups in adult migrants and non-migrants in Germany. METHODS: We used data from the cross-sectional survey 'German Health Update 2010' conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 22,050)...
May 19, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526065/malnutrition-and-poor-oral-health-status-are-major-risks-among-primary-school-children-at-lasbela-balochistan-pakistan
#13
Muhammad Ayaz Mustufa, Abdul Karim Jamali, Ifra Sameen, Fateh Muhammad Burfat, Mir Yousaf Baloch, Abdul Hameed Baloch, Ghulam Rasool Baloch, Shazia Kulsoom Lashari, Sobiya Mohiuddin Ayaz, Muhammad Younus Baloch
BACKGROUND: This survey was focusing on health and oral hygiene status of primary school children at Lasbela district considering the comparatively less developed and socio demographically deprived part of the Country. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the health status of primary school children in seven tehseels of district Lasbela, Balochistan after applying proportionate sampling technique from March 2015 to July 2015. Field teams visited assigned schools to screen children and collect health related data on predesigned and pre coded proforma...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526003/the-basic-research-factors-questionnaire-for-studying-early-childhood-caries
#14
Judith Albino, Tamanna Tiwari, Stuart A Gansky, Michelle M Henshaw, Judith C Barker, Angela G Brega, Steven E Gregorich, Brenda Heaton, Terrence S Batliner, Belinda Borrelli, Paul Geltman, Nancy R Kressin, Jane A Weintraub, Tracy L Finlayson, Raul I Garcia
BACKGROUND: We describe development of the Early Childhood Caries (ECC) Basic Research Factors Questionnaire (BRFQ), a battery of measures assessing common potential predictors, mediators, and moderators of ECC. Individual-, family-, and community-level factors that are linked to oral health outcomes across at-risk populations are included. Developing standard measures of factors implicated in ECC has the potential to enhance our ability to understand mechanisms underlying successful prevention and to develop more effective interventions...
May 19, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525984/study-protocol-evaluation-of-the-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-cect5716-for-the-prevention-of-mastitis-in-breastfeeding-women-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Diana M Bond, Jonathan M Morris, Natasha Nassar
BACKGROUND: Mastitis and accompanying pain have been associated with the cessation of breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast and may be a result of decreased immunity and a lowered resistance to infection. Mastitis affects up to one in five breastfeeding women with most episodes occurring in the first 6-8 weeks postpartum. Antibiotics are often used in the treatment of mastitis, but have not been popular or proven effective as a preventative agent. The WHO has highlighted significant concerns relating to adverse harms of antibiotic use with the production of antibiotic-resistant strains of disease organisms...
May 19, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525905/the-effect-of-pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-and-excessive-gestational-weight-gain-on-the-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-in-advanced-maternal-age
#16
Beibei Dong, Hong Yu, Qiong Wei, Mengmeng Zhi, Chunhua Wu, Xiangyun Zhu, Ling Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: With the popularization of a two-child policy in China, the number of pregnant women of advanced maternal age will increase steadily. We aimed to assess the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain in the first and second trimester and the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) in the advanced maternal age group and control group defined as maternal age of 20-35 years. RESULTS: The risk of GDM for obesity before pregnancy was 2...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524930/nutrition-support-in-hospitalised-adults-at-nutritional-risk
#17
REVIEW
Joshua Feinberg, Emil Eik Nielsen, Steven Kwasi Korang, Kirstine Halberg Engell, Marie Skøtt Nielsen, Kang Zhang, Maria Didriksen, Lisbeth Lund, Niklas Lindahl, Sara Hallum, Ning Liang, Wenjing Xiong, Xuemei Yang, Pernille Brunsgaard, Alexandre Garioud, Sanam Safi, Jane Lindschou, Jens Kondrup, Christian Gluud, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in Western European hospitals is estimated to be about 30%. There is no consensus whether poor nutritional status causes poorer clinical outcome or if it is merely associated with it. The intention with all forms of nutrition support is to increase uptake of essential nutrients and improve clinical outcome. Previous reviews have shown conflicting results with regard to the effects of nutrition support. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nutrition support versus no intervention, treatment as usual, or placebo in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk...
May 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524905/oral-care-exploring-education-attitudes-and-behaviors-among-nurses-caring-for-patients-with-breast-cancer%C3%A2
#18
Jennifer A Suminski, Marita Inglehart, Stephanie M Munz, Catherine H Van Poznak, L Susan Taichman
BACKGROUND: Patients treated for breast cancer often experience severe oral complications, such as mucositis, xerostomia, and infections, which can result in dose reductions and treatment delays, affecting treatment outcomes.
. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to explore oncology nurses' perceptions of their educational experiences, professional attitudes, and behavior related to providing oral healthcare education to patients with breast cancer.
...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523795/efficacy-of-an-oral-health-literacy-intervention-among-indigenous-australian-adults
#19
Xiangqun Ju, David Brennan, Eleanor Parker, Helen Mills, Kostas Kapellas, Lisa Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of an oral health literacy intervention on oral health literacy-related outcomes among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australian adults. METHODS: A total of 400 Indigenous adults (203 intervention and 197 control participants) were recruited into a randomized controlled trial; a functional, context-specific oral health literacy interventions were developed and implemented by Indigenous staff. The intervention comprised five sessions, each lasting 1...
May 19, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523441/progress-in-the-presence-of-failure-updates-in-chronic-systolic-heart-failure-management
#20
REVIEW
Katie M Murphy, Julie L Rosenthal
The therapeutic heart failure armamentarium has evolved from drugs to transplantation to devices through further understanding of its complex pathophysiology and pathogenesis. Current medications capitalize on our evolving understanding of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems that subsequently promote both beneficial and maladaptive responses that ultimately yield a decrease in cardiac function. Despite these advancements, the prevalence of heart failure continues to rise and carries a significant burden on our patients and health care system...
July 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
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