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Clinical keratitis

Jing Zhong, Lulu Peng, Bowen Wang, Henan Zhang, Saiqun Li, Ruhui Yang, Yuqing Deng, Haixiang Huang, Jin Yuan
Purpose: To investigate the expression and roles of type I and II interferons (IFNs) in fungal keratitis, as well as the therapeutic effects of tacrolimus (FK506) and voriconazole on this condition. Methods: The mRNA and protein expression levels of type I (IFN-α/β) and II (IFN-γ) IFNs, as well as of related downstream inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-17), were detected in macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and corneal epithelial cells (A6(1) cells) stimulated with zymosan (10 mg/ml) for 8 or 24 h...
2018: Molecular Vision
Marie-Sophie Hanet, Annette Zimpfer, Sabine Lepper, Berthold Seitz
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this report was to describe a single case of recurrent interstitial keratitis in a young patient leading to keratoconus-like corneal changes. RESULTS: Over the 2 years follow-up, the patient developed clinical signs of keratoconus with Vogt's striae, Fleischer Ring and paracentral stromal thinning in the affected eye only. The tomographic measurements revealed a rapid reduction of corneal thickness from 581 to 303 μm and an irregular steepening of the pathological cornea...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Gita Satpathy, Himansu S Behera, Anjana Sharma, Abhisek K Mishra, Deepanshi Mishra, Namrata Sharma, Radhika Tandon, Tushar Agarwal, Jeewan S Titiyal
BACKGROUND: To detect the presence of herpes virus in corneal scrapings/corneal grafts of suspected herpetic keratitis patients attending the outpatient department/casualty of the Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi for the past 20 years with immunofluorescence assay and to analyse the efficacy of polymerase chain reaction over immunofluorescence for routine laboratory diagnosis in some of the specimens. METHODS: Corneal scrapings and corneal grafts were collected by the ophthalmologists from 1,926 suspected herpetic keratitis patients between 1996 and 2015, among whom 1,863 patients were processed with immunofluorescence assay and 302 patients were processed with polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of herpes virus...
March 6, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Ana Batista, Hans Georg Breunig, Aisada König, Andreas Schindele, Tobias Hager, Berthold Seitz, Karsten König
The diagnosis of corneal diseases may be improved by monitoring the metabolism of cells and the structural organization of the stroma using two-photon imaging (TPI). We used TPI to assess the differences between nonpathological (NP) human corneas and corneas diagnosed with either keratoconus, Acanthamoeba keratitis, or stromal corneal scars. Images were acquired using a custom-built five-dimensional laser-scanning microscope with a broadband sub-15 femtosecond near-infrared pulsed excitation laser and a 16-channel photomultiplier tube detector in combination with a time-correlated single photon counting module...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Traimat Boonthai, Thomas P Loch, Coja J Yamashita, Geoffrey D Smith, Andrew D Winters, Matti Kiupel, Travis O Brenden, Mohamed Faisal
BACKGROUND: Mortality episodes have affected young-of-year smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in several river systems in Pennsylvania since 2005. A series of laboratory experiments were performed to determine the potential role of largemouth bass virus (Ranavirus, Iridoviridae) in causing these events. RESULTS: Juvenile smallmouth bass experimentally infected with the largemouth bass virus exhibited internal and external clinical signs and mortality consistent with those observed during die-offs...
March 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Ziqian Zhu, Hongmin Zhang, Juan Yue, Susu Liu, Zhijie Li, Liya Wang
BACKGROUND: Fungal keratitis is one of the major causes of visual impairment worldwide. However, the effectiveness of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for fungal keratitis remains controversial. In this study, we developed an in vitro and an in vivo models to assess the efficacy of CXL for Fusarium keratitis. METHODS: The effect of in vitro CXL fungicidal was evaluated on the cultures of Fusarium solani which were exposed to irradiation for different durations...
March 2, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Ingo Schmack, Michael Müller, Thomas Kohnen
Infectious inflammation of the cornea (microbial keratitis) represents a potentially vision threatening disease. Depending on the infectious agent and the course of the disease it can result in a complete loss of the involved eye. Early diagnosis and accurate treatment are mandatory to maintain a sufficient visual acuity. The purpose of this review is to highlight and discuss characteristic clinical features, diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic aspects of three major forms of microbial keratitis (bacteria, fungi, and acanthamoeba; the latter two in the 2nd part of this article)...
February 28, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Alice Y Matoba, Mukul K Divatia, Robert A Arguello, Paty Chevez-Barrios
PURPOSE: To report the effect of topical antibiotics moxifloxacin 0.3% and gentamicin 0.3% on the clinical efficacy of topical antifungal agent voriconazole 1% in cases of culture- or biopsy-proven fungal keratitis. METHODS: Two cases of fungal keratitis in which the addition of topical moxifloxacin or moxifloxacin and gentamicin led to an improved clinical response to topical voriconazole were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: One patient with clinical resistance of his fungal keratitis to both topical voriconazole and natamycin had resolution of his keratitis with the addition of topical moxifloxacin and gentamicin to voriconazole...
February 27, 2018: Cornea
Cui Li, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Gui-Qiu Zhao, Jing Lin, Cheng-Ye Che, Nan Jiang, Na Li, Jie Zhang, Kun He, Xu-Dong Peng
AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in Aspergillus fumigatus ( A. fumigatus ) ketatitis. METHODS: Expression of VIP was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 and BALB/c normal and A. fumigatus infected corneas. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with recombinant (r) VIP, while BALB/c mice were pretreated with VIP antagonist, and then infected with A. fumigatus . Clinical score was recorded. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1), and neutrophil infiltration were tested by PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Lindsay Machen, Felix Y Chau, Jose de la Cruz, Joel Sugar, Maria Soledad Cortina
PURPOSE: To present a case of Exophiala phaeomuriformis fungal keratitis to demonstrate the heightened concern for fungal infection in patients with a keratoprosthesis and to highlight the rare involvement of Exophiala phaeomuriformis. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: Exophiala phaeomuriformis was identified in a susceptible patient 7 years after Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) implantation. CONCLUSIONS: Although fungal infiltration after KPro placement does not represent a novel clinical infection, identification of the rare Exophiala species in a patient with a KPro has not been reported and provides an opportunity for reflection on fungal identification, prophylaxis, and prevention in this vulnerable patient population...
February 22, 2018: Cornea
Erika Orosz, Nóra Szentmáry, Huba J Kiss, Ágnes Farkas, István Kucsera, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy
Acanthamoeba has a worldwide distribution in the environment and it is capable of causing a painful sight-threatening disease of the cornea designated as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Nowadays, the cases of AK have surged all over the world along with its disease burden due to increasing use of contact lenses used not only for optical correction but also for cosmetic purposes. In our present work, epithelial abrasion of a 27-year-old female soft contact lens wearer with keratitis was examined. Genotype identification was carried out with a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene...
February 23, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Oriel Spierer, Darlene Miller, Terrence P O'Brien
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are emerging corneal pathogens, which are closely related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and have intrinsic resistance to many commonly available antimicrobials. The purpose of this study is to compare the in vitro efficacy of 12 antimicrobial agents against A. xylosoxidans , S. maltophilia and P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from clinical cases of keratitis. METHODS: Recovered corneal isolates (n=58) were identified and extracted from the Microbiology Data Bank of the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Elif Erdem, Ibrahim Inan Harbiyeli, Hazal Boral, Macit Ilkit, Meltem Yagmur, Reha Ersoz
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficiency of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in addition to topical voriconazole in cases with mycotic keratitis. DESIGN: Retrospective case series in a tertiary university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: CXL was performed on 13 patients with mycotic keratitis who presented poor or no response to topical voriconazole treatment. METHODS: The clinical features, symptoms, treatment results and complications were recorded retrospectively...
February 16, 2018: Mycopathologia
M Sacchetti, A Bruscolini, A Lambiase
The trigeminal nerve provides corneal sensitivity and trophic supply to corneal tissues. The impairment of corneal innervation leads to development of neurotrophic keratitis (NK). NK is a rare, degenerative corneal disease characterized by corneal hypo/anesthesia and development of nonhealing corneal epithelial defects and ulcers. NK is a challenging condition with high medical need due to the lack of approved treatments that can restore corneal integrity. Current treatment of NK aims at stimulating corneal healing and preventing disease progression...
November 2017: Drugs of Today
Cristian Caimmi, Cynthia S Crowson, Wendy M Smith, Eric L Matteson, Ashima Makol
OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory ocular disease (IOD) is a rare but severe extraarticular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (ExRA) with high mortality. The aim of our study was to examine clinical characteristics of IOD in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their effect on disease severity and outcomes in recent years. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of RA patients with IOD evaluated between 1996 and 2013 was assembled and compared to RA comparators without IOD and matched for age, sex, and disease duration...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Ananya Tupaki-Sreepurna, Vijayakishore Thanneru, Sangeetha Natarajan, Savitri Sharma, Anjana Gopi, Murugan Sundaram, Anupma Jyoti Kindo
Availability of molecular methods, gene sequencing, and phylogenetic species recognition have led to rare fungi being recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Fungal keratitis and onychomycosis are fairly common mycoses in the tropics, especially among outdoor workers and enthusiasts. The frequently isolated etiological agents belong to genera Candida, Aspergillus, and Fusarium. Within the genus Fusarium, known to be recalcitrant to prolonged antifungal treatment and associated with poor outcome, members of the Fusarium solani species complex are reported to be most common, followed by members of the Fusarium oxysporum SC and the Fusarium fujikuroi SC (FFSC)...
February 14, 2018: Mycopathologia
Pierre-Jean Pisella, Marc Labetoulle, Serge Doan, Beatrice Cochener-Lamard, Mourad Amrane, Dahlia Ismail, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher, Christophe Baudouin
Purpose: The objective of this study was to report the evaluation of efficacy and safety of cyclosporine A cationic emulsion (CsA CE) 0.1% for the treatment of severe keratitis in adults with dry eye disease (DED) in a French early-access program. Methods: Patients with DED and severe keratitis (corneal fluorescein staining [CFS] score of 3-5 on the Oxford scale and/or the presence of corneal lesions [filaments or ulcers]) were enrolled in a compassionate use program (Authorization for Temporary Use [ATU]) for once-daily CsA CE, which was approved by French health authorities prior to its registration...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Kathryn J Ray, N Venkatesh Prajna, Prajna Lalitha, Revathi Rajaraman, Tiruvengada Krishnan, Sushila Patel, Manoranjan Das, Ranjeet Shah, Kavita Dhakhwa, Stephen D McLeod, Michael E Zegans, Nisha R Acharya, Thomas M Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
PURPOSE: To identify fungal keratitis patients who are at risk of a poor outcome and may benefit from closer follow-up or more aggressive treatment. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of randomized clinical trial data. SUBJECTS: Patients presenting with a smear-positive filamentous fungal ulcer, visual acuity of 20/400 or worse, and who subsequently had a 6-day fungal culture performed at the Aravind Eye Care system (India), Lumbini Eye Hospital (Nepal), or Bharatpur Eye Hospital (Nepal)...
February 10, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
James McKelvie, Moaz Alshiakhi, Mohammed Ziaei, Dipika V Patel, Charles Nj McGhee
IMPORTANCE: Acanthamoeba is an increasingly prevalent cause of vision-threatening microbial keratitis. BACKGROUND: To assess the incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis and outcomes of patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in Auckland, New Zealand over a 7-year period. DESIGN: Retrospective observational consecutive case series. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-eight eyes of 52 patients diagnosed with AK. METHODS: All cases of AK were identified using a cross-referenced search of clinical, laboratory and pharmacy records from March 2009 to May 2016...
February 7, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Sotiria Palioura, Allister Gibbons, Darlene Miller, Terrence P OʼBrien, Eduardo C Alfonso, Oriel Spierer
PURPOSE: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an uncommon cause of infectious keratitis, is difficult to treat because of its resistance to multiple antibiotics. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical features, antibiotic susceptibility profile, and outcomes of S. maltophilia keratitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of records from 1987 to 2016 identified 26 eyes of 26 patients who were treated at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute for an S. maltophilia corneal ulcer...
March 2018: Cornea
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