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Acanthamoeba keratitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811501/characterisation-of-sterol-biosynthesis-and-validation-of-14%C3%AE-demethylase-as-a-drug-target-in-acanthamoeba
#1
Scott Thomson, Christopher A Rice, Tong Zhang, RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel, Fiona L Henriquez, Craig W Roberts
The soil amoebae Acanthamoeba causes Acanthamoeba keratitis, a severe sight-threatening infection of the eye and the almost universally fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. More effective treatments are required. Sterol biosynthesis has been effectively targeted in numerous fungi using azole compounds that inhibit the cytochrome P450 enzyme sterol 14α-demethylase. Herein, using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS), we demonstrate that the major sterol of Acanthamoeba castellanii is ergosterol and identify novel putative precursors and intermediate sterols in its production...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807756/first-time-identification-of-acanthamoeba-genotypes-in-the-cornea-samples-of-wild-birds-is-acanthamoeba-keratitis-making-the-predatory-birds-a-target
#2
Muhammet Karakavuk, Mehmet Aykur, Esra Atalay Şahar, Mehmet Karakuş, Duygu Aldemir, Ömer Döndüren, Hüseyin Gökhan Özdemir, Hüseyin Can, Adnan Yüksel Gürüz, Hande Dağcı, Mert Döşkaya
Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba which can be isolated from environment and among others well known as an opportunist protozoan parasite causing infections in humans and animals. Eyes are extremely important for the wild birds and losing sight ability due to Acanthamoeba can be dangerous. The studies on Acanthamoeba infection in wild birds is very few in world and Turkey therefore we aimed to screen deceased wild birds found in İzmir and Manisa provinces located in western Turkey using PCR and non-nutrition agar (NNA) plate method...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758436/-diagnostics-and-treatment-of-infectious-keratitis
#3
Nóra Szentmáry, László Módis, László Imre, Ágnes Füst, Loay Daas, Lenke Laurik, Berthold Seitz, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy
We summarize up-to-date diagnostic and treatment of infectious keratitis using literature data and some clinical examples. In the clinical practice, most commonly bacterial, herpetic, mycotic and acanthamoeba keratitis occur. Beside slitlamp examination, for diagnostic purpose, we analyse corneal sensitivity, perform in vivo confocal microscopy, polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR), in vitro culture and histological examination of the corneal sample. As conservative treatment we use primarily topical moxifloxacin or cephasolin with fortified tobramycin or gentamycin in bacterial, topical antiviral gel (in some cases in combination with systemic antiviral treatment) in part in combination with topical corticosteroids in herpetic, voriconasole or amphotericin-B in mycotic, and topical-triple-therapy (diamidine, biguanid and antibiotics) in acanthamoeba keratitis...
August 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756938/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-acanthamoeba-from-patients-with-keratitis-in-spain
#4
T Martín-Pérez, A Criado-Fornelio, J Martínez, M A Blanco, I Fuentes, J Pérez-Serrano
In order to improve our knowledge on the epidemiology of amoebic keratitis, as well as the identification of Acanthamoeba isolates, we have isolated Acanthamoeba spp. from five symptomatic patients in Spain in the present study. All isolates were grown in axenic liquid medium, with only one exception. The morphology of these isolates were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Their structural features corresponded to those of amphizoic amoebae (namely Acanthamoeba spp.). The molecular characterization of the five Acanthamoeba isolates yielded six sequences...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755026/sensitivity-of-enzymatic-toxins-from-corneal-isolate-of-acanthamoeba-protozoan-to-physicochemical-parameters
#5
Viviane P Sant'Ana, Annette S Foronda, Denise de Freitas, Linda C Carrijo-Carvalho, Fábio Ramos de Souza Carvalho
Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba that causes severe corneal infection (Acanthamoeba keratitis) and produces a variety of extracellular enzymes, called exoproteome. Since physicochemical characters are suggested being associated with therapeutic profile and clinical severity of the infection, we investigated the physicochemical properties of proteolysis mediated by amoebic exoproteome. Corneal scraping was collected from a patient who showed typical symptoms of acute Acanthamoeba keratitis. Axenic amoeba was phylogenetically identified by 18S rDNA sequencing analysis...
July 28, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754142/development-and-validation-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-clinical-acanthamoebae
#6
Nessika Karsenti, Rachel Lau, Andrew Purssell, Ann Chong-Kit, Marlou Cunanan, Jason Gasgas, Jinfang Tian, Amanda Wang, Filip Ralevski, Andrea K Boggild
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal agreement between molecular assays for the detection of Acanthamoeba spp. in clinical specimens has been demonstrated, and poor assay sensitivity directly imperils the vision of those affected by amoebic keratitis (AK) through delayed diagnosis. We sought to develop and validate a single Taqman real time PCR assay targeting the Acanthamoeba 18S rRNA gene that could be used to enhance sensitivity and specificity when paired with reference assays. METHODS: Biobanked DNA from surplus delinked AK clinical specimens and 10 ATCC strains of Acanthamoeba was extracted...
July 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719947/efficient-liquid-media-for-encystation-of-pathogenic-free-living-amoebae
#7
Hae-Jin Sohn, Heekyoung Kang, Ga-Eun Seo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Suk-Yul Jung, Ho-Joon Shin
Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, are distributed worldwide. They are causative agents of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis or acanthamoebic keratitis in humans, respectively. Trophozoites encyst in unfavorable environments, such as exhausted food supply and desiccation. Until recently, the method of N. fowleri encystation used solid non-nutrient agar medium supplemented with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli; however, for the amoebic encystment of Acanthamoeba spp...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709990/in-vitro-development-of-an-effective-treatment-for-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#8
Á Ortillés, J Belloc, E Rubio, M T Fernández, M Benito, J Á Cristóbal, B Calvo, P Goñi
The aim of this study was to develop an in-vitro topical treatment for Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) effective against cysts and trophozoites. Qualitative assays were performed with voriconazole, chlorhexidine, propamidine, cellulase, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and paromomycin as monotherapy and various combinations. Riboflavin with ultraviolet-A (R + UV-A) as monotherapy or combined with voriconazole and moxifloxacin was also tested. Quantitative assays to assess cyst viability after treatment were performed for the chemicals that showed the highest activity in the qualitative assays...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708218/microbial-characteristics-of-posttraumatic-infective-keratitis
#9
Blanche X Lim, Victor T C Koh, Manotosh Ray
PURPOSE: To determine the demographics, risk factors, clinical and microbiological characteristics, and treatment outcome of posttraumatic infective keratitis. METHODS: Consecutive patients with posttraumatic infective keratitis presenting to the Ophthalmology Department of a tertiary referral hospital in Singapore between March 2012 and March 2016 were prospectively identified. A standardized data collection form was used to document patient demographics, microbiological diagnosis, antibiotic sensitivity, and pretreatment and posttreatment ocular characteristics...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704121/evaluation-of-in-vitro-antiamoebic-activity-of-antimicrobial-agents-against-clinical-acanthamoeba-isolates
#10
Hidemasa Nakaminami, Kentaro Tanuma, Kiichi Enomoto, Yukihiko Yoshimura, Tomoyo Onuki, Shin Nihonyanagi, Yukihiro Hamada, Norihisa Noguchi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to elucidate in vitro antiamoebic activity of antimicrobial agents at short exposure times similar to those used for actual treatment against Acanthamoeba strains isolated from patients with keratitis. METHODS: The 5 clinical Acanthamoeba isolated in Japan were used in this study. Identification of genotypes for the Acanthamoeba isolates was performed using partial 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), including the ASA.S1 region sequences...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691946/number-of-bacteria-and-time-of-coincubation-with-bacteria-required-for-the-development-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#11
Prabhakar Singh, Paavan Kalra, Bhupesh Bagga, Savitri Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676340/molecular-and-morphological-characterization-of-acanthamoeba-isolated-from-corneal-scrapes-and-contact-lens-wearers-in-argentina
#12
Rodolfo D Casero, Florencia Mongi, Laura Laconte, Fernando Rivero, Dario Sastre, Aníbal Teherán, Giovanny Herrera, Juan David Ramírez
In this study, we describe the frequency of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in patients that assisted in the Ophthalmology Department and determine the species/genotypes of free living amoebas (FLA) isolates. FLA from Corneal scrapes (CS) and contact lens (CL) wearers were studied by morphological and molecular characterization. A database was constructed with sociodemographic, clinical findings and history of use of CL variables. During January 2000 and September 2016 patients with corneal pathology admitted to the Ophthalmology Service of the University Hospital in Córdoba city, Argentina were included in the study...
July 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664704/human-infections-caused-by-free-living-amoebae
#13
REVIEW
Katarzyna Król-Turmińska, Alina Olender
[b]Abstract Introduction[/b]. Among free-living amoebae that are widely distributed in nature only four genera/species are known as agents of human infections:[i] Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleriafowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris[/i] and[i] Sappiniapedata[/i]. These amoebae are not well adapted to parasitism, and could exist in the human environment without the need for a host. Infections due to these amoebae, despite low morbidity, are characterized by relatively high mortality rate and pose serious clinical problems...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656012/pathobiology-and-immunobiology-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis-insights-from-animal-models%C3%A2
#14
REVIEW
Sudha Neelam, Jerry Y Niederkorn
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but sight-threatening disease caused by pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba. Despite its ubiquitous nature, the incidence of AK is relatively low compared to other forms of infectious keratitis. Although contact lens wear is a major risk factor, exposure to contaminated water and ocular trauma are also associated with AK. Once a patient develops AK the prognosis is very poor unless an aggressive treatment regimen is initiated early. Some of the intriguing features of AK are the lack of immunological memory, resistance of the dormant cyst form to treatment, differences between the pathogenic strains and soil isolates of Acanthamoeba and the unique role of the innate immune system in controlling this disease...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556202/confocal-microscopy-in-acanthamoeba-keratitis-as-an-early-relapse-marker
#15
Loay Daas, Arne Viestenz, Philipp Schnabel, Fabian N Fries, Tobias Hager, Nora Szentmáry, Berthold Seitz
Acanthameoba keratitis is a serious ophthalmological condition with a potentially vision-threatening prognosis. Early diagnosis and recognition of relapse, and the detection of persistent acanthamoeba cysts, are essential for informing the prognosis and managing the condition. We suggest the use of in-vivo confocal microscopy not only to identify the early signs of relapse after keratoplasty in patients with acanthamoeba keratitis, but also as an additional follow-up tool after antimicrobial crosslinking. This study shows that in-vivo confocal microscopy is, in experienced hands, a quick and reliable diagnostic tool...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542085/quantitative-analysis-of-depth-distribution-and-density-of-cysts-in-acanthamoeba-keratitis-using-confocal-microscopy
#16
Ping Huang, Tudor Tepelus, Laura A Vickers, Elmira Baghdasaryan, Jianyan Huang, John A Irvine, Hugo Y Hsu, Srinivas Sadda, Olivia L Lee
PURPOSE: To quantify the density, distribution, and depth of invasion of cysts in the corneas of eyes with acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) with a novel scanning pattern. METHODS: The medical records of patients with AK evaluated at the Doheny Eye Center UCLA between September 2014 and July 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with clinically diagnosed AK underwent IVCM at various time points during their clinical course...
May 23, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534320/infectious-keratitis-and-orthokeratology-lens-use-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Ka Wai Kam, Wing Yung, Gabriel Ka Hin Li, Li Jia Chen, Alvin L Young
PURPOSE: Myopia is a prevalent condition among Asians. Orthokeratology lens has gained popularity as a method of myopia control. This systematic review is to summarize the clinical profile of infectious keratitis in association with orthokeratology lens wear. METHODS: We searched in the PubMed and EMBASE for articles adopting the search strategy "(orthokeratology lens OR orthokeratology) AND (bacterial eye infection OR keratitis OR cornea ulcer OR microbial keratitis OR bacterial keratitis)", from the start date of the databases to August 23, 2016...
May 22, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489721/tear-cytokine-levels-in-contact-lens-wearers-with-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#18
Nicole Carnt, Vicente M Montanez, Grazyna Galatowicz, Neyme Veli, Virginia Calder
PURPOSE: To determine differences in key tear film cytokines between mild and severe cases of acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and control contact lens (CL) wearers. METHODS: This was a prospective study of CL wearers with AK attending Moorfields Eye Hospital and control CL wearers from the Institute of Optometry, London. Basal tear specimens were collected by 10-μL capillary tubes (BLAUBRAND intraMark, Wertheim, Germany), and tear protein levels were measured with a multiplex magnetic bead array (Luminex 100; Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX) for cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17E, IL-17F, IL-22, and interferon gamma and with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Abcam, Cambridge, United Kingdom) for CXCL2...
July 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486311/free-living-amoebae-keratitis
#19
Antonio Pinna, Tiziana Porcu, Francesco Boscia, Antonella Cano, Giuseppe Erre, Antonella Mattana
PURPOSE: To describe the diagnostic and clinical features and treatment results in 43 consecutive patients with microbiologically proven free-living amoebae (FLA) keratitis. METHODS: In this hospital-based, prospective case series, corneal scrapings from 43 patients with presumed amoebic keratitis were plated on nonnutrient agar. Amoebic isolates were identified morphologically and by the polymerase chain reaction. All patients with culture-proven FLA keratitis were treated with polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) 0...
July 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472161/adhesion-forces-and-mechanics-in-mannose-mediated-acanthamoeba-interactions
#20
Steven Huth, Julia F Reverey, Matthias Leippe, Christine Selhuber-Unkel
The human pathogenic amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii) causes severe diseases, including acanthamoeba keratitis and encephalitis. Pathogenicity arises from the killing of target-cells by an extracellular killing mechanism, where the crucial first step is the formation of a close contact between A. castellanii and the target-cell. This process is mediated by the glycocalix of the target-cell and mannose has been identified as key mediator. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed biophysical investigation of mannose-mediated adhesion of A...
2017: PloS One
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