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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325183/antiherpetic-drugs-in-equine-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Lara K Maxwell
Since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. Drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. Oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for EHV-5 infection in the therapy of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320407/association-between-sensitivity-of-viral-thymidine-kinase-associated-acyclovir-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-and-virulence
#2
Natsumi Omura, Hikaru Fujii, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Souichi Yamada, Shizuko Harada, Takuya Inagaki, Miho Shibamura, Haruko Takeyama, Masayuki Saijo
BACKGROUND: Acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACVr) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections are concern in immunocompromised patients. Most clinical ACVr HSV-1 isolates have mutations in the viral thymidine kinase (vTK) genes. The vTK-associated ACVr HSV-1 shows reduced virulence, but the association between the level of resistance and the virulence of the vTK-associated ACVr HSV-1 is still unclear. METHODS: The virulence in mice of 5 vTK-associated ACVr HSV-1 clones with a variety of ACV sensitivities, when inoculated through intracerebral and corneal routes, was evaluated in comparison with ACV-sensitive (ACVs) parent HSV-1 TAS...
March 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303825/evaluation-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#3
Abhishek Mewara, Sumeeta Khurana, Shakila Yoonus, Kirti Megha, Parveen Tanwar, Amit Gupta, Rakesh Sehgal
BACKGROUND: The clinical features of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) are non-specific and closely resemble bacterial, viral and fungal keratitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with microscopy, non-nutrient agar (NNA) culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in clinical suspects of AK. RESULTS: Of 52 clinical samples (42 AK suspects and 10 proven bacterial, viral or fungal keratitis), 3 were positive by direct microscopy (sensitivity 60%, confidence interval [CI]: 17%-92...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263674/human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-and-eye-diseases
#4
Yukiko Terada, Koju Kamoi, Takashi Komizo, Kazunori Miyata, Manabu Mochizuki
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1, also known as human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is a retrovirus that encodes a reverse transcriptase, which translates viral RNA into a DNA provirus that is integrated into the host genome. The virus was found to be a causative agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) in the early 1980s, and was also found to cause the neurological disorder tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP)/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) and the inflammatory disorder HTLV-1 uveitis in the mid 1980s and early 1990s, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176902/herpes-simplex-keratitis-challenges-in-diagnosis-and-clinical-management
#5
REVIEW
Tayaba N Azher, Xiao-Tang Yin, Deena Tajfirouz, Andrew Jw Huang, Patrick M Stuart
Herpes simplex virus is responsible for numerous ocular diseases, the most common of which is herpetic stromal keratitis. This is a recurrent infection of the cornea that typically begins with a subclinical infection of the cornea that establishes a latent infection of sensory ganglia, most often the trigeminal ganglia. Recurring infections occur when the virus is reactivated from latency and travels back to the cornea, where it restimulates an inflammatory response. This inflammatory response can lead to decreased corneal sensation, scarring, and blindness...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115874/optic-neuritis-and-acute-anterior-uveitis-associated-with-influenza-a-infection-a-case-report
#6
Hayate Nakagawa, Hidetaka Noma, Osamu Kotake, Ryosuke Motohashi, Kanako Yasuda, Masahiko Shimura
BACKGROUND: A few reports have described ocular complications of influenza A infection, such as impaired ocular movement, parasympathetic ocular nerve, keratitis, macular lesion, and frosted branch angiitis. We encountered a rare case of acute anterior uveitis and optic neuritis associated with influenza A infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old man presented with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. A rapid diagnostic test showed a positive result for influenza A...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115476/long-term-consequences-of-topical-dexamethasone-treatment-during-acute-corneal-hsv-1-infection-on-the-immune-system
#7
Ana J Chucair-Elliott, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis (NTK). NTK is characterized by decreased corneal sensation from damage to the corneal sensory fibers. We have reported on the regression of corneal nerves and their function during acute HSV-1 infection. That nerve loss is followed by an aberrant process of nerve regeneration during the latent phase of infection that lacks functional recovery. We recently showed the elicited immune response in the infected cornea, and not viral replication itself, is part of the mechanism responsible for the nerve degeneration process after infection...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989423/-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-contribution-of-microbiological-analysis-in-severe-microbial-keratitis-at-reims-university-hospital-between-2012%C3%A2-and-2014
#8
J Caliot, D Guindolet, A Ducasse, L Andreoletti, C Arndt
PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of microbial analysis in the diagnosis and management of severe microbial keratitis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This is a monocentric retrospective study at the University Hospital of Reims from January 2012 to December 2014. Corneal scrapings with infectious keratitis were subjected to routine bacterial and fungal culture. PCR was also performed to detect various viral DNA (VZV, CMV, EBV, HSV 1 & 2, adenovirus) and Acanthamoeba sp...
December 15, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987408/label-free-electrical-sensing-of-bacteria-in-eye-wash-samples-a-step-towards-point-of-care-detection-of-pathogens-in-patients-with-infectious-keratitis
#9
Hardik J Pandya, Manoj Kumar Kanakasabapathy, Saloni Verma, Manjyot Kaur Chug, Adnan Memic, Mihaela Gadjeva, Hadi Shafiee
The diagnosis of keratitis is based on visual exam, tissue cytology, and standard microbial culturing to determine the type of the infectious pathogen. To prescribe appropriate therapy, it is important to distinguish between bacterial, fungal, and viral keratitis, as the treatments are quite different. Diagnosis of the causative organism has a substantial prognostic importance. Further, timely knowledge of the nature of the pathogen is also critical to adapt therapy in patients unresponsive to empiric treatment options, which occurs in 10% of all cases...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982205/microbiological-and-epidemiological-study-of-infectious-keratitis-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
Maria Cecilia Zorat Yu, Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima, Guilherme Henrique Campos Furtado
Purpose: To analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of microbial keratitis in children and adolescents. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, between July 15, 1975, and December 31, 2010. We analyzed corneal samples from 859 patients with clinical suspicion of infectious keratitis, comparing epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of bacterial keratitis with those of non-bacterial and non-viral keratitis...
September 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929720/unclassified-axenfeld-rieger-syndrome-a-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#11
Aparna Rao, Debananda Padhy, Sarada Sarangi, Gopinath Das
PURPOSE: To report anterior segment features in unclassified anterior segment dysgenesis with overlapping features of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome and other developmental anomalies. METHODS: This retrospective study included those with atypical or overlapping features in one or both eyes, which were identified as unclassified ASD. Typical ARS was defined as the presence of posterior embryotoxon with or without iris changes like stromal hypoplasia, corectopia, polycoria, or ectropion uvea with or without systemic features...
December 8, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914659/corneal-collagen-cross-linking-a-review-of-its-clinical-applications
#12
K Balparda, M J Maldonado
OBJECTIVE: To perform a literature review of the current clinical applications of corneal collagen cross-linking. METHODS: An exhaustive literature search was made, including the main biomedical databases, and encompassing all years since the introduction of cross-linking in ophthalmology practice. RESULTS: Corneal collagen cross-linking using UVA irradiation and riboflavin is a surgical technique that is currently being optimised, and is supported by a good amount of pre-clinical and clinical studies...
November 30, 2016: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902849/oral-antivirals-for-preventing-recurrent-herpes-simplex-keratitis-in-people-with-corneal-grafts
#13
REVIEW
Uday K Bhatt, M N Abdul Karim, Jeremy I Prydal, Senthil V Maharajan, Usama Fares
BACKGROUND: Ocular herpes is a viral infection of the eye caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), a double-stranded DNA virus. Corneal scarring caused by herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is the leading infectious cause of penetrating corneal graft in high-income countries. Acyclovir is an antiviral drug known to have a protective effect against recurrences in herpetic eye disease. While there are some studies which have evaluated the effects of intervention with oral antiviral in preventing such recurrences in people with corneal grafts, a systematic review of all comparative clinical trials has not been previously undertaken...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798158/loss-of-neurokinin-1-receptor-alters-ocular-surface-homeostasis-and-promotes-an-early-development-of-herpes-stromal-keratitis
#14
Subhash Gaddipati, Pushpa Rao, Andrew David Jerome, Bala Bharathi Burugula, Norma P Gerard, Susmit Suvas
Substance P neuropeptide and its receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), are reported to present on the ocular surface. In this study, mice lacking functional NK1R exhibited an excessive desquamation of apical corneal epithelial cells in association with an increased epithelial cell proliferation and increased epithelial cell density, but decreased epithelial cell size. The lack of NK1R also resulted in decreased density of corneal nerves, corneal epithelial dendritic cells (DCs), and a reduced volume of basal tears...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777806/ochrobactrum-anthropi-keratitis-with-focal-descemet-s-membrane-detachment-and-intracorneal-hypopyon
#15
Nandini Venkateswaran, Rachel A F Wozniak, Holly B Hindman
Purpose. To describe a unique case of O. anthropi keratitis associated with a rare manifestation of Descemet's membrane detachment and intracorneal hypopyon and to discuss challenges in diagnosis and management. Methods. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured with Snellen letters. Corneal scrapings were performed and aerobic, viral, herpetic, acid-fast bacilli, Acanthamoeba, and fungal stains and cultures were obtained. Following evisceration, tissue was evaluated for histologic features and again stained for bacteria, mycobacteria, Acanthamoeba, fungi, and viral particles...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766030/lacrimal-duct-occlusion-is-associated-with-infectious-keratitis
#16
Guigang Li, Jingmin Guo, Rong Liu, Weikun Hu, Lingjuan Xu, Juan Wang, Subo Cai, Hong Zhang, Yingting Zhu
Background: To explore the prevalence of lacrimal duct obstruction in patients with infectious keratitis, and the necessity of lacrimal duct dredge in the treatment of human infectious keratitis. Methodology/Principle Findings: The design is prospective, non-control case series. Thirty-one eyes from twenty-eight continuous patients with infectious keratitis were included in this study. The presence/absence of lacrimal duct obstruction was determined by the lacrimal duct irrigation test. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was made based on clinical manifestations, cornea scraping microscopic examination and bacterial/fungus culture...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688274/clinical-spectrum-diagnostic-criteria-and-polymerase-chain-reaction-of-aqueous-humor-in-viral-and-toxoplasma-detection-in-fuchs-uveitis-syndrome
#17
Swapnali Sabhapandit, Somasheila I Murthy, Praveen K Balne, Virender Singh Sangwan, V Sumanth, Ashok K Reddy
AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and diagnostic criteria of Fuchs' uveitis (FU) and to determine whether it has an association with virus and toxoplasma in the aqueous humor during cataract surgery. SETTING AND DESIGN: This is a prospective, case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with FU (n = 25), anterior uveitis (n = 15), and no uveitis (normal) (n = 50) were included based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria for all three groups...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681121/immune-and-nonimmune-compartment-specific-interferon-responses-are-critical-determinants-of-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-generalized-infections-and-acute-liver-failure
#18
Zachary M Parker, Tracy Jo Pasieka, George A Parker, David A Leib
The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure, which is often fatal. Although herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537375/volatile-organic-compound-gamma-butyrolactone-released-upon-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-acute-infection-modulated-membrane-potential-and-repressed-viral-infection-in-human-neuron-like-cells
#19
Kevin Rochford, Feng Chen, Yan Waguespack, Robert W Figliozzi, Madan K Kharel, Qiaojuan Zhang, Miguel Martin-Caraballo, S Victor Hsia
Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528076/role-of-myd88-in-adenovirus-keratitis
#20
Xiaohong Zhou, Mirja Ramke, Ashish V Chintakuntlawar, Jeong Yoon Lee, Jaya Rajaiya, James Chodosh
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical to the early detection and innate immune responses to pathogens. In particular, the toll-like receptor (TLR) system and its associated adaptor proteins have essential roles in early host responses to infection. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, caused by the human adenovirus, is a severe ocular surface infection associated with corneal inflammation (stromal keratitis). We previously showed that adenovirus capsid was a key molecular pattern in adenovirus keratitis, with viral DNA having a lesser role...
January 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
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