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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914659/corneal-collagen-cross-linking-a-review-of-its-clinical-applications
#1
K Balparda, M J Maldonado
OBJECTIVE: To perform a literature review of the current clinical applications of corneal collagen cross-linking. METHODS: An exhaustive literature search was made, including the main biomedical databases, and encompassing all years since the introduction of cross-linking in ophthalmology practice. RESULTS: Corneal collagen cross-linking using UVA irradiation and riboflavin is a surgical technique that is currently being optimised, and is supported by a good amount of pre-clinical and clinical studies...
November 30, 2016: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902849/oral-antivirals-for-preventing-recurrent-herpes-simplex-keratitis-in-people-with-corneal-grafts
#2
REVIEW
Uday K Bhatt, M N Abdul Karim, Jeremy I Prydal, Senthil V Maharajan, Usama Fares
BACKGROUND: Ocular herpes is a viral infection of the eye caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), a double-stranded DNA virus. Corneal scarring caused by herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is the leading infectious cause of penetrating corneal graft in high-income countries. Acyclovir is an antiviral drug known to have a protective effect against recurrences in herpetic eye disease. While there are some studies which have evaluated the effects of intervention with oral antiviral in preventing such recurrences in people with corneal grafts, a systematic review of all comparative clinical trials has not been previously undertaken...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798158/loss-of-neurokinin-1-receptor-alters-ocular-surface-homeostasis-and-promotes-an-early-development-of-herpes-stromal-keratitis
#3
Subhash Gaddipati, Pushpa Rao, Andrew David Jerome, Bala Bharathi Burugula, Norma P Gerard, Susmit Suvas
Substance P neuropeptide and its receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), are reported to present on the ocular surface. In this study, mice lacking functional NK1R exhibited an excessive desquamation of apical corneal epithelial cells in association with an increased epithelial cell proliferation and increased epithelial cell density, but decreased epithelial cell size. The lack of NK1R also resulted in decreased density of corneal nerves, corneal epithelial dendritic cells (DCs), and a reduced volume of basal tears...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777806/ochrobactrum-anthropi-keratitis-with-focal-descemet-s-membrane-detachment-and-intracorneal-hypopyon
#4
Nandini Venkateswaran, Rachel A F Wozniak, Holly B Hindman
Purpose. To describe a unique case of O. anthropi keratitis associated with a rare manifestation of Descemet's membrane detachment and intracorneal hypopyon and to discuss challenges in diagnosis and management. Methods. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured with Snellen letters. Corneal scrapings were performed and aerobic, viral, herpetic, acid-fast bacilli, Acanthamoeba, and fungal stains and cultures were obtained. Following evisceration, tissue was evaluated for histologic features and again stained for bacteria, mycobacteria, Acanthamoeba, fungi, and viral particles...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766030/lacrimal-duct-occlusion-is-associated-with-infectious-keratitis
#5
Guigang Li, Jingmin Guo, Rong Liu, Weikun Hu, Lingjuan Xu, Juan Wang, Subo Cai, Hong Zhang, Yingting Zhu
Background: To explore the prevalence of lacrimal duct obstruction in patients with infectious keratitis, and the necessity of lacrimal duct dredge in the treatment of human infectious keratitis. Methodology/Principle Findings: The design is prospective, non-control case series. Thirty-one eyes from twenty-eight continuous patients with infectious keratitis were included in this study. The presence/absence of lacrimal duct obstruction was determined by the lacrimal duct irrigation test. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was made based on clinical manifestations, cornea scraping microscopic examination and bacterial/fungus culture...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688274/clinical-spectrum-diagnostic-criteria-and-polymerase-chain-reaction-of-aqueous-humor-in-viral-and-toxoplasma-detection-in-fuchs-uveitis-syndrome
#6
Swapnali Sabhapandit, Somasheila I Murthy, Praveen K Balne, Virender Singh Sangwan, V Sumanth, Ashok K Reddy
AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and diagnostic criteria of Fuchs' uveitis (FU) and to determine whether it has an association with virus and toxoplasma in the aqueous humor during cataract surgery. SETTING AND DESIGN: This is a prospective, case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with FU (n = 25), anterior uveitis (n = 15), and no uveitis (normal) (n = 50) were included based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria for all three groups...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681121/immune-and-nonimmune-compartment-specific-interferon-responses-are-critical-determinants-of-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-generalized-infections-and-acute-liver-failure
#7
Zachary M Parker, Tracy Jo Pasieka, George A Parker, David A Leib
: The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure, which is often fatal. Although herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537375/volatile-organic-compound-gamma-butyrolactone-released-upon-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-acute-infection-modulated-membrane-potential-and-repressed-viral-infection-in-human-neuron-like-cells
#8
Kevin Rochford, Feng Chen, Yan Waguespack, Robert W Figliozzi, Madan K Kharel, Qiaojuan Zhang, Miguel Martin-Caraballo, S Victor Hsia
Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528076/role-of-myd88-in-adenovirus-keratitis
#9
Xiaohong Zhou, Mirja Ramke, Ashish V Chintakuntlawar, Jeong Yoon Lee, Jaya Rajaiya, James Chodosh
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical to the early detection and innate immune responses to pathogens. In particular, the TLR system and its associated adaptor proteins play essential roles in early host responses to infection. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, caused by the human adenovirus, is a severe ocular surface infection associated with corneal inflammation (stromal keratitis). We previously showed that adenovirus capsid was a key molecular pattern in adenovirus keratitis, with viral DNA playing a lesser role...
August 16, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497323/il-6-contributes-to-corneal-nerve-degeneration-after-herpes-simplex-virus-type-i-infection
#10
Ana J Chucair-Elliott, Jeremy Jinkins, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis characterized by decreased corneal sensation because of damage to the corneal sensory fibers. We and others have reported regression of corneal nerves during acute HSV-1 infection. To determine whether denervation is caused directly by the virus or indirectly by the elicited immune response, mice were infected with HSV-1 and topically treated with dexamethasone (DEX) or control eye drops. Corneal sensitivity was measured using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer and nerve network structure via immunohistochemistry...
October 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362483/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-of-herpesviruses-limits-productive-and-latent-infections
#11
Ferdy R van Diemen, Elisabeth M Kruse, Marjolein J G Hooykaas, Carlijn E Bruggeling, Anita C Schürch, Petra M van Ham, Saskia M Imhof, Monique Nijhuis, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz, Robert Jan Lebbink
Herpesviruses infect the majority of the human population and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 causes cold sores and herpes simplex keratitis, whereas HSV-2 is responsible for genital herpes. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common viral cause of congenital defects and is responsible for serious disease in immuno-compromised individuals. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a broad range of malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin's disease, and post-transplant lymphomas...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306564/antiviral-resistance-in-herpes-simplex-virus-and-varicella-zoster-virus-infections-diagnosis-and-management
#12
Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aciclovir (ACV) is the first-line drug for the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Long-term administration of ACV for the treatment of severe infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to the development of drug resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of isolates resistant to ACV is increasingly recognized in immunocompetent individuals with herpetic keratitis. This review describes the mechanisms involved in drug resistance for HSV and VZV, the laboratory diagnosis and management of patients with infections refractory to ACV therapy...
June 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273328/herpes-simplex-virus-keratitis-an-update-of-the-pathogenesis-and-current-treatment-with-oral-and-topical-antiviral-agents
#13
Michael Tsatsos, Cheryl MacGregor, Ioannis Athanasiadis, Marilita M Moschos, Parwez Hossain, David Anderson
Ophthalmic herpes simplex viral keratitis (HSVK) is responsible for a range of ocular manifestations from superficial epithelial disease to stromal keratitis and endotheliitis. The Herpetic Eye Disease Study (HEDS) has guided the management of herpetic eye disease for almost twenty years, but newer medications such as valacyclovir are now available and are considered to have better bioavailability than acyclovir. In this review, we examine the existing evidence on the pathogenesis of different HSVK disease modalities and the role of oral and topically administered antiviral drugs in the treatment of herpes simplex viral keratitis...
June 8, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262904/a-novel-rare-sugar-inhibitor-of-murine-herpes-simplex-keratitis
#14
Syed Muniruzzaman, Megan McIntosh, Ahamed Hossain, Ken Izumori, Partha S Bhattacharjee
PURPOSE: To determine the therapeutic efficacy of a novel rare sugar, l-psicose, for the treatment of HSV-1 induced herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) in a mouse eye model. METHODS: One rare sugar l-psicose was assayed for HSV-1 inhibition of in vitro virus adsorption. The IC50 and IC90 values of l-psicose were determined using plaque reduction assay (PRA) in CV-1 cell. Female Balb/c mice were corneally infected with HSV-1, strain KOS-GFP; A topical eye drop treatment of l-psicose was started 24 h after infection and continued four times daily for ten consecutive days...
June 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236644/clinical-and-corneal-microbial-profile-of-infectious-keratitis-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting-in-rural-south-africa
#15
E Schaftenaar, R P H Peters, G S Baarsma, C Meenken, N S Khosa, S Getu, J A McIntyre, A D M E Osterhaus, G M G M Verjans
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the clinical and corneal microbial profile of infectious keratitis in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence setting in rural South Africa. Data in this cross-sectional study were collected from patients presenting with symptoms of infectious keratitis (n = 46) at the ophthalmology outpatient department of three hospitals in rural South Africa. Corneal swabs were tested for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and adenovirus DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for bacteria and fungi by culture...
September 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194904/risk-factors-for-visual-impairment-associated-with-corneal-diseases-in-southern-china
#16
Sarah C Xu, Jessica Chow, Ji Liu, Liang Li, Jessica S Maslin, Nisha Chadha, Baihua Chen, Christopher C Teng
PURPOSE: To identify the most common etiologies of corneal disease and the risk factors associated with worse visual outcomes in Changsha, Hunan, located in southern China. METHODS: This observational, cross-sectional study evaluated 100 consecutive patients seen at the cornea clinic of The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. Ocular history, demographic information, and ocular use of traditional Chinese medicine were recorded and analyzed. Causes of infectious keratitis were diagnosed clinically...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170749/both-cd8-and-cd4-t-cells-contribute-to-corneal-clouding-and-viral-clearance-following-vaccinia-virus-infection-in-c57bl-6-mice
#17
I V Larsen, H Clausius, A W Kolb, C R Brandt
UNLABELLED: Vaccinia virus (VACV) keratitis is a serious complication following smallpox vaccination and can lead to blindness. The pathological mechanisms involved in ocular VACV infection are poorly understood. Previous studies have used rabbits, but the lack of immune reagents and transgenic or knockout animals makes them less suitable for mechanistic studies. We report that infection of C57BL/6 mice with 1 × 10(7) PFU of vaccinia virus strain WR results in blepharitis, corneal neovascularization, and stromal keratitis...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138638/infections-after-refractive-surgery
#18
Zeeshan Haq, Asim V Farooq, Andrew J W Huang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide a summary of the recent literature concerning infections after refractive surgery pertinent to each procedure category. RECENT FINDINGS: New data from a large retrospective study suggest that the incidence of post-laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis infectious keratitis is declining. Additionally, recent case studies have reported viral, fungal, and Acanthamoeba pathogens. Corneal collagen cross-linking is emerging as an alternative therapeutic option for early stage post-LASIK infectious keratitis...
July 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126382/a-diagnostic-method-for-herpes-simplex-keratitis-by-simultaneous-measurement-of-viral-dna-and-virus-specific-secretory-iga-in-tears-an-evaluation
#19
Jun Shoji, Tohru Sakimoto, Noriko Inada, Yuko Kamei, Masao Matsubara, Etsuko Takamura, Mitsuru Sawa
PURPOSE: We performed simultaneous measurement of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and of HSV-specific secretory IgA antibody (HSV-sIgA) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in tears obtained using Schirmer strips in order to investigate its diagnostic efficacy for herpes simplex keratitis (HSK). METHODS: A total of 59 affected eyes from 59 patients with clinically suspected HSK (HSK group) and 23 eyes from 23 healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study...
July 2016: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030264/a-highly-efficacious-herpes-simplex-virus-1-vaccine-blocks-viral-pathogenesis-and-prevents-corneal-immunopathology-via-humoral-immunity
#20
Derek J Royer, Hem R Gurung, Jeremy K Jinkins, Joshua J Geltz, Jennifer L Wu, William P Halford, Daniel J J Carr
UNLABELLED: Correlates of immunologic protection requisite for an efficacious herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) vaccine remain unclear with respect to viral pathogenesis and clinical disease. In the present study, mice were vaccinated with a novel avirulent, live attenuated virus (0ΔNLS) or an adjuvanted glycoprotein D subunit (gD-2) similar to that used in several human clinical trials. Mice vaccinated with 0ΔNLS showed superior protection against early viral replication, neuroinvasion, latency, and mortality compared to that of gD-2-vaccinated or naive mice following ocular challenge with a neurovirulent clinical isolate of HSV-1...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
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