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Viral keratitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129651/dendritic-cells-in-the-cornea-during-herpes-simplex-viral-infection-and-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Min S Kwon, Nicole A Carnt, Naomi R Truong, Ushasree Pattamatta, Andrew J White, Chameen Samarawickrama, Anthony L Cunningham
Herpes simplex keratitis is commonly caused by Herpes simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1), which primarily infects eyelids, corneas or conjunctiva. HSV-1- through sophisticated interactions with dendritic cells (DCs), a type of antigen-presenting cell)-initiates pro-inflammatory responses in the cornea. Corneas were once thought to be an immune privileged region; however, with the recent discovery of DCs that reside in the cornea, this long held conjecture has been overturned. Therefore, evaluating the clinical, preclinical, and cell-based studies that investigate the roles of DCs in corneas infected with HSV is critical...
November 9, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023181/review-for-disease-of-the-year-varicella-zoster-virus-induced-anterior-uveitis
#2
Ilknur Tugal-Tutkun, Luca Cimino, Yonca Aydin Akova
Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-induced anterior uveitis (AU) may complicate the course of primary varicella infection typically seen in children. In adults, especially with advanced age, VZV AU is more commonly associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) with or without skin rash affecting the distribution of the ophthalmic nerve due to reactivation of the latent VZV in the trigeminal ganglion. While it is typically a mild self-limiting AU in primary infection, HZO AU is often accompanied by keratitis, may have a chronic recurrent course, and lead to sectoral iris atrophy, pupillary distortion, and ocular hypertension...
October 12, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022964/nocardia-arthritidis-keratitis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Andrew Gieger, Stephen Waller, Joseph Pasternak
INTRODUCTION: Keratitis due to Nocardia infection is not commonly encountered in clinical practice and may therefore be mistaken for fungal or viral keratitis leading to delayed treatment and increased risk of permanent visual impairment. CASE: An otherwise healthy 27 years old Caucasian Active Duty military member presented to the clinic with three days of light sensitivity and irritation of his right eye. He carried a history of PRK in both eyes six years prior and admitted to recent contact lens overuse...
January 2017: Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022953/pattern-of-corneal-diseases-in-paediatric-age-group-at-a-tertiary-eye-care-center-in-nepal
#4
A Shah, M Chaudhary, J K Shrestha
OBJECTIVE: It is to study the pattern of corneal diseases (including injuries) in paediatric population in a tertiary eye care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out in a tertiary eye care center which included 176 cases. RESULTS: Out of 176 cases studied, 6 cases (3.4%) presented with congenital causes, 4 cases (2.27%) were of dystrophy and ectasia, 63 cases (35.79%) had infective origin, 17 cases (9...
January 2017: Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965660/assessment-of-confocal-microscopy-for-the-diagnosis-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-positive-acanthamoeba-keratitis-a-case-control-study
#5
Sophie De Craene, Juliette Knoeri, Cristina Georgeon, Philippe Kestelyn, Vincent M Borderie
PURPOSE: To determine in vivo confocal microscopy diagnostic criteria to diagnose Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference diagnostic technique. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. Data were recorded prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty patients with PCR-positive AK (study group) and 50 patients with bacterial, fungal, viral, or immune keratitis featuring negative Acanthamoeba PCR results (control group)...
September 28, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942662/-ophthalmological-symptoms-of-measles-and-their-treatment
#6
Mihály Végh, András Hári-Kovács, Hans-Walter Roth, Andrea Facskó
Measles, caused by the Morbilli virus, is a highly (about 95 %) contagious disease affecting primarily children, but without proper immunisation, adults can also be infected. The leading symptoms of the disease are high fever that presents after an incubation period of 9-10 days and the red rash that begins several days after the fever starts. Beyond specific generalized symptoms, measles may have ocular symptoms. The most commonly occurring conjunctivitis, the so-called "red eye symptom", is not characteristic only for measles infection, however, by taking the generalized symptoms it can suggest the diagnosis at the beginning of the disease...
October 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942073/update-on-the-management-of-infectious-keratitis
#7
REVIEW
Ariana Austin, Tom Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
Infectious keratitis is a major global cause of visual impairment and blindness, often affecting marginalized populations. Proper diagnosis of the causative organism is critical, and although culture remains the prevailing diagnostic tool, newer techniques such as in vivo confocal microscopy are helpful for diagnosing fungus and Acanthamoeba. Next-generation sequencing holds the potential for early and accurate diagnosis even for organisms that are difficult to culture by conventional methods. Topical antibiotics remain the best treatment for bacterial keratitis, and a recent review found all commonly prescribed topical antibiotics to be equally effective...
November 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939476/recurrent-herpetic-keratitis-despite-antiviral-prophylaxis-a-virological-and-pharmacological-study
#8
Antoine Rousseau, David Boutolleau, Karine Titier, Tristan Bourcier, Christophe Chiquet, Michel Weber, Joseph Colin, Julie Gueudry, Mohamed M'Garrech, Bahram Bodaghi, Sonia Burrel, Henri Agut, Claire Deback, Marc Labetoulle
Recurrent herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is a leading infectious cause of blindness in industrialized countries. Antiviral prophylaxis (AVP) may fail to prevent recurrence of HSK due to viral resistance, inadequate dosing, or poor patient compliance. In this prospective multicenter study, we enrolled immunocompetent patients with recurrent HSK despite AVP. Ocular samples were tested by PCR for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 drug resistance was assessed with a genotypic assay based on UL23 and UL30 gene sequencing...
October 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916457/in-vitro-activity-of-1h-phenalen-1-one-derivatives-against-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff-and-their-mechanisms-of-cell-death
#9
Atteneri López-Arencibia, María Reyes-Batlle, Mónica Blanco Freijo, Grant McNaughton-Smith, Patricia Martín-Rodríguez, Leandro Fernández-Pérez, Ines Sifaoui, Carolina Wagner, Ana B García-Méndez, Aitor Rizo Liendo, Carlos J Bethencourt-Estrella, Teresa Abad-Grillo, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen which is the causal agent of a sight-threatening ulceration of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and, more rarely, an infection of the central nervous system called "granulomatous amoebic encephalitis" (GAE). The symptoms of AK are non-specific, and so it can be misdiagnosed as a viral, bacterial, or fungal keratitis. Furthermore, current therapeutic measures against AK are arduous, and show limited efficacy against the cyst stage of Acanthamoeba. 1H-Phenalen-1-one (PH) containing compounds have been isolated from plants and fungi, where they play a crucial role in the defense mechanism of plants...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903153/colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-expressing-cells-infiltrating-the-cornea-control-corneal-nerve-degeneration-in-response-to-hsv-1-infection
#10
Ana J Chucair-Elliott, Hem R Gurung, Meghan M Carr, Daniel J J Carr
Purpose: Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis, characterized by decreased or absent corneal sensation due to damage to the sensory corneal innervation. We previously reported the elicited immune response to infection contributes to the mechanism of corneal nerve regression/damage during acute HSV-1 infection. Our aim is to further establish the involvement of infiltrated macrophages in the mechanism of nerve loss upon infection. Methods: Macrophage Fas-Induced Apoptosis (MAFIA) transgenic C57BL/6 mice were systemically treated with AP20187 dimerizer or vehicle (VEH), and their corneas, lymph nodes, and blood were assessed for CD45+CD11b+GFP+ cell depletion by flow cytometry (FC)...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852187/in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-of-posner-schlossman-syndrome-comparison-with-herpes-simplex-keratitis-hla-b27-anterior-uveitis-and-acute-attack-of-primary-angle-closure
#11
Ying Hong, Miao Wang, Lingling Wu
To investigate in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) findings in patients with Posner-Schlossman Syndrome (PSS), we compared the IVCM findings from the eyes of patients with: PSS (44 eyes); herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) (45 eyes); HLA-B27 anterior uveitis (B27AU) (45 eyes); and with acute attack of primary angle closure (aPAC) (43 eyes). The central Langerhans cells (LCs) grade at the level of corneal basal epithelial cells of the PSS group (2.33 ± 0.55) was similar to that of the HSK group (2.63 ± 0...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837183/keratitis-in-association-with-herpes-zoster-and-varicella-vaccines
#12
A P Grillo, F W Fraunfelder
The objective of this review was to collect reports of keratitis in association with herpes zoster virus (HZV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccines. HZV vaccination is intended for at-risk adult populations and VZV vaccination is intended for all pediatric patients. We reviewed the literature and reports of keratitis in association with herpes zoster or varicella vaccine from the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects and the World Health Organization. Twenty-four cases of unilateral keratitis in association with VZV vaccines were collected from the adverse reaction databases and literature...
July 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710254/the-plasticity-and-stability-of-regulatory-t-cells-during-viral-induced-inflammatory-lesions
#13
Siddheshvar Bhela, Siva Karthik Varanasi, Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Sarah S Sloan, Naveen K Rajasagi, Barry T Rouse
Ocular infection with HSV causes a chronic T cell-mediated inflammatory lesion in the cornea. Lesion severity is affected by the balance of different CD4 T cell subsets, with greater severity occurring when the activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is compromised. In this study, fate-mapping mice were used to assess the stability of Treg function in ocular lesions. We show that cells that were once Foxp3(+) functional Tregs may lose Foxp3 and become Th1 cells that could contribute to lesion expression. The instability primarily occurred with IL-2R(lo) Tregs and was shown, in part, to be the consequence of exposure to IL-12...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704321/observation-of-retrocorneal-plaques-in-patients-with-infectious-keratitis-using-anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography
#14
Yuki Takezawa, Takashi Suzuki, Atsushi Shiraishi
PURPOSE: Endothelial plaques are a typical characteristic in patients with fungal keratitis. However, bacterial keratitis and herpetic keratouveitis are rarely associated with fibrin formation on the retrocorneal surface. This study was conducted to examine plaques attached to the endothelium in patients with infectious keratitis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). METHODS: Seventeen patients (10 women and 7 men; mean age, 75 ± 15.5 years) suspected to have infectious keratitis with retrocorneal plaques were included...
October 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687682/bilateral-interstitial-keratitis-with-anterior-stromal-infiltrates-associated-with-reactive-arthritis
#15
Yi Eve Hsing, James Walker
A previously healthy 48-year-old man presented with a 1-week history of migrating polyarthropathy preceded by a viral illness, dysuria and bilateral red eyes. Ocular examination revealed anterior and interstitial stromal keratitis. He was systemically well but had raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein and was positive for human leucocyte antigen B27 on extensive infective, rheumatological and autoimmune investigations. Although the exact triggering pathogen was not identified, clinical findings were consistent with reactive arthritis...
July 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637763/analysis-of-herpes-simplex-virus-reactivation-in-explant-reveals-a-method-dependent-difference-in-measured-timing-of-reactivation
#16
Jessica R Doll, Nancy M Sawtell
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is widespread in the human population. Following orofacial infection, HSV establishes latency in innervating sensory neurons, primarily located in the trigeminal ganglia. A central feature of HSV pathogenesis is the ability to periodically reactivate in those neurons and be transported back to the body surface. Both transmission and disease, such as keratitis, encephalitis, and neurodegeneration, have been linked to reactivation. Despite invaluable insights obtained from model systems, interactions between viral and host functions that regulate reactivation are still incompletely understood...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599020/isg15-in-host-defense-against-candida-albicans-infection-in-a-mouse-model-of-fungal-keratitis
#17
Chen Dong, Nan Gao, Bing X Ross, Fu-Shin X Yu
Purpose: ISG15, a di-ubiquitin-like protein, is critical for controlling certain viral and bacterial infections. We sought to determine if ISG15 plays a role in corneal innate immunity against Candida albicans (C. albicans) using a C57BL/6 (B6) mouse model of human fungal keratitis. Methods: Scarified corneas of adult B6 mice were pretreated with TLR5 ligand flagellin and then inoculated with C. albicans. The expression of ISG15 and other genes involved in ISG15 conjugation (ISGylation) was determined by real-time PCR...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513490/coexistence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-in-microsporidial-stromal-keratitis-associated-with-granulomatous-inflammation
#18
Ruchi Mittal, Praveen K Balne, Srikant Sahu, Sujata Das, Savitri Sharma
BACKGROUND: Microsporidial stromal keratitis poses several diagnostic challenges. Patients may present with corneal ulceration, marked stromal thinning, or even as a quite corneal scar. The presentation of microsporidial stromal keratitis commonly mimics viral keratitis. Microbiology scrapings are usually helpful; however, scraping and culture-negative cases pose a significant diagnostic dilemma. Histopathological examination is diagnostic but shows varying degree of inflammation, predominantly composed of polymorphonuclear leukocytes...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484310/a-dot-hybridization-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-bacterial-keratitis
#19
Po-Chiung Fang, Chun-Chih Chien, Hun-Ju Yu, Ren-Wen Ho, Shin-Ling Tseng, Yu-Hsuan Lai, Ming-Tse Kuo
PURPOSE: To evaluate a bacterial dot hybridization (BDH) assay for the diagnosis of bacterial keratitis (BK). METHODS: Sixty-one qualified corneal scrapings from 61 patients with suspected microbial keratitis were collected consecutively and prospectively. Among the 61 patients, 16 cases were BK and 45 cases were non-BK, including fungal keratitis, viral keratitis, parasitic keratitis, and non-microbial keratitis. Molecular diagnosis of BK in these corneal scrapes was performed using the BDH assay with three universal bacterial probes (PB1, PB2, and PB3) and three genus-specific probes (Aci, Klb, and Psu) to detect Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas, respectively...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371196/cytoarchitecture-of-epithelial-inflammatory-infiltration-indicates-the-aetiology-of-infectious-keratitis
#20
Adrian Smedowski, Dorota Tarnawska, Michal Orski, Ewa Wroblewska-Czajka, Kai Kaarniranta, Pasquale Aragona, Edward Wylegala
PURPOSE: To analyse cytological features of corneal epithelium in infectious keratitis. METHODS: One hundred and eighteen patients (53 males and 65 females) diagnosed with acute stage of infectious keratitis (45 viral, 40 bacterial, 23 fungal, 10 Acanthamoeba keratitis) were included in study. We performed retrospective analysis of bright and blue-light slit-lamp photographs and in vivo corneal confocal microscopy scans of the corneal epithelium from five corneal regions (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal and central)...
June 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
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