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Fungal keratitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926886/-keratectomy-combined-with-intrastromal-injection-of-voriconazole-in-treating-fungal-keratitis
#1
S X Li, J Biang, X Li, L T Zhang, W Y Shi
Objective: To investigate the treatment effect of keratectomy combined with intrastromal injection of voriconazole on fungal keratitis. Methods: Retrospective study. Ninety-eight fungal keratitis patients (98 eyes) were treated by keratectomy combined with intrastromal injection of voriconazole in Shandong Eye Hospital from January 2013 to May 2015. The corneal ulcers were mostly located in the paracentral or peripheral cornea, which incompletely blocked the pupil area. Slit lamp and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) were used for lesion detection...
September 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916457/in-vitro-activity-of-1h-phenalen-1-one-derivatives-against-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff-and-their-mechanisms-of-cell-death
#2
Atteneri López-Arencibia, María Reyes-Batlle, Mónica Blanco Freijo, Grant McNaughton-Smith, Patricia Martín-Rodríguez, Leandro Fernández-Pérez, Ines Sifaoui, Carolina Wagner, Ana B García-Méndez, Aitor Rizo Liendo, Carlos J Bethencourt-Estrella, Teresa Abad-Grillo, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen which is the causal agent of a sight-threatening ulceration of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and, more rarely, an infection of the central nervous system called "granulomatous amoebic encephalitis" (GAE). The symptoms of AK are non-specific, and so it can be misdiagnosed as a viral, bacterial, or fungal keratitis. Furthermore, current therapeutic measures against AK are arduous, and show limited efficacy against the cyst stage of Acanthamoeba. 1H-Phenalen-1-one (PH) containing compounds have been isolated from plants and fungi, where they play a crucial role in the defense mechanism of plants...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911045/azole-resistant-aspergillosis-epidemiology-molecular-mechanisms-and-treatment
#3
Anuradha Chowdhary, Cheshta Sharma, Jacques F Meis
Aspergillus fumigatus remains the most common species in all pulmonary syndromes, followed by Aspergillus flavus which is a common cause of allergic rhinosinusitis, postoperative aspergillosis and fungal keratitis. The manifestations of Aspergillus infections include invasive aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and bronchitis. Allergic manifestations of inhaled Aspergillus include allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Triazoles are the mainstay of therapy against Aspergillus infections for treatment and prophylaxis...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903964/clinical-profile-of-pythium-keratitis-perioperative-measures-to-reduce-risk-of-recurrence
#4
Shweta Agarwal, Geetha Iyer, Bhaskar Srinivasan, Mamta Agarwal, Shobha Panchalam Sampath Kumar, Lily K Therese
PURPOSE: To report the clinical profile and role of perioperative adjunctive measures to reduce the risk of recurrence in Pythium insidiosum keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 10 eyes of 10 patients with P. insidiosum keratitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR DNA sequencing. RESULTS: 7out of 10 patients were from urban locales, and none had any obvious history of injury with vegetative matter and were being treated for fungal keratitis...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902012/comparison-of-oral-voriconazole-versus-oral-ketoconazole-as-an-adjunct-to-topical-natamycin-in-severe-fungal-keratitis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Namrata Sharma, Deepali Singhal, Prafulla K Maharana, Rajesh Sinha, Tushar Agarwal, Ashish D Upadhyay, Thirumurthy Velpandian, Gita Satpathy, Jeewan S Titiyal
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of oral voriconazole (VCZ) with oral ketoconazole (KCZ) as an adjunct to topical natamycin in severe fungal keratitis. METHODS: Fifty eyes of 50 patients with proven severe fungal keratitis, (>5 mm size, involving >4 mm central cornea and >50% stromal depth), smear, and/or culture positive were randomized to receive either oral VCZ (n = 25) or oral KCZ (n = 25) 200 mg twice a day. Both groups received topical natamycin along with oral medication...
September 8, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900769/interface-scopulariopsis-gracilis-fungal-keratitis-following-descemet-s-stripping-automated-endothelial-keratoplasty-dsaek-with-a-contaminated-graft
#6
Craig Wilde, Marco Messina, Tara Moshiri, Susan E Snape, Senthil Maharajan
PURPOSE: To report for the first time a case of interface Scopulariopsis gracilis fungal keratitis following Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) with a contaminated graft. METHODS: A 57-year-old man with bilateral keratoconus and previous bilateral penetrating keratoplasties (PK) developed graft failure in association with marked corneal ectasia. He underwent a successful DSAEK. Unfortunately, a contaminated graft was transplanted and the following morning we were contacted by the eye bank to inform us a slow-growing fungus had been detected in the culture plates inoculated with dextran solution used to store the issued corneoscleral button...
September 12, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888778/mincle-inhibits-neutrophils-and-macrophages-apoptosis-in-a-fumigatus-keratitis
#7
Jing Lin, Kun He, Guiqiu Zhao, Cui Li, Liting Hu, Guoqiang Zhu, Yawen Niu, Guipei Hao
PURPOSE: To determine whether macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) regulates neutrophils and macrophages apoptosis in A. fumigatus keratitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A murine model (C57BL/6) of fungal keratitis (AF) was established by gently scraping corneal central epithelium, smearing A. fumigatus on the epithelium surface and covering the eye with contact lenses. AF cell model was established by extracting neutrophils (PMN) and macrophages, and then infecting cells with A...
September 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879155/cylindrocarpon-lichenicola-keratomycosis-in-nigeria-the-challenge-of-limited-access-to-effective-antimicrobials
#8
Emmanuel O Irek, Temitope O Obadare, Patrick A Udonwa, Olajumoke Laoye, Oyekola V Abiri, Adenike O Adeoye, Aaron O Aboderin
INTRODUCTION: We report a rare cause of keratitis, due to Cylindrocarpon lichenicola, in a farmer with keratomycosis. Despite the acknowledged virulence of this fungus, a suitable antifungal for its management was not accessible. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old farmer presented with a two-week history of pain, mucopurulent discharge, redness and a corneal ulcer with a visual acuity of hand movement in the right eye. With a working diagnosis of infective keratitis, corneal scrapings were taken under a slit lamp biomicroscope for microbiological testing...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874754/ros-induced-oxidative-injury-involved-in-pathogenesis-of-fungal-keratitis-via-p38-mapk-activation
#9
Xia Hua, Wei Chi, Long Su, Jin Li, Zongduan Zhang, Xiaoyong Yuan
This study was to explore the mechanism by which reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress involved in the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis using an in vivo experimental keratitis mouse model and an in vitro culture model of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Compared to normal control mice and HCECs, ROS production was markedly increased in fungal corneas and HCECs exposed to Candida albicans, accompanied by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activation. Increased products of oxidative markers, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), mitochondria DNA 8-OHdG and aconitase-2 were observed in fungal infected corneas and HCECs...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873175/development-of-a-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-lysine-contact-lens-as-a-drug-delivery-device-for-the-treatment-of-fungal-keratitis
#10
Andrew G Gallagher, Keri McLean, Rosalind M K Stewart, Don A Wellings, Heather E Allison, Rachel L Williams
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a more efficient drug delivery device to overcome the limitations of current drop therapy for the treatment of fungal keratitis. Methods: Amphotericin B (AmpB), 0 to 30 μg/mL, was associated with a poly-ε-lysine (pεK) hydrogel. Fungicidal effect against Candida albicans was assessed at 18 and 42 hours by optical density (OD600) and growth on agar. Tear film dilution effect was mimicked by storage of AmpB pεK gels in 3...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855517/cross-linked-decellularized-porcine-corneal-graft-for-treating-fungal-keratitis
#11
Yongliang Lin, Qinxiang Zheng, Shanshan Hua, Yongchun Meng, Wei Chen, Yifei Wang
This study aims to develop a cross-linked decellularized porcine corneal graft (cDPC) as a substitute for lamellar donor corneas and to evaluate the feasibility of using cDPC to treat fungal keratitis. The cDPC was prepared by decellularization, chemical crosslinking and γ-ray irradiation. Transparency, effectiveness of decellularization and biomechanical strength of cDPC were evaluated. The safety and efficacy of using cDPC to treat fungal keratitis were evaluated in the rabbit model. The transparency of cDPC was similar to that of a native porcine cornea (NPC), and no intact cells were observed in cDPC except for an insignificant amount of residual shrinking cellular nucleus...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817744/predictors-of-corneal-perforation-or-need-for-therapeutic-keratoplasty-in-severe-fungal-keratitis-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-mycotic-ulcer-treatment-trial-ii
#12
N Venkatesh Prajna, Tiruvengada Krishnan, Revathi Rajaraman, Sushila Patel, Ranjeet Shah, Muthiah Srinivasan, Manoranjan Das, Kathryn J Ray, Catherine E Oldenburg, Stephen D McLeod, Michael E Zegans, Nisha R Acharya, Thomas M Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
Importance: Identifying patients with infectious keratitis who are at risk of experiencing a poor outcome may be useful to allocate resources toward high-risk patients, particularly in resource-poor settings. Objective: To determine baseline patient and ulcer characteristics that predict a high risk of developing corneal perforation and/or the need to undergo therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK). Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a secondary analysis of Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial II, a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial that enrolled 240 patients with smear-positive filamentous fungal corneal ulcers who enrolled between May 2010 and August 2015...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810564/clinical-efficacy-of-conjunctival-flap-surgery-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-fungal-keratitis
#13
Honorine Nizeyimana, Dan-Dan Zhou, Xiu-Fen Liu, Xiao-Tao Pan, Cong Liu, Cheng-Wei Lu, Ji-Long Hao
The aim of the present study was to investigate the use and effectiveness of a selective, partial, pedunculated (tongue-shaped) conjunctival flap (CF) for the treatment of refractory fungal keratitis (FK) with or without perforation. A total of 31 cases of corneal diseases treated by CF surgery between April 2014 and October 2015 were evaluated. Among the 31 cases, 16 cases (male:female, 11:5) with FK were selected. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with complications of CF surgery...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775086/tailored-lamellar-keratoplasty-a-new-technique
#14
Mohammad Solaimani, Seyed Ali Tabatabaei, Zahra Fallah Tafti
We present a new method for treating complicated corneal gaps among patients who have previously undergone radial keratotomy (RK).After complete healing of a fungal keratitis in a patient who has undergone RK, we removed the oedematous corneal sector and put anterior tailored segment of a corneal button previously used for Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty. The patient's best-corrected visual acuity reached to 20/20 6 months later. This technique will compensate for oedematous parts without putting a significant effect on other parts such as purse string sutures...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770882/visual-outcome-in-patients-of-keratomycosis-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-larkana-pakistan
#15
Syed Imtiaz Ali Shah, Shujaat Ali Shah, Partab Rai, Naeem Akhtar Katpar, Safdar Ali Abbasi, Akbar Ali Soomro
OBJECTIVE: To study the post-treatment visual outcome of fungal keratitis. METHODS: This prospective study was carried out at Chandka Medical College and Hospital, Larkana, Pakistan, from March 2005 to March 2016. Patients with clinical features of fungal keratitis, with positive corneal scrapings for fungi, and those who followed up for a minimum period of three months after recovery from infection were included.Other causes of infectious keratitis were excluded...
July 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761565/first-reported-case-of-donor-related-candida-endophthalmitis-after-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty
#16
Matthew Thompson, David Carli
PURPOSE: To report the first case of Candida donor to host transmission following descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). METHODS: A retrospective case report. RESULTS: A patient underwent uneventful DMEK. Following surgery the donor rim was culture positive for Candida. The patient developed fungal endophthalmitis that was treated medically with multiple injections of voriconazole and amphotericin. Medical treatment was unable to clear the infection and removal of the donor material was required...
2017: Open Ophthalmology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739646/koh-mount-as-an-aid-in-the-management-of-infectious-keratitis-at-secondary-eye-care-centre
#17
Varsha M Rathi, Monica Thakur, Savitri Sharma, Rohit Khanna, Prashant Garg
AIMS: To report the clinical outcome of infectious keratitis managed after doing 10% KOH mount of corneal smears and reporting done by an ophthalmologist in the secondary eye care centre in South India. METHODS: 103 consecutive cases of microbial keratitis were studied. Inclusion criteria were presence of corneal infiltrate on slit lamp biomicroscopy. An ophthalmologist carried out microbiological evaluation of 10% KOH mount of corneal scrapings. No cultures were done at secondary centres...
July 24, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708218/microbial-characteristics-of-posttraumatic-infective-keratitis
#18
Blanche X Lim, Victor T C Koh, Manotosh Ray
PURPOSE: To determine the demographics, risk factors, clinical and microbiological characteristics, and treatment outcome of posttraumatic infective keratitis. METHODS: Consecutive patients with posttraumatic infective keratitis presenting to the Ophthalmology Department of a tertiary referral hospital in Singapore between March 2012 and March 2016 were prospectively identified. A standardized data collection form was used to document patient demographics, microbiological diagnosis, antibiotic sensitivity, and pretreatment and posttreatment ocular characteristics...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704321/observation-of-retrocorneal-plaques-in-patients-with-infectious-keratitis-using-anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography
#19
Yuki Takezawa, Takashi Suzuki, Atsushi Shiraishi
PURPOSE: Endothelial plaques are a typical characteristic in patients with fungal keratitis. However, bacterial keratitis and herpetic keratouveitis are rarely associated with fibrin formation on the retrocorneal surface. This study was conducted to examine plaques attached to the endothelium in patients with infectious keratitis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). METHODS: Seventeen patients (10 women and 7 men; mean age, 75 ± 15.5 years) suspected to have infectious keratitis with retrocorneal plaques were included...
October 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702317/fungal-keratitis-caused-by-metarhizium-anisopliae-complex
#20
Mahmood J Showail, Julianne V Kus, George Kar Tsui, Hall F Chew
PURPOSE: To report a case of fungal keratitis caused by Metarhizium anisopliae complex. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: Our patient presented with a central corneal infiltrate. Fungal culture yielded a Metarhizium species. She was started on antifungal agents with no significant improvement. A therapeutic corneal transplant was performed after perforation. At two years follow up, she was free of infection. CONCLUSION: Metarhizium anisopliae is a very rare cause of keratitis...
September 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
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