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Fungal keratitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220322/serious-fungal-infections-in-the-philippines
#1
M C R Batac, D Denning
The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at <1%, but is rapidly increasing. Fungal disease surveillance has not been done, and its burden has never been estimated. This becomes more important as the population of immunocompromised patients increases, drawn from patients with AIDS, TB, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases requiring chronic steroid use. Using the methodology of the LIFE program ( www...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213689/serious-fungal-infections-in-egypt
#2
S M Zaki, D W Denning
We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207431/successful-medical-management-of-presumptive-pythium-insidiosum-keratitis
#3
Muralidhar Ramappa, Ritu Nagpal, Savitri Sharma, Sunita Chaurasia
PURPOSE: To describe the previously unreported successful treatment of presumptive Pythium keratitis (PK) with medical therapy alone. METHODS: A 42-year-old female homemaker presented to us with a 15-day history of pain and redness in the right eye after a trivial injury. Her vision was 20/80 at presentation. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed a central, dense and dry-looking, grayish-white infiltrate reaching mid stroma. The infiltrate had feathery margins and was surrounded by multiple tentacle-like lesions and peripherally expanding pinhead-sized subepithelial lesions...
February 15, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167474/regulatory-effect-of-caspase-11-on-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-the-fungal-keratitis
#4
Keke Zhu, Hongmei Mu, Baimu Pi
Caused by fungus, fungal keratitis is a kind of infections corneal disease with high rate of blindness, which patients are mainly farmers in developing countries. Interleukin, as important proinflammatory cytokines, involve in immune defense process against fungal infection of cornea. The expression of interleukin in the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis, especially the main source of its cells, is not clear and the cell signaling pathways which regulate the synthesis and modification of interleukin is still unknown...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161744/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-bangladesh
#5
H C Gugnani, D W Denning, R Rahim, A Sadat, M Belal, M S Mahbub
In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161741/serious-fungal-infections-in-pakistan
#6
K Jabeen, J Farooqi, S Mirza, D Denning, A Zafar
The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149778/epidemiological-clinical-and-laboratory-findings-of-infectious-keratitis-at-mansoura-ophthalmic-center-egypt
#7
Amani E Badawi, Dalia Moemen, Nora L El-Tantawy
AIM: To analyze the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of infectious keratitis. METHODS: A retrospective study on cases of infective keratitis, attended our institution from Mar. 2013 to Feb. 2015, was done at Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Egypt. Corneal scrapings were performed and processed for direct microscopy and culture in appropriate media using standard laboratory protocols. RESULTS: Out of 245 patients enrolled for study, 247 corneal scrapings were obtained...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141595/the-role-of-mincle-in-innate-immune-to-fungal-keratitis
#8
Guiqiu Zhao, Qiang Xu, Jing Lin, Wenjun Chen, Tingting Cui, Liting Hu, Nan Jiang
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to detect the early expression of macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) and investigate its role in the innate immune response of fungal keratitis (FK). METHODOLOGY: Wistar rats were used to make fungal keratitis models. The inflammatory responses and corneal lesions were observed by slit-lamp microscope.RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression of Mincle in the rat corneal epithelium...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139372/in%C3%A2-vitro-ocular-metabolism-and-bioactivation-of-ketoconazole-in-rat-rabbit-and-human
#9
Amanda L Cirello, Jennifer L Dumouchel, Mithat Gunduz, Christine E Dunne, Upendra A Argikar
Oral ketoconazole is clinically administered for treatment of severe cases for fungal keratitis. Pharmacodynamics and efficacy of oral and topical (ocular) ketoconazole have been explored in rabbit. However, metabolism of ketoconazole in the eye in any species is not well explored in any preclinical species or human. An understanding of ocular drug metabolism in the eye is crucial for ocular therapeutics to facilitate the risk assessment and development of potential drug candidates for the clinic. We aimed to investigate the metabolism of ketoconazole in rat, rabbit and human ocular S9 fractions...
November 19, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115342/rifampin-enhances-the-activity-of-amphotericin-b-for-fusarium-solani-species-complex-and-aspergillus-flavus-species-complex-isolated-from-keratitis
#10
Yi He, Lutan Zhou, Chuanwen Gao, Lei Han, Yan Xu
The in vitro activities of amphotericin B in combination with rifampin were assessed against 95 ocular fungal isolates. The interactions between amphotericin B and rifampin at 4, 8, 16 and 32 μg/ml were synergistic for 11.8, 51.0, 90.2 and 94.1%, respectively, of the Fusarium solani species complex isolates and for 13.6, 45.5, 93.2 and 95.5%, respectively, of the Aspergillus flavus species complex isolates. Antagonism was never observed for the amphotericin B-rifampin combinations.
January 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087293/first-itraconazole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus-clinical-isolate-harbouring-a-g54e-substitution-in-cyp51ap-in-south-america
#11
Florencia Leonardelli, Laura Theill, María Elena Nardin, Daiana Macedo, Catiana Dudiuk, Emilce Mendez, Soledad Gamarra, Guillermo Garcia-Effron
BACKGROUND: A 27-year-old male rural worker was admitted with a fungal keratitis due to an injury involving plant detritus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens were collected for microscopy examination and culture. The isolate was identified by morphological and molecular criteria. Susceptibility testing was performed using CLSI methods. CYP51A gene was PCR amplified and sequenced. RESULTS: An Aspergillus fumigatus strain resistant to itraconazole (MIC>8μg/ml) was isolated...
January 10, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081296/short-synthetic-%C3%AE-helical-forming-peptide-amphiphiles-for-fungal-keratitis-treatment-in-vivo
#12
Hong Wu, Shaoqiong Liu, Nikken Wiradharma, Zhan Yuin Ong, Yan Li, Yi Yan Yang, Jackie Y Ying
The emergence of fungal keratitis is on the rise globally. However, current antifungal therapeutics are ineffective in severe keratomycosis. Previously reported α-helical peptides comprising 8-14 amino acids demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity both in vitro and in vivo. Here, α-helical peptides of the optimized sequences are investigated for antifungal biofilm in vitro and in vivo using a fungal biofilm-caused mouse keratitis model. The peptides with the optimal composition demonstrate higher α-helical propensity and improve antifungal activity in dispersing Candida albicans biofilm in vitro...
January 12, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043985/in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-appearance-of-fusarium-and-aspergillus-species-in-fungal-keratitis
#13
Jaya Devi Chidambaram, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh Prajna, Natasha Larke, David Macleod, Palepu Srikanthi, Shruti Lanjewar, Manisha Shah, Prajna Lalitha, Shanmugam Elakkiya, Matthew J Burton
BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes in fungal keratitis vary between Fusarium and Aspergillus spp, therefore distinguishing between species using morphological features such as filament branching angles, sporulation along filaments (adventitious sporulation) or dichotomous branching may be useful. In this study, we assessed these three features within Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images from culture-positive Fusarium and Aspergillus spp keratitis participants...
January 2, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040524/corneal-higher-order-aberrations-in-infectious-keratitis
#14
Eisuke Shimizu, Takefumi Yamaguchi, Yukari Yaguchi, Murat Dogru, Yoshiyuki Satake, Kazuo Tsubota, Jun Shimazaki
PURPOSE: To characterize the corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in eyes with acanthoamoeba keratitis (AK), bacterial keratitis (BK), and fungal keratitis (FK). DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 18 normal subjects and 63 eyes of 62 consecutive patients with corneal scarring due to AK (20 eyes), BK (35 eyes) and FK (8 eyes) from 2010 to 2016. HOAs of the anterior and posterior surfaces and the total cornea were analyzed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035615/epidemio-clinico-microbiological-study-of-mycotic-keratitis-in-north-west-region-of-rajasthan
#15
Abhishek Binnani, Priyanka Soni Gupta, Ankur Gupta
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: Mycotic keratitis, with its diverse clinical presentation and difficulties in treatment, makes it a challenging task for clinicians and an important object of study. The aim of present study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and epidemiological association with identification of fungal isolates from mycotic keratitis cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective and observational study conducted in Mycology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, S...
December 29, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025573/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pythium-insidiosum-corneal-ulcer-in-a-chinese-child-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Hong He, Hongshan Liu, Xiaolian Chen, Jiaochan Wu, Miao He, Xingwu Zhong
BACKGROUND Pythium insidiosum keratitis is a rare but sight-threatening disease with a high morbidity rate. It can be misdiagnosed as fungal keratitis in clinic settings. We report a case of severe Pythium insidiosum keratitis in a Chinese child, treated with combined approaches. CASE REPORT A 7-year-old boy from Hainan province in the south of China developed a suppurative corneal ulcer after being in a forest. A mass of hyphae was detected by confocal imaging in vivo, fungal smear test, and histochemical examination...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003991/the-pathogenic-spectrum-of-fungal-keratitis-in-northwestern-china
#17
Na An, Xian-Ning Liu, Ya-Ni Wang, Juan-Li Zhu, Hua Yang, Jie Wu, Xiao-Zhao Yang, Xiu-Ping Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002842/efficacy-of-antibody-to-pnag-against-keratitis-caused-by-fungal-pathogens
#18
Ge Zhao, Tanweer S Zaidi, Cagla Bozkurt-Guzel, Tauqeer H Zaidi, James A Lederer, Gregory P Priebe, Gerald B Pier
Purpose: Developing immunotherapies for fungal eye infections is a high priority. We analyzed fungal pathogens for expression of the surface polysaccharide, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG), and used a mouse model of ocular keratitis caused by Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, or Fusarium solani to determine if PNAG was an immunotherapy target and requirements for ancillary cellular and molecular immune effectors. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescence was used to detect PNAG on fungal cells...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001007/fungal-keratitis-dealing-with-a-diverse-kingdom-of-ocular-assailants
#19
EDITORIAL
Charles Nj McGhee, Bia Z Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998732/pathogenesis-of-microbial-keratitis
#20
REVIEW
Sahreena Lakhundi, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Microbial keratitis is a sight-threatening ocular infection caused by bacteria, fungi, and protist pathogens. Epithelial defects and injuries are key predisposing factors making the eye susceptible to corneal pathogens. Among bacterial pathogens, the most common agents responsible for keratitis include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia and Serratia species. Fungal agents of corneal infections include both filamentous as well as yeast, including Fusarium, Aspergillus, Phaeohyphomycetes, Curvularia, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium and Candida species, while in protists, Acanthamoeba spp...
December 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
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