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Bacterial keratitis

Debarun Dutta, Ajay K Vijay, Naresh Kumar, Mark D P Willcox
Purpose: To determine the ability of antimicrobial peptide melimine-coated contact lenses to reduce the incidence of microbial keratitis (MK) in a rabbit model of contact lens wear. Methods: In vitro antimicrobial activity of melimine-coated contact lenses was determined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by viable count and a radiolabeled assay. The amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with bacteria bound to melimine-coated and control lenses was determined...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Guigang Li, Jingmin Guo, Rong Liu, Weikun Hu, Lingjuan Xu, Juan Wang, Subo Cai, Hong Zhang, Yingting Zhu
Background: To explore the prevalence of lacrimal duct obstruction in patients with infectious keratitis, and the necessity of lacrimal duct dredge in the treatment of human infectious keratitis. Methodology/Principle Findings: The design is prospective, non-control case series. Thirty-one eyes from twenty-eight continuous patients with infectious keratitis were included in this study. The presence/absence of lacrimal duct obstruction was determined by the lacrimal duct irrigation test. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was made based on clinical manifestations, cornea scraping microscopic examination and bacterial/fungus culture...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Yusuf Koçluk, Emine Alyamaç Sukgen
PURPOSE: This study aimed to report the results of therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPKP) performed at early and late stage of keratitis. METHODS: The study involved patients who underwent TPKP surgery due to bacterial, fungal, or mixed (bacterial and fungal) keratitis. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (13 patients) was the patients operated at early stage of corneal abscess formation or in 15 days after the start of keratitis and group 2 (12 patients) was the patients operated at late stage of keratitis or after at least 15 days after the initial appearance of symptoms...
October 8, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Yvonne T Wu, Connie Tam, Lucia S Zhu, David J Evans, Suzanne M J Fleiszig
PURPOSE: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a significant virulence determinant for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a rodent model, we found that contact lens (CL)-related corneal infections were associated with lens surface biofilms. Here, we studied the impact of human tear fluid on CL-associated biofilm growth and T3SS expression. METHODS: P. aeruginosa biofilms were formed on contact lenses for up to 7 days with or without human tear fluid, then exposed to tear fluid for 5 or 24 h...
September 23, 2016: Ocular Surface
Daria Van Tyne, Joseph B Ciolino, Jay Wang, Marlene L Durand, Michael S Gilmore
Importance: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are highly antibiotic resistant, and primary ocular infection by ESBL E coli has rarely been reported. A novel mutation conferring phagocytosis resistance would position a strain well to infect the cornea. Observations: A woman with recurrent keratitis presented with a corneal ulcer, which was culture positive for ESBL E coli. Resistant to nearly all other antimicrobials, the infection was treated with amikacin and polymyxin B-trimethoprim, and the ulcer resolved over 3 weeks...
September 15, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
John H Hammond, Wesley P Hebert, Amanda Naimie, Kathryn Ray, Rachel D Van Gelder, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Prajna Lalitha, Muthiah Srinivasan, Nisha R Acharya, Thomas Lietman, Deborah A Hogan, Michael E Zegans
The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a multicenter, international study of bacterial keratitis in which 101 Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were treated. Twenty-two of 101 P. aeruginosa isolates collected had a colony morphology characteristic of a loss-of-function mutation in lasR, the gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator. Ulcers caused by these 22 strains were associated with larger areas of corneal opacification, worse vision, and a lower rate of vision recovery in response to treatment than ulcers caused by the other isolates...
September 2016: MSphere
Shamila Khan, Nerida Cole, Emma B H Hume, Linda L Garthwaite, Terry Nguyen-Khuong, Bradley J Walsh, Mark D P Willcox
Staphylococcus is a leading cause of microbial keratitis, characterized by destruction of the cornea by bacterial exoproteins and host-associated factors. The aim of this study was to compare extracellular and cell-associated proteins produced by two different isolates of S. aureus, a virulent clinical isolate (Staph 38) and a laboratory strain (Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4) of weaker virulence in the mouse keratitis model. Proteins were analyzed using 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by subsequent mass spectrometry...
October 2016: Experimental Eye Research
I-Huang Lin, Yi-Sheng Chang, Sung-Huei Tseng, Yi-Hsun Huang
Infectious keratitis after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) is a devastating condition that may result in graft failure and poor visual outcome. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent PK between 2009 and 2014, and recorded those who developed infectious keratitis. We compared the predisposing factors and organisms isolated to those identified in our previous study, conducted between 1989 and 1994. The incidence of post-PK infectious keratitis decreased from 11...
September 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
Andrew Purssell, Rachel Lau, Andrea K Boggild
BACKGROUND:  Amoebic keratitis is a potentially blinding eye infection caused by ubiquitous, free-living, environmental acanthamoebae, which are known to harbor bacterial endosymbionts. A Chlamydia-like endosymbiont has previously enhanced Acanthamoeba virulence in vitro. We investigated the potential effect of Acanthamoeba-endosymbiont coinfection in a human corneal tissue model representing clinical amoebic keratitis infection. METHODS:  Environmental and corneal Acanthamoeba isolates from the American Type Culture Collection were screened for endosymbionts by amplifying and sequencing bacterial 16S as well as Chlamydiales-specific DNA...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Carla Sofia Ferreira, Luis Figueira, Nuno Moreira-Gonçalves, Raúl Moreira, Luis Torrão, Fernando Falcão-Reis
OBJECTIVES: To study the microbial profile, antibiotic susceptibility pattern, risk factors, therapeutic trends, and clinical outcomes for microbial keratitis (MK) in a tertiary health care center. METHODS: All cases with suspected bacterial keratitis that were followed at consultation from September 2007 to August 2015 were included. Microbial cultures were obtained and patients were managed following an internal protocol. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-five patients were included, with a mean age of 50...
July 12, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Yeşim Altay, Sema Tamer, Ayşe Burcu, Özgür Balta
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the results of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in patients with bacterial and herpetic stromal keratitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review study including 42 patients with herpetic keratitis (group 1) and 42 patients with bacterial keratitis (group 2). AMT was performed in addition to antimicrobial therapy. Topical steroids were administered after surgery. The outcome parameters evaluated were epithelialization time, decrease of stromal inflammation, and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA)...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Sergio Sara, Kendall Sharpe, Sharon Morris
Mycotic keratitis is an ocular infective process derived from any fungal species capable of corneal invasion. Despite its rarity in developed countries, its challenging and elusive diagnosis may result in keratoplasty or enucleation following failed medical management. Filamentous fungi such as Fusarium are often implicated in mycotic keratitis. Bearing greater morbidity than its bacterial counterpart, mycotic keratitis requires early clinical suspicion and initiation of antifungal therapy to prevent devastating consequences...
August 3, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Parul Chawla Gupta, Jagat Ram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Cornea
Prafulla K Maharana, Namrata Sharma, Ritu Nagpal, Vishal Jhanji, Sujata Das, Rasik B Vajpayee
Mycotic keratitis is a major cause of corneal blindness, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The prognosis is markedly worse compared to bacterial keratitis. Delayed diagnosis and scarcity of effective antifungal agents are the major factors for poor outcome. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made to rapidly diagnose cases with mycotic keratitis and increase the efficacy of treatment. This review article discusses the recent advances in diagnosis and management of mycotic keratitis with a brief discussion on rare and emerging organisms...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Takaaki Furusawa, Hidetomo Iwano, Yutaro Hiyashimizu, Kazuki Matsubara, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Hajime Nagahata, Hidekazu Niwa, Yoshinari Katayama, Yuta Kinoshita, Katsuro Hagiwara, Tomohito Iwasaki, Yasunori Tanji, Hiroshi Yokota, Yutaka Tamura
UNLABELLED: Bacterial keratitis of the horse is mainly caused by staphylococci, streptococci, and pseudomonads. Of these bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa sometimes causes rapid corneal corruption and, in some cases, blindness. Antimicrobial resistance can make treatment very difficult. Therefore, new strategies to control bacterial infection are required. A bacteriophage (phage) is a virus that specifically infects and kills bacteria. Since phage often can lyse antibiotic-resistant bacteria because the killing mechanism is different, we examined the use of phage to treat horse bacterial keratitis...
September 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ágnes Füst, Jeannette Tóth, Gyula Simon, László Imre, Zoltán Z Nagy
PURPOSE: To report on the presence of 4 different structures visualized by confocal microscopy in patients whose clinical presentation suggested infection by Acanthamoeba. METHODS: Data and charts of 28 consecutive patients were analyzed in a retrospective study. Four types of structures were recognized by confocal microscopy performed with HRT II Rostock Cornea Module: trophozoites, double-walled cysts, signet rings, and bright spots. The 28 patients (mean age 30...
June 6, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Renaud Laballe, Jonathan Vigne, Eric Denion, Florian Lemaitre, Didier Goux, Pierre-Jean Pisella
PURPOSE: Bacterial keratitis is a sight threatening infection of the cornea which remains one of the most important potential complications of contact lens use. If the corneal ulcer is small, peripheral with no impending perforation present, intensive monotherapy with fluoroquinolones could be used. Therefore, a study was conducted with the objective to provide pharmacological data of the intra-ocular diffusion after administration of Ofloxacin using a scleral lens reservoir, as well as an evaluation of surface tolerability in rabbits...
October 2016: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
E Schaftenaar, R P H Peters, G S Baarsma, C Meenken, N S Khosa, S Getu, J A McIntyre, A D M E Osterhaus, G M G M Verjans
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the clinical and corneal microbial profile of infectious keratitis in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence setting in rural South Africa. Data in this cross-sectional study were collected from patients presenting with symptoms of infectious keratitis (n = 46) at the ophthalmology outpatient department of three hospitals in rural South Africa. Corneal swabs were tested for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and adenovirus DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for bacteria and fungi by culture...
September 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Barac Ileana Ramona, Corbu Catalina, Merticariu Andrei, Stefan Daciana, Tataru Calin
OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of the efficiency of corneal cross linking in the management of corneal ulcers. METHOD: A prospective study that included 10 patients, 10 eyes, with chronic corneal ulcer, bacterial and/ or fungal. The patients were divided into two groups. Group A included 5 patients with unperforated corneal ulcer and group B included 5 patients with perforated corneal ulcer. These patients were treated with general and local antibiotic and antifungal drugs, but the response was poor after two weeks...
January 2016: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
S Marasini, S Swift, S J Dean, S E Ormonde, J P Craig
Background. The bacteria isolated from severe cases of keratitis and their antibiotic sensitivity are recognised to vary geographically and over time. Objectives. To identify the most commonly isolated bacteria in keratitis cases admitted over a 24-month period to a public hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, and to investigate in vitro sensitivity to antibiotics. Methods. Hospital admissions for culture-proven bacterial keratitis between January 2013 and December 2014 were identified. Laboratory records of 89 culture positive cases were retrospectively reviewed and antibiotic sensitivity patterns compared with previous studies from other NZ centres...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
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