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Bacterial keratitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079684/the-cif-virulence-factor-gene-is-present-in-isolates-from-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-keratitis
#1
Christopher D Bahl, Jessica D St Laurent, R Siva Ganesa Karthikeyan, J Lakshmi Priya, Lalitha Prajna, Michael E Zegans, Dean R Madden
PURPOSE: To determine whether the cif gene is present in pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with bacterial keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital, a referral eye care center in southern India, and from corresponding environmental isolates. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed on strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from ocular infections and environmental soil samples were collected from the area surrounding Aravind Eye Hospital...
January 11, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040524/corneal-higher-order-aberrations-in-infectious-keratitis
#2
Eisuke Shimizu, Takefumi Yamaguchi, Yukari Yaguchi, Murat Dogru, Yoshiyuki Satake, Kazuo Tsubota, Jun Shimazaki
PURPOSE: To characterize the corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in eyes with acanthoamoeba keratitis (AK), bacterial keratitis (BK), and fungal keratitis (FK). DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 18 normal subjects and 63 eyes of 62 consecutive patients with corneal scarring due to AK (20 eyes), BK (35 eyes) and FK (8 eyes) from 2010 to 2016. HOAs of the anterior and posterior surfaces and the total cornea were analyzed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013522/methods-for-in-vivo-ex-vivo-analysis-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-bacterial-keratitis-sirna-knockdown-colony-counts-myeloperoxidase-immunostaining-and-rt-pcr-assays
#3
Satya Sree Kolar, Hasna Baidouri, Maria Luisa Mangoni, Alison M McDermott
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are essential components of the innate immune response. They have direct killing ability as well as immunomodulatory functions. Here, we describe techniques to identify specific AMPs involved in the protection against microbial keratitis, a vision threatening infection of the cornea of the eye which is the most serious complication of contact lens wear. Specifically we detail the use of siRNA technology to temporarily knockdown AMP expression at the murine ocular surface in vivo and then describe ex vivo assays to determine the level of bacteria, relative number of neutrophils, and levels of cytokines, chemokines, and AMPs in infected corneas...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013521/methods-for-in-vitro-analysis-of-antimicrobial-activity-and-toxicity-of-anti-keratitis-peptides-bacterial-viability-in-tears-mtt-and-tnf-%C3%AE-release-assays
#4
Floriana Cappiello, Bruno Casciaro, Satya Sree Kolar, Hasna Baidouri, Alison M McDermott, Maria Luisa Mangoni
Ease of access to the cornea makes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) ideal candidates for topical drug application. However, before bringing them to the clinic, it is fundamental to evaluate in vitro: (1) the ability of AMPs to kill bacteria in the presence of human tears, by counting the number of surviving bacteria on agar plates; (2) the potential cytotoxicity of AMPs to mammalian cells by a colorimetric method based on the production of a colored formazan crystals by metabolically active cells; and (3) the ability of AMPs to neutralize the toxic effect of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), by measuring the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, released from LPS-activated macrophages, using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998732/pathogenesis-of-microbial-keratitis
#5
REVIEW
Sahreena Lakhundi, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Microbial keratitis is a sight-threatening ocular infection caused by bacteria, fungi, and protist pathogens. Epithelial defects and injuries are key predisposing factors making the eye susceptible to corneal pathogens. Among bacterial pathogens, the most common agents responsible for keratitis include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia and Serratia species. Fungal agents of corneal infections include both filamentous as well as yeast, including Fusarium, Aspergillus, Phaeohyphomycetes, Curvularia, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium and Candida species, while in protists, Acanthamoeba spp...
December 17, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994804/microbial-profile-of-corneal-ulcers-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-south-india
#6
Chittur Y Ranjini, Vishnu V Waddepally
PURPOSE: To identify the prevalence and microbial profile of infectious keratitis in a tertiary eye care hospital, and to test for the in vitro antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial isolates. METHODS: A total of 312 patients presenting to a tertiary eye care hospital with infected corneal ulcer were enrolled in this study. Their socio-demographic data and risk factors were recorded. Corneal scrapings collected from the edge of the ulcer were processed for direct gram stain and KOH mount...
October 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989423/-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-contribution-of-microbiological-analysis-in-severe-microbial-keratitis-at-reims-university-hospital-between-2012%C3%A2-and-2014
#7
J Caliot, D Guindolet, A Ducasse, L Andreoletti, C Arndt
PURPOSE: To investigate the contribution of microbial analysis in the diagnosis and management of severe microbial keratitis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This is a monocentric retrospective study at the University Hospital of Reims from January 2012 to December 2014. Corneal scrapings with infectious keratitis were subjected to routine bacterial and fungal culture. PCR was also performed to detect various viral DNA (VZV, CMV, EBV, HSV 1 & 2, adenovirus) and Acanthamoeba sp...
December 15, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987408/label-free-electrical-sensing-of-bacteria-in-eye-wash-samples-a-step-towards-point-of-care-detection-of-pathogens-in-patients-with-infectious-keratitis
#8
Hardik J Pandya, Manoj Kumar Kanakasabapathy, Saloni Verma, Manjyot Kaur Chug, Adnan Memic, Mihaela Gadjeva, Hadi Shafiee
The diagnosis of keratitis is based on visual exam, tissue cytology, and standard microbial culturing to determine the type of the infectious pathogen. To prescribe appropriate therapy, it is important to distinguish between bacterial, fungal, and viral keratitis, as the treatments are quite different. Diagnosis of the causative organism has a substantial prognostic importance. Further, timely knowledge of the nature of the pathogen is also critical to adapt therapy in patients unresponsive to empiric treatment options, which occurs in 10% of all cases...
December 13, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984024/prospective-randomized-clinical-trial-of-povidone-iodine-1-25-solution-versus-topical-antibiotics-for-treatment-of-bacterial-keratitis
#9
Sherwin J Isenberg, Leonard Apt, Mario Valenton, Savitri Sharma, Prashant Garg, Philip A Thomas, Pragya Parmar, Jayaraman Kaliamurthy, Johann M Reyes, Daniel Ong, Peter D Christenson, Madeline Del Signore, Gary N Holland
PURPOSE: To compare povidone-iodine 1.25% ophthalmic solution to topical antibiotics for treatment of bacterial keratitis in areas of the world where use of effective topical antibiotics may not be an option. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, investigator-masked clinical trial. METHODS: We randomized 172 individuals with bacterial keratitis to topical treatment with povidone-iodine or antibiotics (neomycin-polymyxin B-gramicidin in the Philippines; ciprofloxacin 0...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982205/microbiological-and-epidemiological-study-of-infectious-keratitis-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
Maria Cecilia Zorat Yu, Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima, Guilherme Henrique Campos Furtado
Purpose: To analyze epidemiological and microbiological aspects of microbial keratitis in children and adolescents. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, between July 15, 1975, and December 31, 2010. We analyzed corneal samples from 859 patients with clinical suspicion of infectious keratitis, comparing epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of bacterial keratitis with those of non-bacterial and non-viral keratitis...
September 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960579/genus-distribution-of-bacteria-and-fungi-associated-with-keratitis-in-a-large-eye-center-located-in-southern-china
#11
Lixia Lin, Weizhong Lan, Bingsheng Lou, Hongmin Ke, Yuanzhe Yang, Xiaofeng Lin, Lingyi Liang
PURPOSE: To investigate the genus distribution of bacteria and fungi associated with keratitis in a large eye center located in Southern China and to compare the results with existing data from other areas in China. METHODS: All results of corneal microbiological examinations from 2009 to 2013 of patients who had been clinically diagnosed with bacterial or fungal keratitis were obtained chronologically and anonymously from the microbiology database at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center...
December 14, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930797/unusual-severe-interface-inflammation-after-uneventful-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-smile
#12
Damien Guindolet, Abdellatif Badaoui, Maud Elluard, Sophie Stephan, Serge Doan, Isabelle Cochereau, Eric E Gabison
PURPOSE: To describe a 40-year-old woman who complained of visual loss in her left eye 3 days after an uneventful bilateral myopic refractive surgery by small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 4 × 5 mm anterior central stromal infiltration was observed with moderate pain associated with decreased corneal sensitivity and neither discharge nor fluorescein staining. Bacterial and fungal smears and cultures from the SMILE interface were negative and local antibiotic ineffective...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896297/a-mouse-model-of-multi-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-induced-ocular-disease
#13
Nicole M Broekema, Inna V Larsen, Erika S Naruzawa, Marcin Filutowicz, Aaron W Kolb, Leandro B C Teixeira, Curtis R Brandt
Staphylococcus aureus infection of the cornea is a significant threat to vision. The percentage of bacterial isolates resistant to antibiotics is increasing as is the percentage of infections caused by methicillin resistant isolates. There is a critical need for additional therapeutic approaches and their development will require the use of animal models to test efficacy. Two mouse models of S. aureus keratitis have been described but only quantified stromal keratitis (corneal clouding and perforation). We have extended these models using the methicillin resistant S...
November 2016: Journal of Ocular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893743/trends-of-bacterial-keratitis-culture-isolates-in-jerusalem-a-13-years-analysis
#14
Michael Politis, Denise Wajnsztajn, Boris Rosin, Colin Block, Abraham Solomon
PURPOSE: To describe the trends in pathogens and antibacterial resistance of corneal culture isolates in infectious keratitis during a period of 13 years at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center. METHODS: A Retrospective analysis of bacterial corneal isolates was performed during the months of January 2002 to December 2014 at Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center. Demographics, microbiological data and antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were collected...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877016/clinical-utility-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-measurement-plate-covering-formulated-concentrations-of-various-ophthalmic-antimicrobial-drugs
#15
Norihiko Tou, Ryohei Nejima, Yoshifumi Ikeda, Yuichi Hori, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki, Kazunori Miyata, Yoshitsugu Inoue, Akihiko Tawara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of SG17, an ophthalmic antimicrobial susceptibility measurement plate. DESIGN: This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using clinical isolates from patients with ocular infections, drug susceptibility testing using the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute standards was routinely conducted at five facilities. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the isolated strains were determined using SG17 at the Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853023/bilateral-disciform-keratitis-in-reiter-s-syndrome
#16
Palanisamy S Suresh
Reiter's syndrome is commonly associated with conjunctivitis and rarely with uveitis. Bilateral disciform keratitis at presentation is a very rare manifestation in Reiter's syndrome. A 13-year-old boy developed bilateral disciform keratitis with oligoarthritis following an episode of conjunctivitis. In addition he had suspected bacterial keratitis with hypopyon in the left eye as a possible secondary infection of an epithelial defect that is a feature of Reiter's keratitis. Empirical treatment with intensive topical antibiotics as a therapeutic trial completely resolved the hypopyon and the disciform keratitis settled with topical steroid treatment...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844206/ex-vivo-rabbit-and-human-corneas-as-models-for-bacterial-and-fungal-keratitis
#17
Abigail Pinnock, Nagaveni Shivshetty, Sanhita Roy, Stephen Rimmer, Ian Douglas, Sheila MacNeil, Prashant Garg
PURPOSE: In the study of microbial keratitis, in vivo animal models often require a large number of animals, and in vitro monolayer cell culture does not maintain the three-dimensional structure of the tissues or cell-to-cell communication of in vivo models. Here, we propose reproducible ex vivo models of single- and dual-infection keratitis as an alternative to in vivo and in vitro models. METHODS: Excised rabbit and human corneoscleral rims maintained in organ culture were infected using 10(8) cells of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans or Fusarium solani...
November 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792814/glycyrrhizin-reduces-hmgb1-and-bacterial-load-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-keratitis
#18
Sandamali A Ekanayaka, Sharon A McClellan, Ronald P Barrett, Shikhil Kharotia, Linda D Hazlett
Purpose: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) contributes to poor disease outcome in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. This study tests the prophylactic effect of treatment with HMGB1 inhibitors, glycyrrhizin (GLY) and its derivative, carbenoxolone (CBX), for Pseudomonas keratitis. Methods: We treated C57BL/6 (B6) mice subconjunctivally with GLY or CBX, infected with a noncytotoxic clinical isolate (KEI 1025) or a cytotoxic strain (ATCC 19660) of P. aeruginosa, and injected intraperitoneally with either agent...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768798/melimine-coated-antimicrobial-contact-lenses-reduce-microbial-keratitis-in-an-animal-model
#19
Debarun Dutta, Ajay K Vijay, Naresh Kumar, Mark D P Willcox
Purpose: To determine the ability of antimicrobial peptide melimine-coated contact lenses to reduce the incidence of microbial keratitis (MK) in a rabbit model of contact lens wear. Methods: In vitro antimicrobial activity of melimine-coated contact lenses was determined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by viable count and a radiolabeled assay. The amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with bacteria bound to melimine-coated and control lenses was determined...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766030/lacrimal-duct-occlusion-is-associated-with-infectious-keratitis
#20
Guigang Li, Jingmin Guo, Rong Liu, Weikun Hu, Lingjuan Xu, Juan Wang, Subo Cai, Hong Zhang, Yingting Zhu
Background: To explore the prevalence of lacrimal duct obstruction in patients with infectious keratitis, and the necessity of lacrimal duct dredge in the treatment of human infectious keratitis. Methodology/Principle Findings: The design is prospective, non-control case series. Thirty-one eyes from twenty-eight continuous patients with infectious keratitis were included in this study. The presence/absence of lacrimal duct obstruction was determined by the lacrimal duct irrigation test. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was made based on clinical manifestations, cornea scraping microscopic examination and bacterial/fungus culture...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
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