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Infectious keratitis

Thomas W Carion, Matthew Greenwood, Abdul Shukkur Ebrahim, Andrew Jerome, Susmit Suvas, Karsten Gronert, Elizabeth A Berger
Although autacoids primarily derived from the cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways are essential mediators of inflammation, endogenous specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) act as robust agonists of resolution. SPM biosynthesis is initiated by the conversion of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid primarily via the 12/15-LOX pathway. Although 12/15-LOX activity is prominent in the cornea, the role of SPM pathway activation during infection remains largely unknown and is the focus of the current study...
April 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Priya Basaiawmoit, Satheesh Solomon T Selvin, Sanita Korah
PURPOSE: To assess the usefulness of photoactivated chromophore for infectious keratitis-corneal collagen cross-linking in reducing the time to heal in suppurative corneal ulcers in a South Indian tertiary care center. METHODS: This was an observational cohort study with 2 arms. In the prospective arm, 13 patients with suppurative corneal ulcers who presented to the outpatient department were recruited. Their ulcers were exposed to ultraviolet-A with riboflavin (B2) (photoactivated chromophore for infectious keratitis-corneal collagen cross-linking) up to a maximum of 4 sittings at 3-day intervals...
June 14, 2018: Cornea
R Atia, L Jouve, J Knoeri, C Georgeon, L Laroche, V Borderie, N Bouheraoua
Infectious keratitis are a frequent cause of ocular morbidity. Today, new treatments are necessary to combat the emergence of antibiotic resistant germs. Corneal collagen cross-linking has been suggested to treat corneal infectious (PACK-CXL). Its action would be both antimicrobial and protective for the cornea, increasing its biochemical resistence to proteolytic enzymes. In vivo, PACK-CXL might demonstrate good efficacy against bacterial keratitis, contrary to herpetic keratitis for which it is contraindicated...
June 11, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Wenting Qu, Yi Wang, Yongjian Wu, Yiting Liu, Kang Chen, Xi Liu, Zhengyu Zou, Xi Huang, Minhao Wu
Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a novel cell surface receptor and functions as an immunomodulatory receptor in infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated the function and regulatory mechanism of TREM2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa ) keratitis. We found that P. aeruginosa keratitis was more severe in Trem2 -/- versus wild type C57BL/6 mice as indicated by the increased clinical scores, bacterial load, and cornea pathology. The exacerbated disease progression caused by TREM2 deficiency was associated with boosted activation of caspase-1 and subsequent pyroptosis as well as increased expression of IL-1β...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Alastair Stuart, Dan Z Reinstein, Ryan S Vida, Timothy J Archer, Glenn Carp
We describe a case of atypical diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) following small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). The patient presented with multiple focal white infiltrates 1 day after routine small-incision lenticule extraction surgery. An interface washout was performed, and the patient was managed with intensive topical steroids. Potential infectious keratitis was also investigated (by culture and Gram stain) and treated aggressively with steroids and antibiotics. The cultures were all negative with no growth, and the focal infiltrates gradually resolved, with no relapses at the 15-month postoperative follow-up and a faint 0...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Zachary L Watson, Shannan D Washington, Dane M Phelan, Alfred S Lewin, Sonal S Tuli, Gregory S Schultz, Donna M Neumann, David C Bloom
During Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) latency, most viral genes are silenced with the exception of one region of the genome encoding the latency-associated transcript (LAT). This long non-coding RNA was originally described as having a role in enhancing HSV-1 reactivation. However, subsequent evidence showing that the LAT blocked apoptosis and promoted efficient establishment of latency suggested that its effects on reactivation were secondary to establishment. Here, we utilize an Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) vector to deliver a LAT-targeting hammerhead ribozyme to HSV-1-infected neurons of rabbits after the establishment of HSV-1 latency...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
Zhen Wang, Xiao-Jun Tan, Hua-Lei Zhai, Jun Cheng, Yan Gao, Li-Xin Xie
AIM: To analyze indications and reasons for failure of anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ALK). METHODS: The clinical records were retrospectively reviewed. Main outcome measures included indications for ALK and reasons for failure of ALK. RESULTS: A total of 434 patients (462 eyes) were treated with ALK at Qingdao Eye Hospital, Shandong Eye Institute from June 1, 2009 to May 31, 2016. The main indications were infectious keratitis (33.3%), keratoconus (23...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
W Zbiba, N Ben Abdesslem
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of AK among microbial keratitis as well as their clinical features and to compare their risk factors to those of other infectious keratitis, over the last five years in a referral center in the region of Cap Bon, Tunisia, North Africa. METHODS: A retrospective review of the charts of 230 patients (230 eyes) diagnosed with presumed infectious keratitis between January 2011 and December 2016 at the department of ophthalmology of the university hospital of Nabeul in Tunisia...
May 30, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Seung Pil Bang, Jong Hwa Jun
RATIONALE: Simultaneous presentation of peripheral infiltrates, which can be easily misidentified as satellite lesions, is rarely observed in patients with acute infectious keratitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 70-year-old woman was referred to our clinic due to acute mucopurulent keratitis following application of a therapeutic soft contact lens for the treatment of epithelial defects caused by entrance of soil foreign bodies into the eye. The patient was diagnosed with Pseudomonas keratitis, following which she was treated with alternating administration of fourth-generation fluoroquinolone (Vigamox) and 5% fortified ceftazidime eyedrops every 2 hours...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Katarzyna Krysik, Ewa Wroblewska-Czajka, Anita Lyssek-Boron, Edward A Wylegala, Dariusz Dobrowolski
Purpose: Evaluation of the indications, anatomical and functional results, and complications of total penetrating keratoplasty (TPK) in disorders involving whole cornea. Materials and Methods: We analyzed outcomes of the surgical treatment of 47 eyes of 46 patients that underwent TPK. Indications were infectious keratitis, autoimmune disease, injury of the eyeball (mainly chemical burns), and other combined disorders. The surgical technique involved dissection of affected tissues with a margin of 1...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Laura Proietto, Sarah S Beatty, Caryn E Plummer
PURPOSE: To compare corneal cytology samples from three common sampling techniques: cytobrush (CB), Kimura platinum spatula (KS), and the handle edge of a scalpel blade (SB). METHODS: Equine patients presenting to the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine with ulcerative keratitis were included. Following diagnosis of corneal ulcer and sampling for microbial culture, two cytology samples per technique were collected with sterile CB, KS, and SB in a randomized order...
April 24, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Darren Shu Jeng Ting, Sathish Srinivasan, Jean-Pierre Danjoux
The number of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedures is continuing to rise. Since its first application for correcting simple refractive errors over 25 years ago, the role of LASIK has extended to treat other conditions, including postkeratoplasty astigmatism/ametropia, postcataract surgery refractive error and presbyopia, among others. The long-term effectiveness, predictability and safety have been well established by many large studies. However, due to the creation of a potential interface between the flap and the underlying stroma, interface complications such as infectious keratitis, diffuse lamellar keratitis and epithelial ingrowth may occur...
2018: BMJ open ophthalmology
Yen C Hsia, Caitlin A Moe, Thomas M Lietman, Jeremy D Keenan, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
Objective: To assess the current opinion and practice patterns from cornea experts regarding the benefit of corneal cross-linking (CXL) for infectious keratitis (IK). Methods and analysis: An international survey was distributed to corneal specialists via an internet survey. The survey data collected were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results: A survey was sent to 190 recipients, and 29 (15%) respondents completed the survey with an average of 7 years' experience using CXL...
2018: BMJ open ophthalmology
M Beylerian, M Lazaro, J Magalon, J Veran, A Darque, F Grimaud, N Stolowy, H Beylerian, F Sabatier, L Hoffart
INTRODUCTION: Dry eye disease is a multifactorial pathology of the ocular surface. The high incidence of this pathology, as well as its significant impact on quality of life and vision and its financial cost, makes it a real public health problem. While the treatment of mild cases is generally simple and effective, treatment of severe forms is often disappointing. The use of autologous serum tears (AST) represents a therapeutic alternative for the most severe cases. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of long-term AST treatment in patients with severe dry eye disease refractory to conventional treatment or secondary to systemic diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome or Graft versus Host disease (GVH), or ocular pathologies such as neurotrophic keratitis, chemical burns and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid...
March 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Julie Gueudry, Laetitia Le Goff, Patricia Compagnon, Sabine Lefevre, Elodie Colasse, Camille Aknine, François Duval, Arnaud François, Romy Razakandrainibe, Jean Jacques Ballet, Marc Muraine, Loïc Favennec
Background: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infectious disease. Its effective and safe medical therapy remains highly debated. Recently, voriconazole, a monotriazole with noted in vitro activity against a large variety of fungi, has been successfully used both topically and systemically to treat human AK cases. Objectives: To measure anti-Acanthamoeba polyphaga in vitro activity, anti-rat AK efficiency and rat cornea penetration of eye-drop and oral voriconazole...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kentaro Sueoka, Taiichiro Chikama, Miftahul Akhyar Latief, Ji-Ae Ko, Yoshiaki Kiuchi, Takemasa Sakaguchi, Akira Obana
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a major cause of infectious keratitis, which itself is a major cause of blindness worldwide. We have now evaluated the time-dependent effectiveness of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with the chlorin derivative TONS 504 and a light-emitting diode (LED) on P. aeruginosa in vitro. PACT with TONS 504 (10 mg/L) and irradiation (30 J/m2 ) by an LED device that delivers light centered on a wavelength of 660 nm was applied to 1 × 106 colony-forming units of P...
March 27, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
John S M Chang
Background: Astigmatic keratotomy (AK) remains an accessible means to correct surgically induced or naturally occurring astigmatism. The advantages of femtosecond laser-assisted astigmatic keratotomy (FSAK) over conventional methods have been recognized recently. Main text: This review evaluates the efficacy, complications, and different methods of FSAK for correction of astigmatism in native eyes and those that underwent previous penetrating keratoplasty (PKP)...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Francisco de Borja Domínguez-Serrano, Manuel Caro-Magdaleno, Rafael Perea-Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez-de-la-Rúa, Jesús Montero-Iruzubieta
SIGNIFICANCE: Lacrimal punctal plugs may prevent the teratogenicity of the treatment used in infectious keratitis. Its use should be strongly considered in these cases. PURPOSE: We present the case of a 7-week pregnant patient with Acanthamoeba keratitis. CASE REPORT: The patient was a contact lens user with photophobia, redness, and intense pain in the right eye that started 2 weeks earlier. Corrected visual acuity was 20/63 (0.5 logMAR)...
April 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Koji Kitazawa, Koichi Wakimasu, Kazuhito Yoneda, Bernie Iliakis, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita
Purpose: Fungal infections post keratoplasty due to contamination of the donor corneal graft have become important issues that need to be addressed. Here we report a case of fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis post penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) due to fungal contamination of the donor corneal graft. Observations: We present a 52-year-old male who underwent PKP with a donor corneal graft that was later found to be contaminated with fungus. At 4-weeks postoperative, infectious infiltrates suddenly appeared at the border between the host and donor corneal graft, and endophthalmitis concomitantly occurred...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Ingo Schmack, Michael Müller, Thomas Kohnen
Infectious inflammation of the cornea (microbial keratitis) represents a potentially vision threatening disease. Depending on the infectious agent and the course of the disease it can result in a complete loss of the involved eye. Early diagnosis and accurate treatment are mandatory to maintain a sufficient visual acuity. The purpose of this review is to highlight and discuss characteristic clinical features, diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic aspects of three major forms of microbial keratitis (bacteria, fungi, and acanthamoeba; the latter two in the 2nd part of this article)...
March 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
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