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Tuberculosis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736436/heterogeneity-in-tuberculosis
#1
REVIEW
Anthony M Cadena, Sarah M Fortune, JoAnne L Flynn
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), results in a range of clinical presentations in humans. Most infections manifest as a clinically asymptomatic, contained state that is termed latent TB infection (LTBI); a smaller subset of infected individuals present with symptomatic, active TB. Within these two seemingly binary states, there is a spectrum of host outcomes that have varying symptoms, microbiologies, immune responses and pathologies. Recently, it has become apparent that there is diversity of infection even within a single individual...
July 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735154/accuracy-of-c-reactive-protein-as-a-bacterial-infection-marker-in-critically-immunosuppressed-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Vanessa Martins de Oliveira, Rafael Barberena Moraes, Airton Tetelbom Stein, Eliana Márcia Wendland
BACKGROUND: There is a need for a better understanding of the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a valid marker for the detection of bacterial infections in critically immunosuppressed patients. A high negative predictive value of CRP is also needed to rule out sepsis and bacterial infections in immunocompetent patients. However, few studies have evaluated the performance of CRP in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of CRP as a marker of infection in critically immunosuppressed patients...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732078/impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-indeterminate-results-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#3
Hong-Joon Shin, Tae-Ok Kim, Hyung-Joo Oh, Ha-Young Park, Jin-Sun Chang, Seong Ahn, Yu-Il Kim, Sung-Chul Lim, Yong-Soo Kwon
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection could be affected by conditions of immune dysregulation. For this reason, diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase the frequency of indeterminate results of IGRAs. However, there have been inconsistent reports of role of DM on indeterminate IGRA results. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube testing (QFT-GIT) at Chonnam National University Hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730751/tuberculosis-and-biologics-in-rheumatology-india-a-special-situation
#4
REVIEW
Rohini Handa, Sundeep Upadhyaya, Sanjiv Kapoor, Ramesh Jois, Bimlesh D Pandey, Anuj K Bhatnagar, Ashwani Khanna, Vishal Goyal, Kamal Kumar
India has a huge patient burden of rheumatic diseases (RDs) including rheumatoid arthritis. The use of biologics has transformed the treatment paradigm for RD; however, biologic treatment-related infections (especially tuberculosis [TB]) are an area of potential concern for TB-endemic nations like India. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy impairs the physiological TNF-mediated signaling and may cause reactivation and dissemination of latent TB infection (LTBI). Careful screening is, thus, crucial in RD patients who are about to commence anti-TNF treatment...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730222/tuberculosis-and-its-particularities-in-romania-and-worldwide
#5
Floarea Mimi NiŢu, Mihai Olteanu, Costin Teodor Streba, Gabriela Jimborean, Paraschiva Postolache, Milena Adina Man, Antigona Carmen Trofor, Roxana Maria Nemeş, Livia Dragonu, Mădălina Olteanu
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health issue, with a rising incidence since the beginning of this century. It poses a severe mortality risk and also poses a serious economic risk as it reduces the working capacity of an individual in the most productive part of life. Developing countries face widespread tuberculosis infection - up to 95% of all cases and 98% of deaths, respectively. It is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (the Koch bacillus) that can be contracted from either humans or animal hosts...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729186/-tuberculosis-treatment-for-children-an-update
#6
María José Mellado Peña, Begoña Santiago García, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, David Moreno Pérez, Roi Piñeiro Pérez, Ana Méndez Echevarría, José Tomás Ramos Amador, David Gómez-Pastrana Durán, Antoni Noguera Julian
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important infectious disease all over the world, with a high morbidity and mortality. Pediatric tuberculosis has been a neglected epidemic, due to the difficulties in assessing its global impact, reduced incidence and lower infectivity compared to adults. In 2015, the WHO reported 1 million cases of paediatric TB and 169,000 deaths. In Europe, the emergence of MDR TB is a major concern, representing 16% of the new diagnosis in Eastern Europe. In 2014, it was estimated that about 219,000 children were infected by MDR-TB-strains in Europe, and 2,120 developed the disease...
July 17, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728346/suggestions-for-promoting-evidence-based-public-health-in-korea
#7
Jong-Myon Bae
The Public Health (EBPH) is defined as a decision-making in the domain of public health using current best evidences. Debates about the latent tuberculosis infection control program suggested by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017 bring the need for promoting EBPH. To do this, three strategies were suggested as following: drawing some necessary evidences by evaluating policy-evidence gaps, delivering good quality and relevant evidences timely by conducting systematic reviews and adapting public health guidelines, and making the value-driven decisions by training and educating public health policy makers...
July 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728181/the-value-of-diagnostic-work-up-in-the-evaluation-of-white-dot-syndromes
#8
Neal V Palejwala, Gagan Sawhney, Matthew Raecker, Chrstina J Flaxel, Steven Yeh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic yield of systemic work-up in white dot syndromes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Eighty-six consecutive patients with a diagnosis of a white dot syndrome were identified. Forty-three had a diagnosis of birdshot chorioretinopathy. Overall, 395 diagnostic tests were performed with a diagnostic yield of 11.9%. The test with the greatest diagnostic yield was HLA-A29 typing (89%)...
July 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727141/etiologic-and-differential-diagnostic-significance-of-tumor-location-in-the-supraclavicular-fossa
#9
Achim Franzen, Thomas Günzel, Andre Buchali, Annekatrin Coordes
OBJECTIVE: Patients presenting with a cervical mass are common for head and neck specialists and present a diagnostic challenge against the backdrop of a wide variety of etiologies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the significance of a mass in the supraclavicular fossa for etiology, diagnostic procedure, and therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Individual retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We reviewed the data of 211 consecutive cases (116 male, 95 female) with excisional biopsy or tumor removal of a supraclavicular mass...
July 20, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725444/post-tuberculous-fibrosing-mediastinitis-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Zhe Wu, Hannah Jarvis, Luke S Howard, Corrina Wright, Onn Min Kon
Fibrosing mediastinitis (FM) is a rare disease where there is thickening of the fibrous tissue in the mediastinum. While histoplasmosis is the the most common recognised cause, the link with tuberculosis (TB) has been rarely documented. We review the link between TB and FM, and describe a case of probable TB-related FM.Our case is of a 74-year-old man who presented with breathlessness 3 years after fully treated TB. Scans revealed a calcified soft tissue mass within the mediastinum, and a diagnosis of fibrosing mediastinitis resulting in pulmonary hypertension was made...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725166/tuberculosis-and-hiv-are-the-leading-causes-of-adult-death-in-northwest-ethiopia-evidence-from-verbal-autopsy-data-of-dabat-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-2007-2013
#11
Yigzaw Kebede, Gashaw Andargie, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Tadesse Awoke, Mezgebu Yitayal, Solomon Mekonnen, Mamo Wubshet, Temesgen Azmeraw, Yihunie Lakew, Kassahun Alemu
BACKGROUND: Reliable data on causes of death form the basis for building evidence on health policy, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. In Ethiopia, the majority of deaths occur at home and civil registration systems are not yet functional. The main objective of verbal autopsy (VA) is to describe the causes of death at the community or population level where civil registration and death certification systems are weak and where most people die at home without having had contact with the health system...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724359/the-burden-of-hiv-on-tuberculosis-patients-in-the-volta-region-of-ghana-from-2012-to-2015-implication-for-tuberculosis-control
#12
Eric Osei, Joyce Der, Richard Owusu, Philip Kofie, Wisdom Kudzo Axame
BACKGROUND: The impact of HIV on TB, and the implications for TB control, has been acknowledged as a public health challenge. It is imperative therefore to assess the burden of HIV on TB patients as an indicator for monitoring the control efforts of the two diseases in this part of the world. This study aimed at determining the burden of HIV infection in TB patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of TB registers in five districts of the Volta Region of Ghana...
July 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723479/infectious-complications-of-circumcision-and-their-prevention
#13
REVIEW
Itzhak Brook
CONTEXT: A growing body of evidence supports the health benefits of circumcision, but the occurrence of infectious complications is of concern. OBJECTIVE: To review literature presenting past data and studies of infectious complications of circumcision and their prevention. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was conducted of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Turning Research into Practice, PubMed, and Medline databases from their inception through June 25, 2015...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721191/small-bowel-obstruction-due-to-mesenteric-abscess-caused-by-mycobacterium-avium-complex-in-an-hiv-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
S M Mohar, Saqib Saeed, Alexius Ramcharan, Hector Depaz
Small bowel obstruction in HIV patients is reportedly caused by inflammatory pseudotumor, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptococcal lymphadenopathy and intestinal tuberculosis. The incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in HIV patients is 3% for CD4 cell count of 100-199 /mm(3). MAC causing small bowel obstruction is rarely reported in the literature. We report a rare case of MAC causing mesenteric abscess with small bowel obstruction in a HIV patient with a CD4 cell count of 144 /mm(3). Patient was a 35-year-old HIV-positive male on highly active antiretroviral therapy who presented with partial small bowel obstruction secondary to mesenteric abscess...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720611/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#15
Tariro J Basera, Jabulani Ncayiyana, Mark E Engel
INTRODUCTION: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains a major public health problem and one of the major contributors to the pool of active tuberculosis cases. The true burden of LTBI in Africa is not known. Early modelling studies estimate that over 33% of the world's population is infected with latent tuberculosis. We propose conducting a systematic review and a meta-analysis to evaluate the burden and risk factors of LTBI in Africa reported in studies from 2000 to 2017. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will include cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case-control studies estimating either tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) confirmed prevalence of LTBI and associated risk factors among people in African countries...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719295/regional-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-major-opportunistic-infections-among-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-in-japan-northern-thailand-northern-vietnam-and-the-philippines
#16
Louie Mar A Gangcuangco, Ikumi Sawada, Naho Tsuchiya, Cuong D Do, Thanh Thuy T Pham, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Marissa Alejandria, Katerina Leyritana, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Panita Pathipvanich, Koya Ariyoshi
To identify regional differences in the distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Asia, the medical records of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients who attended the following tertiary hospitals from 2003 to 2011 were reviewed: Nagoya Medical Center (NMC, Nagoya, Japan), Lampang Hospital (LPH, Lampang, northern Thailand), Bach Mai Hospital (BMH, Hanoi, northern Vietnam), and Philippine General Hospital (PGH, Manila, Philippines). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations between country of origin and risk of major OIs...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719264/the-human-microbiome-in-the-fight-against-tuberculosis
#17
Madeleine R Wood, Elaine A Yu, Saurabh Mehta
AbstractThe human microbiome is an intriguing potentially modifiable risk factor in our arsenal against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the leading infectious disease killer globally. Previous studies have shown associations between the human microbiome and pulmonary disease states; however, etiological links between the microbiome and tuberculosis (TB) infection or disease remain unclear. Immunomodulatory roles of the microbiome may prove to be a critical asset in the host response against TB, including in preventing TB infection, reducing progression from latency, mitigating disease severity, and lowering the incidence of drug resistance and coinfections...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717272/have-we-overcome-the-complications-of-laparoscopic-nephrectomy-a-prospective-cohort-study-using-the-modified-clavien-dindo-scale
#18
Tapan Agrawal, Rajeev Kumar, Prabhjot Singh, Ashish Saini, Amlesh Seth, Premnath Dogra
INTRODUCTION: Apart from the complexity of procedure and surgeon's experience, surgical complication rates depend on case definition and method of recording data. We prospectively evaluated the complications of laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN) in a current cohort of patients, graded on the modified Clavien-Dindo (CD) scale and compared them with historical cohorts. METHODS: In the Institutional Review Board approved protocol, all patients undergoing LN over a 30-month were enrolled in the study...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716042/tuberculosis-and-hiv-are-the-leading-causes-of-adult-death-in-northwest-ethiopia-evidence-from-verbal-autopsy-data-of-dabat-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-2007-2013
#19
Yigzaw Kebede, Gashaw Andargie, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Tadesse Awoke, Mezgebu Yitayal, Solomon Mekonnen, Mamo Wubshet, Temesgen Azmeraw, Yihunie Lakew, Kassahun Alemu
BACKGROUND: Reliable data on causes of death form the basis for building evidence on health policy, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. In Ethiopia, the majority of deaths occur at home and civil registration systems are not yet functional. The main objective of verbal autopsy (VA) is to describe the causes of death at the community or population level where civil registration and death certification systems are weak and where most people die at home without having had contact with the health system...
July 17, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715978/the-role-of-efflux-pumps-in-tuberculosis-treatment-and-their-promise-as-a-target-in-drug-development-unraveling-the-black-box
#20
Lindsey H M Te Brake, Gerjo J de Knegt, Jurriaan E de Steenwinkel, Teunis J P van Dam, David M Burger, Frans G M Russel, Reinout van Crevel, Jan B Koenderink, Rob E Aarnoutse
Insight into drug transport mechanisms is highly relevant to the efficacious treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Major problems in TB treatment are related to the transport of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs across human and mycobacterial membranes, affecting the concentrations of these drugs systemically and locally. Firstly, transporters located in the intestines, liver, and kidneys all determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-TB drugs, with a high risk of drug-drug interactions in the setting of concurrent use of antimycobacterial, antiretroviral, and antidiabetic agents...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
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