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Tuberculosis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779299/health-issues-of-refugees-attending-an-infectious-disease-refugee-health-clinic-in-a-regional-australian-hospital
#1
Peta J Masters, Penelope J Lanfranco, Emmy Sneath, Amanda J Wade, Sarah Huffam, James Pollard, James Standish, Kate McCloskey, Eugene Athan, Daniel P O'Brien, N Deborah Friedman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Refugees in Australia present with conditions different to those of the general population. The aim of this study was to review the reasons for referral, prevalence of conditions and treatment outcomes for refugee patients attending a specialist referral clinic in regional Victoria. METHOD: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients attending the refugee health clinic at University Hospital Geelong from January 2007 to December 2012...
May 2018: Australian journal of general practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778396/how-effective-are-approaches-to-migrant-screening-for-infectious-diseases-in-europe-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Farah Seedat, Sally Hargreaves, Laura B Nellums, Jing Ouyang, Michael Brown, Jon S Friedland
Rates of migration to Europe, and within Europe, have increased in recent years, with considerable implications for health systems. Migrants in Europe face a disproportionate burden of tuberculosis, HIV, and hepatitis B and C, yet experience a large number of barriers to accessing statutory health care on arrival. A better understanding of how to deliver effective and cost-effective screening, vaccination, and health services to this group is now crucial. We did a systematic review to document and assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of approaches used for infectious diseases screening, and to explore facilitators and barriers experienced by migrants to accessing screening programmes...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773765/a-comprehensive-review-on-primary-gallbladder-tuberculosis
#3
Ashish Gupta, Amit Gupta, Rohik Anjum, Saumya Agrawal, Dhiraj Mallik
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that can affect any organ system of the body. Abdominal TB can be gastrointestinal, lymph nodal, visceral or peritoneal. The gallbladder (GB) is rarely involved in abdominal TB as a primary organ. Extensive research literature on gallbladder TB is limited to case reports. There has been no review on this rare abdominal pathology. GB tuberculosis is a difficult diagnosis preoperatively. It is a rare differential among the more common gallbladder pathologies such as cholelithiasis, or a gallbladder malignancy...
April 30, 2018: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771143/cell-envelope-lipids-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#4
Parul Singh, Nagender Rao Rameshwaram, Sudip Ghosh, Sangita Mukhopadhyay
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular bacterium that persists and replicates inside macrophages. The bacterium possesses an unusual lipid-rich cell envelope that provides a hydrophobic impermeable barrier against many environmental stressors and allows it to survive extremely hostile intracellular surroundings. Since the lipid-rich envelope is crucial for M. tuberculosis virulence, the components of the cell wall lipid biogenesis pathways constitute an attractive target for the development of vaccines and antimycobacterial chemotherapeutics...
May 17, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770076/the-use-of-technology-to-improve-health-care-to-saskatchewan-s-first-nations-communities
#5
I Khan, N Ndubuka, K Stewart, V McKinney, I Mendez
Background: Saskatchewan is a province of over one million people and over 13% are Indigenous peoples, many of whom live on reserve lands. Despite continued efforts, access to health care remains a significant challenge for these Indigenous people, especially those in the North. Objective: To address this challenge, Saskatchewan's health care providers have been incorporating the use of technology for various health services. This paper describes various ways technology has been used in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan...
June 1, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769102/securitizing-hiv-aids-a-game-changer-in-state-societal-relations-in-china
#6
Catherine Yuk-Ping Lo
BACKGROUND: China has experienced unprecedented economic growth since the 1980s. Despite this impressive economic development, this growth exists side by side with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crises and the persisting deficiencies in public health provision in China. Acknowledging the prevailing health problems, the Chinese government has encouraged the development of health non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to respond to the health challenges and address the gaps in public health provision of the government...
May 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764477/meta-analysis-of-the-prevalence-of-tuberculosis-in-diabetic-patients-and-its-association-with-cigarette-smoking-in-african-and-asian-countries
#7
Fasil Wagnew, Setegn Eshetie, Animut Alebel, Getenet Dessie, Cheru Tesema, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis in diabetic patients and to determine the effect of cigarette smoking. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies was included in the meta-analysis. The pooled overall prevalence of tuberculosis in diabetes was 4.72% (95% CI 3.62-5.83%). In sub-group analyses, the prevalence was 5.13% (95% CI 4.34-5.92%) in Africa, followed by 4.16% (95% CI 2.9-5.4%) in Asia. The odd ratio of tuberculosis among diabetes patients was 7...
May 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763423/from-one-incision-to-one-port-the-surgical-technique-and-the-evolution-of-segmentectomy-in-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
Yau-Lin Tseng, Chao-Chun Chang, Ying-Yuan Chen, Yi-Sheng Liu, Lili Cheng, Jia-Ming Chang, Ming-Ho Wu, Yi-Ting Yen
OBJECTIVES: We retrospectively reviewed the evolution of segmentectomy for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and the feasibility of multi- and single-incision video-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomy. METHODS: Of 348 patients undergoing surgery for TB, the medical records of 121 patients undergoing segmentectomy between January 1996 and November 2015 were reviewed. Clinical information and computed tomography (CT) image characteristics were investigated and analyzed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762680/tuberculosis-and-the-art-of-macrophage-manipulation
#9
S Upadhyay, E Mittal, J A Philips
Macrophages are first-line responders against microbes. The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) rests upon its ability to convert these antimicrobial cells into a permissive cellular niche. This is a remarkable accomplishment, as the antimicrobial arsenal of macrophages is extensive. Normally bacteria are delivered to an acidic, degradative lysosome through one of several trafficking pathways, including LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) and autophagy. Once phagocytozed, the bacilli are subjected to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and they induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which serve to augment host responses...
June 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762203/preparing-patients-for-biologic-medications-for-dermatologic-and-rheumatic-diseases
#10
Benjamin J Smith, Brigitta C Nuccio, Katelyn Y Graves, Victor M McMillan
Psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis are prevalent conditions that often require a team of primary care and specialist healthcare professionals for the most optimum patient outcomes. Primary care providers can facilitate referrals to dermatology and rheumatology specialists by obtaining the needed screening workup for patients who need treatment with immunosuppressive therapies. This article reviews tuberculosis screening, hepatitis screening, and vaccinations to be administered before patients begin biologic medications...
May 8, 2018: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761645/redox-guided-small-molecule-antimycobacterials
#11
REVIEW
Amogh Kulkarni, Ajay Kumar Sharma, Harinath Chakrapani
The emergence of drug resistance has posed a major challenge to treatment of tuberculosis worldwide. The new drug candidates in the pipeline are few and therefore there is an urgent need to develop antimycobacterials with novel mechanisms of action. Maintenance of redox homeostasis is integral to mycobacterial survival and growth. Therefore, perturbation of this equilibrium can result in irreversible stress induction and inhibition of growth. Herein, we review a number of small molecules that have either been designed to induce redox stress or were found to do so after their discovery...
May 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761628/recent-advances-for-identification-of-new-scaffolds-and-drug-targets-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Rohan Dhiman, Ramandeep Singh
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity with an estimated 1.7 billion people latently infected with the pathogen worldwide. Clinically, TB infection presents itself as an asymptomatic infection, which gradually manifests to life threatening disease. The emergence of various drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and lengthy duration of chemotherapy are major challenges in the field of TB drug development. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop scaffolds that possess a novel mechanism of action, can shorten the duration of therapy, and are active against both drug resistant and susceptible strains...
May 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757583/what-immunological-defects-predispose-to-non-tuberculosis-mycobacterial-infections
#13
Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757395/genotyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-to-identify-tuberculosis-transmission-to-pediatric-patients-in-british-columbia-canada-2005-2014
#14
Jennifer L Guthrie, Andy Delli Pizzi, David Roth, Clare Kong, Danielle Jorgensen, Mabel Rodrigues, Patrick Tang, Victoria J Cook, James Johnston, Jennifer L Gardy
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is often an indicator of recent transmission. Genotyping and whole genome sequencing (WGS) can enhance pediatric TB investigations by confirming or refuting transmission events. Methods: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all pediatric patients <18 years with culture-confirmed TB in British Columbia (BC) from 2005-2014 (n=49) were genotyped by MIRU-VNTR and compared to adult isolates. Genotypically clustered cases underwent WGS...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756005/peripheral-lymph-node-excisional-biopsy-yield-relevance-and-outcomes-in-a-remote-surgical-setup
#15
Ashish Lal Shrestha, Pradita Shrestha
Objective: To study the patient profile for symptomatic peripheral lymphadenopathy in terms of histopathological findings and demography and evaluate the yield, relevance, and outcomes of peripheral lymph node biopsy (PLNB) as a diagnostic step in a remote setup in the absence of less invasive options like fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or ultrasonogram- (USG-) guided FNAC. Methods: A retrospective review of patients undergoing PLNB between 1 May 2011 and 30 April 2013 was done...
2018: Surgery Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755620/human-genomic-loci-important-in-common-infectious-diseases-role-of-high-throughput-sequencing-and-genome-wide-association-studies
#16
REVIEW
Gerald Mboowa, Ivan Sserwadda, Marion Amujal, Norah Namatovu
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria are 3 major global public health threats that undermine development in many resource-poor settings. Recently, the notion that positive selection during epidemics or longer periods of exposure to common infectious diseases may have had a major effect in modifying the constitution of the human genome is being interrogated at a large scale in many populations around the world. This positive selection from infectious diseases increases power to detect associations in genome-wide association studies (GWASs)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751778/misdiagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-associated-factors-in-peripheral-laboratories-a-retrospective-study-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#17
Daniel Melese Desalegn, Kumera Terfa Kitila, Hanna Mekonnen Balcha, Chalachew Sisay Gebeyehu, Yohannes W Kidan, Kassayenew Amare, Daniel Dejene, Merone Seifu, Addis Zewdie, Abiyot Tenna, Tinsae Kidanemariam Hailu, Boja Dufera Taddese, Abrham Tesfaye Bika
OBJECTIVE: Sputum smear microscopy reading errors are likely to result in failure to detect persons with infectious TB. This study was intended to review misdiagnosis of pulmonary TB and associated factors in peripheral laboratories. RESULTS: During the study period 1033 (10.5%) sputum smear positive and 8783 (89.5%) smear negative slides were reported by peripheral laboratories. The slides were re-read by the central referral laboratories (CRLs) as the reference standard reading...
May 11, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749875/missed-opportunities-for-tuberculosis-prevention-among-patients-accessing-a-uk-hiv-service
#18
Hannah M Rickman, Robert F Miller, Stephen Morris-Jones, Lusha Kellgren, Simon G Edwards, Alison D Grant
United Kingdom guidelines recommend screening for and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in HIV-positive patients at high risk of active tuberculosis (TB) disease, but implementation is suboptimal. We investigated potential missed opportunities to identify and treat LTBI among HIV-positive patients accessing a large HIV outpatient service in London. Case records of all adult patients attending our service for HIV care diagnosed with active TB between 2011 and 2015 were reviewed to determine whether they met criteria for LTBI screening and whether screening was undertaken...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746953/reversion-of-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-in-individuals-with-and-without-prophylactic-treatment-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Haoran Zhang, Henan Xin, Xiangwei Li, Hengjing Li, Mufei Li, Boxuan Feng, Lei Gao
OBJECTIVES: Reversion of tuberculosis (TB) infection testing has been suggested to be associated with prophylactic treatment efficacy. However, evidences based on randomized controlled study were sparse. METHODS: Studies on serial QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) test, among individuals with and without prophylactic treatment were identified in the databases of PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 28 February 2018. The reversion rates were quantitatively summarized by means of meta-analysis using the random-effect model...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746787/diagnostic-challenge-with-nocardia-subretinal-abscess-a-case-report-from-tuberculosis-endemic-region
#20
Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Madhura Mukherjee, Lily Therese, Lingam Gopal, Jyotirmay Biswas
PURPOSE: To describe a case of Nocardia subretinal abscess, which posed a diagnostic challenge due to the presence of mycobacterial genome in sample obtained from fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). METHODS: A retrospective chart review. RESULTS: A 25-year-old male presented with sudden, painless onset diminution of vision of left eye and found to have placoid patch of choroiditis just temporal to the macula in right eye and showed vitritis, subretinal abscess with exudative retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage in left eye...
May 10, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
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