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Tuberculosis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643624/preclinical-efficacy-testing-of-new-drug-candidates
#1
Eric L Nuermberger
This is a review of the preclinical efficacy testing of new antituberculosis drug candidates. It describes existing dynamic in vitro and in vivo models of antituberculosis chemotherapy and their utility in preclinical evaluations of promising new drugs and combination regimens, with an effort to highlight recent developments. Emphasis is given to the integration of quantitative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses and the impact of lesion pathology on drug efficacy. Discussion also includes in vivo models of chemotherapy of latent tuberculosis infection...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641948/optimally-capturing-latency-dynamics-in-models-of-tuberculosis-transmission
#2
Romain Ragonnet, James M Trauer, Nick Scott, Michael T Meehan, Justin T Denholm, Emma S McBryde
Although different structures are used in modern tuberculosis (TB) models to simulate TB latency, it remains unclear whether they are all capable of reproducing the particular activation dynamics empirically observed. We aimed to determine which of these structures replicate the dynamics of progression accurately. We reviewed 88 TB-modelling articles and classified them according to the latency structure employed. We then fitted these different models to the activation dynamics observed from 1352 infected contacts diagnosed in Victoria (Australia) and Amsterdam (Netherlands) to obtain parameter estimates...
June 16, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641558/bis-2-aminoimidazolines-and-bisguanidines-synthetic-approaches-antiparasitic-activity-and-dna-binding-properties
#3
Christophe Dardonville, J Jonathan Nué Martínez
BACKGROUND: Parasitic diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma and Plasmodium cause some of the deadliest and disabling human infections in tropical and subtropical areas. Diphenyl-based bis(2-phenylimino)imidazolidines and bisguanidines are extremely potent antiparasitic agents against Trypanosoma brucei (etiological agent of African trypanosomiasis) and Plasmodium falciparum (etiological agent of severe malaria). Many of these compounds are also curative in mouse models of stage 1 African trypanosomiasis representing promising leads for the development of antitrypanosomal drugs...
June 22, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640131/paragonimiasis-in-children-in-southwest-china-a-retrospective-case-reports-review-from-2005-to-2016
#4
Zongrong Gong, Ruixue Miao, Min Shu, Yu Zhu, Yang Wen, Qin Guo, Qiong Liao, Chaomin Wan
BACKGROUND: Paragonimiasis infection has no specific symptoms or typical radiologic findings, leading to the possibility of misdiagnosis. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze clinical and radiological features, and treatment outcome of paragonimiasis in children in Southwest China to improve the awareness of this disease. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of children diagnosed with paragonimiasis in West China Second University Hospital between 2005 and 2016...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636418/dxs-as-a-target-for-structure-based-drug-design
#5
Robin Matthias Gierse, Eswar Redeem, Eleonora Diamanti, Carsten Wrenger, Matthew R Groves, Anna Kh Hirsch
In this review, we analyze the enzyme DXS, the first and rate-limiting protein in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway. This pathway was discovered in 1996 and is one of two known metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of the universal building blocks for isoprenoids. It promises to offer new targets for the development of anti-infectives against the human pathogens, malaria or tuberculosis. We mapped the sequence conservation of 1-deoxy-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase on the protein structure and analyzed it in comparison with previously identified druggable pockets...
June 21, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632996/taking-control-hijacking-of-rab-gtpases-by-intracellular-bacterial-pathogens
#6
Stefania Spanò, Jorge E Galán
Intracellular bacterial pathogens survive and replicate within specialized eukaryotic cell organelles. To establish their intracellular niches these pathogens have adopted sophisticated strategies to control intracellular membrane trafficking. Since Rab-family GTPases are critical regulators of endocytic and secretory membrane trafficking events, many intracellular pathogens have evolved specific mechanisms to modulate or hijack Rab GTPases dynamics and trafficking functions. One such strategy is the delivery of bacterial effectors through specialized machines to specifically target Rab GTPases...
June 20, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630834/van-neck-odelberg-disease-a-rare-case-report
#7
Amit Prakash Chaudhari, Gautam Shah, Sameer Sanjeev Patil, Aashish Babanrao Ghodke, Sagar B Kelkar
INTRODUCTION: Pain in groin without any history of trauma or positive clinical findings of infection or stress fracture in ischiopubic ramus poses challenges in diagnosis of the condition in prepubertal age. "Osteochondrosis of ischiopubic synchondrosis (IPS)" also called as "Van Neck-Odelberg" disease. Left leg dominant patient presented with pain in groin and limping with left leg dominance. Differential diagnosis - such as stress fractures, osteomyelitis, tuberculosis, post-traumatic osteolysis, or any neoplasia - is need be ruled out to arrive at diagnosis...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629185/leptadenia-reticulata-retz-wight-arn-jivanti-botanical-agronomical-phytochemical-pharmacological-and-biotechnological-aspects
#8
REVIEW
Sudipta Kumar Mohanty, Mallappa Kumara Swamy, Uma Rani Sinniah, Maniyam Anuradha
Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant species widely used to treat various ailments such as tuberculosis, hematopoiesis, emaciation, cough, dyspnea, fever, burning sensation, night blindness, cancer, and dysentery. In Ayurveda, it is known for its revitalizing, rejuvenating, and lactogenic properties. This plant is one of the major ingredients in many commercial herbal formulations, including Speman, Envirocare, Calshakti, Antisept, and Chyawanprash. The therapeutic potential of this herb is because of the presence of diverse bioactive compounds such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, ferulic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, hentricontanol, a triterpene alcohol simiarenol, apigenin, reticulin, deniculatin, and leptaculatin...
June 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628823/drug-development-against-tuberculosis-impact-of-alkaloids
#9
REVIEW
Shardendu K Mishra, Garima Tripathi, Navneet Kishore, Rakesh K Singh, Archana Singh, Vinod K Tiwari
Despite of the advances made in the treatment and management, tuberculosis (TB) still remains one of main public health problem. The contrary effects of first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs have generated extended research interest in natural products in the hope of devising new antitubercular leads. Interestingly, plethoras of natural products have been discovered to exhibit activity towards various resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Extensive applications of alkaloids in the field of therapeutics is well-established and nowday's researches being pursued to develop new potent drugs from natural sources for tuberculosis...
June 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628646/the-impact-of-glycemic-status-on-radiological-manifestations-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-diabetic-patients
#10
Li-Kuo Huang, Hsueh-Han Wang, Yi-Chun Lai, Shi-Chuan Chang
SETTING: Diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and influence its radiological manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of glycemic status on radiological findings of PTB in diabetic patients. METHODS: Between January 2010 and December 2015, chest radiographs (CXRs) in consecutive 214 DM patients with culture-proved PTB and 123 available thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans were enrolled. An equal number of non-DM patients with similar demographics was included as the control group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628338/community-acquired-tsukamurella-pneumonia-in-a-young-immunocompetent-adult-a-case-misdiagnosed-as-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-literature-review
#11
LiKun Yang, Yan Cao, Zijun Dan, Zhongyuan Wang, Xinjing Wang
This report describes a case of Tsukamurella pneumonia in a 24-year-old immunocompetent woman. The patient was diagnosed as having pulmonary tuberculosis and was treated for nearly 9 months. The correct diagnosis was suspected only when the results of mycobacteria nucleic acid amplification tests on cultural colonies were negative. Tsukamurella was identified from the patient's sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by using 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Here, the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment strategies of Tsukamurella pneumonia are discussed, along with a literature review...
June 19, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627738/systematic-review-on-the-proteomic-profile-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-exposed-to-drugs
#12
REVIEW
Paula Aline Zanetti Campanerut-Sá, Luciana Dias Ghiraldi-Lopes, Jean Eduardo Meneguello, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Regiane Bertin de Lima Scodro, Vera Lucia Dias Siqueira, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski, Fernando Rogério Pavan, Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso
We present an over view about proteomics studies in Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposed to some anti-tuberculosis drugs and new candidates, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. To date, that we have knowledge, this is the first studies that was performed specifically in M. tuberculosis using systematic review on electronic literature conducted in three databases using the following search terms: tuberculosis OR mycobacterium tuberculosis, proteome OR proteomics, and mass spectrometry electrospray ionization OR matrix assisted laser desorption ionization OR two dimensional gel electrophoresis...
June 19, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626811/the-enrich-study-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-a-combination-intervention-package-to-improve-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-initiation-adherence-and-completion-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-ethiopia-rationale-and-design-of-a-mixed-methods-cluster-randomized
#13
Andrea A Howard, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Suzue Saito, Tsigereda Gadisa, Amrita Daftary, Zenebe Melaku
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) prevents tuberculosis among HIV-positive individuals, however implementation is suboptimal. Implementation science studies are needed to identify interventions to address this evidence-to-program gap. OBJECTIVE: The ENRICH Study is a mixed methods cluster randomized trial aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and acceptability of a combination intervention package (CIP) to improve IPT implementation in Ethiopia. DESIGN: Ten health centers were randomized to receive the CIP or standard of care...
June 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626346/neutrophils-in-tuberculosis-heterogeneity-shapes-the-way
#14
REVIEW
Irina V Lyadova
Infection with M. tuberculosis remains one of the most common infections in the world. The outcome of the infection depends on host ability to mount effective protection and balance inflammatory responses. Neutrophils are innate immune cells implicated in both processes. Accordingly, during M. tuberculosis infection, they play a dual role. Particularly, they contribute to the generation of effector T cells, participate in the formation of granuloma, and are directly involved in tissue necrosis, destruction, and infection dissemination...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626255/underlying-cause-of-death-recorded-during-2013-to-2015-at-a-tertiary-general-hospital-in-vientiane-capital-lao-pdr
#15
Bounfeng Phoummalaysith, Viengsakhone Louangpradith, Tavanh Manivon, Bounxou Keohavong, Eiko Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Hamajima
In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), the cause of death is not registered in death reports. As a result, the government cannot produce official reports that show mortality according to cause of death. This study aimed to report the underlying cause of death in a tertiary general hospital (Mittaphab Hospital) in Vientiane capital. Mittaphab hospital is a governmental teaching hospital with 300 beds for inpatient services specialized in orthopedics, neurology, and hemodialysis. Since a children hospital exists beside Mittaphab Hospital, severe pediatric cases are referred to the child hospital...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626190/miliary-tuberculosis-in-a-young-woman-with-hemophagocytic-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Mina Asaji, Kazunori Tobino, Koujin Murakami, Yuki Goto, Takuto Sueyasu, Saori Nishizawa, Kohei Yoshimine, Miyuki Munechika, Yuki Ko, Yuki Yoshimatsu, Kosuke Tsuruno, Hiromi Ide, Hiroyuki Miyajima, Noriyuki Ebi
We herein report a rare case of miliary tuberculosis-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) complicated with respiratory failure. A 19-year-old Japanese woman with a fever, general malaise, and chest radiograph abnormalities was referred to our hospital. After admission, she developed respiratory failure with pancytopenia. A histological examination of lung and bone marrow biopsy samples revealed noncaseating granulomas without evidence of acid-fast bacilli or lymphoma. In addition, a bone marrow biopsy showed marked histiocyte hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis, and a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid culture grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625793/comparison-of-sputum-collection-methods-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-a-systematic-review-and-pairwise-and-network-meta-analysis
#17
Sumona Datta, Lena Shah, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A Evans
BACKGROUND: The performance of laboratory tests to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis is dependent on the quality of the sputum sample tested. The relative merits of sputum collection methods to improve tuberculosis diagnosis are poorly characterised. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of sputum collection methods on tuberculosis diagnosis. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether non-invasive sputum collection methods in people aged at least 12 years improve the diagnostic performance of laboratory testing for pulmonary tuberculosis...
June 15, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622844/antimycobacterial-metabolism-illuminating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-biology-and-drug-discovery
#18
REVIEW
Divya Awasthi, Joel S Freundlich
Bacteria are capable of performing a number of biotransformations that may activate or deactivate xenobiotics. Recent efforts have utilized metabolomics techniques to study the fate of small-molecule antibacterials within the targeted organism. Examples involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reviewed and analyzed with regard to the insights they provide as to both activation and deactivation of the antibacterial. The studies, in particular, shed light on biosynthetic transformations performed by M. tuberculosis while suggesting avenues for the evolution of chemical tools, highlighting potential areas for drug discovery, and mechanisms of approved drugs...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621249/tuberculosis-masked-by-immunodeficiency-a-review-of-two-cases-diagnosed-with-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#19
Hikmet Tekin Nacaroğlu, Semiha Bahçeci Erdem, Nesrin Gülez, Canan Şule Ünsal Karkıner, İlker Devrim, Ferah Genel, Mustafa Yavuz Köker, Demet Can
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetically heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency that is characterized by recurrent and life-threatening infections resulting from defects in phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system and granuloma formation due to increased inflammatory response. The most commonly involved organs are the lungs, skin, lymph nodes, and liver due to infection. It may present with recurrent pneumonia, hilar lymphadenopathy, empyema, abscess, reticulonodular patterns, and granulomas due to lung involvement...
March 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619159/original-mycobacterial-sin-a-consequence-of-highly-homologous-antigens
#20
REVIEW
A O Jenkins, A Michel, V Rutten
The role of antigens shared between Mycobacteria in in-vivo cross-reactive immune responses in host animals, have been reported to be responsible for reduced BCG vaccination efficacy as well reduced specificity of routine immunological diagnostic tests. This presents with significant disease control challenges in humans and animals. The present review highlights the results of previous studies on the effect of pre-sensitization to environmental mycobacteria on either pathogenic mycobacteria and/or M. bovis BCG, in experimental animals...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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