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Tuberculosis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150886/ruxolitinib-associated-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Federico Lussana, Marco Cattaneo, Alessandro Rambaldi, Alessandro Squizzato
Ruxolitinib exerts immunosuppressive activity that may increase the risk of infectious complications. We performed a systematic review of the literature with the aim of estimating the risk of infections in patients treated with ruxolitinib. Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE database. Differences in the incidence of infectious events between ruxolitinib and comparison groups were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Five phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) (3 phase IIIa with their extended phase and 2 phase IIIb), 6 phase IV studies and 28 case reports were included in this systematic review...
November 18, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150377/urgent-versus-post-stabilisation-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-children-in-kenya-push-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Irene N Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Vincent O Otieno, Cyrus Mugo, Hellen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Barbra Richardson, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Urgent antiretroviral therapy (ART) among hospitalised HIV-infected children might accelerate recovery or worsen outcomes associated with immune reconstitution. We aimed to compare urgent versus post-stabilisation ART among hospitalised HIV-infected children in Kenya. METHODS: In this unmasked randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) HIV-infected, ART-naive children aged 0-12 years who were eligible for treatment to receive ART within 48 h (urgent group) or in 7-14 days (post-stabilisation group) at four hospitals in Kenya (two in Nairobi and two in western Kenya)...
November 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149896/liposomal-vaccine-formulations-as-prophylactic-agents-design-considerations-for-modern-vaccines
#3
REVIEW
Luis O De Serrano, David J Burkhart
Vaccinology is one of the most important cornerstones in modern medicine, providing better quality of life. The human immune system is composed of innate and adaptive immune processes that interplay when infection occurs. Innate immunity relies on pathogen-associated molecular patterns which are recognized by pathogen recognition receptors localized in antigen presenting cells. After antigen processing and presentation, CD4(+) T cell polarization occurs, further leading to B cell and CD8(+) activation and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune responses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148853/multi-stage-subunit-vaccines-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-an-alternative-to-the-bcg-vaccine-or-a-bcg-prime-boost
#4
Farzad Khademi, Mohammad Derakhshan, Arshid Yousefi-Avarvand, Mohsen Tafaghodi, Saman Soleimanpour
More than two billion people are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most tuberculosis (TB)-subunit vaccines currently in various stages of clinical trials are designed for prevention of active TB, but not to prevent reactivation of latent TB-infection. Thus, there is an urgent need for an effective multi-stage vaccine based on early-expressed and latently-expressed antigens that prevents both acute and latent infections. Areas covered: Here, we reviewed the published pre-clinical and clinical studies of multi-stage subunit vaccines against TB, and the protective capacities of the vaccines were compared with BCG, either alone or in combination with different vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants...
November 17, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147157/tuberculous-mycotic-aneurysm-of-common-iliac-artery-secondary-from-ureteric-tuberculosis-the-first-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Patchara Paraksa, Benjawan Skulsujirapa, Chusana Suankratay
Extrapulmonary involvement of tuberculosis occurs in 10-40% of reported cases. However, tuberculous mycotic aneurysm is very rare. We report herein tuberculous mycotic aneurysm of left common iliac artery secondary from ureteric tuberculosis in a 63-year-old man who presented with left flank pain for 1 month, and review the literature of all reported cases of tuberculous aneurysm of iliac artery.
September 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145819/recurrent-tuberculosis-in-finland-1995-2013-a-clinical-and-epidemiological-cohort-study
#6
Virve Korhonen, Hanna Soini, Tuula Vasankari, Jukka Ollgren, Pieter W Smit, Petri Ruutu
BACKGROUND: We investigated the epidemiology and prevalence of potential risk factors of tuberculosis (TB) recurrence in a population-based registry cohort of 8084 TB cases between 1995 and 2013. METHODS: An episode of recurrent TB was defined as a case re-registered in the National Infectious Disease Register at least 360 days from the date of the initial registration. A regression model was used to estimate risk factors for recurrence in the national cohort...
November 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145776/role-of-computed-tomography-of-abdomen-in-difficult-to-diagnose-typhoid-fever-a-case-series
#7
Wajid Hafeez, S Rajalakshmi, S Sripriya, M Madhu Bashini
Background and Aim Diagnosis of typhoid is challenging when blood cultures fail to isolate Salmonella species. We report our experience with interpreting computed tomography (CT) abdomen findings in a case series of typhoid fever. Methods The case series consisted of patients who had a CT abdomen done as part of their investigations and a final diagnosis of typhoid fever. The CT films were reviewed and findings evaluated for distinctive features. Results During 2011-2017, 11 patients met the inclusion criteria...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145443/lessons-learned-from-continued-tb-outbreaks-in-a-high-school
#8
Young Kim, Byeong Ki Kim, Hong Jo Choi, Sung Weon Ryu, Eui Sook Kim, Yoon Soo Chang, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hyung Cha, Je Hyeong Kim, Chol Shin, Seung Heon Lee
We investigated the aftereffects of confirmatory QuantiFERON testing (QFT) added to a positive tuberculin skin test (TST). We reviewed the pre and post course of sequential tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks in a high school where massive 43 active TB cases had been found within one year before delayed contact investigation. And we investigated the TB development in relation to initial TST and QFT during mean follow-up of 3.9 ± 0.9 years. After delayed contact investigation for two subsequent TB outbreaks, 925 contacts were divided into the following 3 groups: TST- (n = 632), TST+/QFT+ (n = 24), TST+/QFT- (n = 258)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142521/fatal-infections-in-older-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-on-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy
#9
Way-Seah Lee, Najib Azmi, Ruey-Terng Ng, Sik-Yong Ong, Sasheela Sri La Ponnampalavanar, Sanjiv Mahadeva, Ida Hilmi
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) is highly effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it is associated with an increased risk of infections, particularly in older adults. We reviewed 349 patients with IBD, who were observed over a 12-month period, 74 of whom had received anti-TNF therapy (71 patients were aged <60 years and 3 were aged ≥60 years). All the 3 older patients developed serious infectious complications after receiving anti-TNFs, although all of them were also on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy...
October 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142520/predictive-factors-for-malignancy-in-undiagnosed-isolated-small-bowel-strictures
#10
Ujjwal Sonika, Sujeet Saha, Saurabh Kedia, Nihar Ranjan Dash, Sujoy Pal, Prasenjit Das, Vineet Ahuja, Peush Sahni
Background/Aims: Patients with small bowel strictures have varied etiologies, including malignancy. Little data are available on the demographic profiles and etiologies of small bowel strictures in patients who undergo surgery because of intestinal obstruction but do not have a definitive pre-operative diagnosis. Methods: Retrospective data were analyzed for all patients operated between January 2000 and October 2014 for small bowel strictures without mass lesions and a definite diagnosis after imaging and endoscopic examinations...
October 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137869/morbidity-and-mortality-in-homeless-individuals-prisoners-sex-workers-and-individuals-with-substance-use-disorders-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Robert W Aldridge, Alistair Story, Stephen W Hwang, Merete Nordentoft, Serena A Luchenski, Greg Hartwell, Emily J Tweed, Dan Lewer, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: Inclusion health focuses on people in extremely poor health due to poverty, marginalisation, and multimorbidity. We aimed to review morbidity and mortality data on four overlapping populations who experience considerable social exclusion: homeless populations, individuals with substance use disorders, sex workers, and imprisoned individuals. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published between Jan 1, 2005, and Oct 1, 2015...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135152/-masks-of-urogenital-tuberculosis-as-the-cause-of-diagnostic-errors
#12
D P Kholtobin, E K Kulchavenya
Urogenital tuberculosis does not have pathognomonic symptoms, so diagnostic errors are quite common. This systematic review of literature was conducted to identify the causes and estimate the incidence of erroneous diagnoses. We critically evaluated some articles in which the authors describe observations of urogenital tuberculosis as rare and unusual because they never encountered this disease, but in fact that were typical manifestations of genitourinary tuberculosis. The authors analyzed and illustrated the features of urinary tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, differential diagnosis of urogenital tuberculosis and kidney cancer and male genitourinary organs, described errors in the diagnosis of urethral, testicular, penile, prostatic and epididymal tuberculosis...
October 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134822/treating-moderate-to-severe-plaque-psoriasis-with-guselkumab-a-review-of-phase-ii-and-phase-iii-trials
#13
Seth T Howell, Leah A Cardwell, Steven R Feldman
OBJECTIVE: Guselkumab, an anti-interleukin-23 monoclonal antibody was recently approved for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. This article will review the available phase II and phase III guselkumab clinical trial data. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was conducted using the terms guselkumab, interleukin-23, psoriasis, adalimumab, and ustekinumab (January 2014 to August 2017). STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Articles detailing the results of phase II and phase III clinical trials were selected for review...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134263/diminished-susceptibility-of-african-americans-to-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#14
Jerome M Reich, Jong S Kim
The incidence of three granulomatous response diseases-sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease-differ markedly in African-Americans versus Caucasians. In reviewing a large compendium of non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis, we noted that complicating infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria was relatively infrequent among individuals of African-American descent, confirming previous observations of their inherent resistance. Disease-specific variance among African-Americans in the efficacy of their granulomatous response suggests a nexus, a mediating, immunological mechanism...
November 13, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131034/clinical-trial-and-registry-data
#15
Melinda Gooderham, Kim Papp
Physicians rely on safety and efficacy data from pivotal trials to guide treatment decisions and manage patients. Even with robust clinical trial data, there remain questions regarding rare safety events and generalizability. Registries complement clinical trials. By evaluating effectiveness and safety in broad patient populations and often providing longer term or larger numbers of patients or both compared to clinical trials, registries consolidate and may extend the safety observations derived from pivotal trials...
2018: Current Problems in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130574/drug-interactions-between-rifamycin-antibiotics-and-hormonal-contraception-a-systematic-review
#16
Katharine B Simmons, Lisa B Haddad, Kavita Nanda, Kathryn M Curtis
BACKGROUND: Rifamycin antibiotics are commonly used for treatment of tuberculosis, but may reduce effectiveness of hormonal contraception (HC). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether interactions between rifamycins and HC result in decreased effectiveness or increased toxicity of either therapy. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and clinicaltrials. gov through May, 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included trials, cohort, and case-control studies addressing pregnancy rates, pharmacodynamics, or pharmacokinetic (PK) outcomes when HC and rifamycins were administered together versus apart...
November 12, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126812/infectious-disease-risks-among-refugees-from-north-korea
#17
Hiroshi Nishiura, Hyojung Lee, Baoyin Yuan, Akira Endo, Andrei R Akhmetzhanov, Gerardo Chowell
OBJECTIVES: Disease characteristics of North Korea including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks have not been openly and widely analyzed. The present study aimed to estimate infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea. METHODS: To statistically estimate risks of infectious diseases among North Korean, literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted. RESULTS: A total of six groups of data from five publications were identified from 2004 to 2014...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126225/bedaquiline-resistance-its-emergence-mechanism-and-prevention
#18
Thi Van Anh Nguyen, Richard M Anthony, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Dinh Hoa Vu, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar
Bedaquiline, a new anti-tuberculosis drug, has already been used in more than 50 countries. The emergence of bedaquiline resistance is alarming, as it may result in the rapid loss of this new drug. This paper aims to review currently identified mechanisms of resistance, the emergence of bedaquiline resistance, and discuss strategies to delay the resistance acquisition. In vitro and clinical studies as well as reports from the compassionate use have identified the threat of bedaquiline resistance and cross-resistance with clofazimine, emphasizing the crucial need for the systematic surveillance of resistance...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126100/using-reports-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-young-children-to-identify-tuberculosis-transmission-in-new-york-city-2006-2012
#19
Jennifer Sanderson Slutsker, Lisa Trieu, Aldo Crossa, Shama Desai Ahuja
Young children with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) indicate recent TB transmission. We reviewed surveillance reports of children with LTBI to assess whether more follow-up is needed to prevent TB among this high-risk population. All children <5 years reported to the New York City Department of Health from 2006-2012 were abstracted from the TB Registry to identify those with LTBI. Potential source cases were identified; defined as any infectious TB case diagnosed in the 2 years before a child was reported and whose residence was within <0...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125580/structural-diversity-biological-properties-and-applications-of-natural-products-from-cyanobacteria-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Sayed Asmat Ali Shah, Najeeb Akhter, Bibi Nazia Auckloo, Ishrat Khan, Yanbin Lu, Kuiwu Wang, Bin Wu, Yue-Wei Guo
Nowadays, various drugs on the market are becoming more and more resistant to numerous diseases, thus declining their efficacy for treatment purposes in human beings. Antibiotic resistance is one among the top listed threat around the world which eventually urged the discovery of new potent drugs followed by an increase in the number of deaths caused by cancer due to chemotherapy resistance as well. Accordingly, marine cyanobacteria, being the oldest prokaryotic microorganisms belonging to a monophyletic group, have proven themselves as being able to generate pharmaceutically important natural products...
November 10, 2017: Marine Drugs
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