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Tuberculosis review

Basant Kumar, Vijai Dutta Upadhyaya, Sandeep Kumar Rahul, Laxmi Kant Bharti, Ram Nawal Rao, Sheo Kumar
Background: To analyse our experience with acute presentations of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) in children for early diagnosis and management. Materials and Methods: From December 2010 to April 2016, available electronic and operation theatre (OT) records of 17 patients with confirmed diagnosis of abdominal TB were analysed retrospectively. Parameters reviewed were age, sex, presentations, diagnostic investigations, surgery/intervention performed, final outcome and follow-up...
July 2017: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
J M Carrascosa, E Del-Alcazar
Biologic drugs have revolutionized the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis in recent years because of their high efficacy and low risk of toxicity. However, even within the group of biologic therapies, there are differences related to the different mechanisms of action. Areas covered: We review the main adverse events associated with the biologic agents currently available for the treatment of psoriasis and the new inhibitors targeting the p19 subunit of interleukin (IL) 23 and the IL-17A receptor. This review covers injection site reactions, infections, cardiovascular events, demyelinating disorders, tumours, class effects secondary adverse events, immunogenicity, safety in pregnancy and vaccines efficacy...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Tonia C Poteat, Mannat Malik, Chris Beyrer
Transgender people experience a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and incarceration. Discrimination, victimization, poverty, and poor mental health drive vulnerability to HIV and related infections, as well as risk of arrest, detention, and incarceration. In this paper, we systematically review published data on HIV, sexually transmitted infections, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis among incarcerated transgender people; describe potential structural determinants of HIV risk and transmission; identify gaps in the literature; and make recommendations for research and interventions to address this neglected population...
March 15, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
Setegn Eshetie, Mucheye Gizachew, Animut Alebel, Dick van Soolingen
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes is substantially needed to assess the performance of national TB controls programs (NTPs). To date, the overall estimates of treatment outcomes have not been determined in Ethiopia. Therefore, this meta-analysis was undertaken to produce pooled estimates of TB treatment outcomes and to analyze the impact of prior anti-TB drug exposure and HIV co-infection. METHODS: Potentially relevant studies were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE online databases...
2018: PloS One
Karuna D Sagili, Srinath Satyanarayana, Sarabjit S Chadha, Nevin C Wilson, Ajay M V Kumar, Patrick K Moonan, John E Oeltmann, Vineet K Chadha, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Smita Ghosh, Terrence Q Lo, Tyson Volkmann, Matthew Willis, Kalpita Shringarpure, Ravichandra Chinnappa Reddy, Prahlad Kumar, Sreenivas A Nair, Raghuram Rao, Mohammed Yassin, Perry Mwangala, Rony Zachariah, Jamhoih Tonsing, Anthony D Harries, Sunil Khaparde
BACKGROUND: The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices. OBJECTIVES: To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice...
2018: Global Health Action
Saahir Khan, Audrey Nakasone, Minoo Ghajar, Mariam Zhowandai, Sunita Prabhu, Rick Alexander, Julie Low, Ellena Peterson, Lauri Thrupp
For 94 patients with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, time-to-detection (TTD), acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear, and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) results were reviewed. All 12 patients whose first specimen was negative by AFB smear and NAAT had prolonged TTD, indicating low transmissibility and supporting discontinuing isolation for low-risk patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Peter Greaves
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of regional diets on the health of the poor in mid-Victorian Britain. Contemporary surveys of regional diets and living condition were reviewed. This information was compared with mortality data from Britain over the same period. Although there was an overall improvement in life expectancy during the latter part of the 19th century, there were large regional differences in lifestyle, diet and mortality rates. Dietary surveys showed that the poor labouring population in isolated rural areas of England, in the mainland and islands of Scotland and in the west of Ireland enjoyed the most nutritious diets...
March 2018: JRSM Open
Mitchell E Menezes, Praveen Bhoopathi, Anjan K Pradhan, Luni Emdad, Swadesh K Das, Chunqing Guo, Xiang-Yang Wang, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher
Subtraction hybridization identified genes displaying differential expression as metastatic human melanoma cells terminally differentiated and lost tumorigenic properties by treatment with recombinant fibroblast interferon and mezerein. This approach permitted cloning of multiple genes displaying enhanced expression when melanoma cells terminally differentiated, called melanoma differentiation associated (mda) genes. One mda gene, mda-7, has risen to the top of the list based on its relevance to cancer and now inflammation and other pathological states, which based on presence of a secretory sequence, chromosomal location, and an IL-10 signature motif has been named interleukin-24 (MDA-7/IL-24)...
2018: Advances in Cancer Research
Jana Amlerova, Ibrahim Bitar, Jaroslav Hrabak
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered one of the most serious infectious diseases worldwide. Effective control of tuberculosis infection involves multiple steps, such as reliable detection, treatment, an epidemiological control as a part of case management, and further surveillance and monitoring of TB spread in the human population. Due to the accelerating advances in molecular biology, especially in DNA sequencing, in the past decade, the application of these methods has become crucial for TB evolution studies, differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes, and their distribution...
March 17, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
André Campaniço, Rui Moreira, Francisca Lopes
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem worldwide. The infectious agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has a unique ability to survive within the host, alternating between active and latent disease states, and escaping the immune system defences. The extended duration of anti-TB regimens and the increasing prevalence of multidrug- (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains have created an urgent need for new antibiotics active against drug-resistant organisms and that can shorten standard therapy...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Dexin Zou, Junlin Zhou, Xiaobing Jiang
Tuberculosis combined with brucellosis is a very rare condition. Overlapping clinical presentation and laboratory parameters of tuberculosis and brucellosis may lead to misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of the condition. The current study presents the case of a 45-year-old male with symptoms of lower back pain, non-tender swelling in the right flank, intermittent hyperpyrexia, sweating, body aches and numbness and weakness of right lower limb. A lumbar computed tomograph (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging indicated vertebral destruction and the formation of sequestra and thecal sac compression...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yi-Lei Fan, Xiao-Hong Jin, Zhong-Ping Huang, Hai-Feng Yu, Zhi-Gang Zeng, Tao Gao, Lian-Shun Feng
Tuberculosis still remains one of the most common, communicable, and leading deadliest diseases known to mankind throughout the world. Drug-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which threatens to worsen the global tuberculosis epidemic has caused great concern in recent years. To overcome the resistance, the development of new drugs with novel mechanisms of actions is of great importance. Imidazole-containing derivatives endow with various biological properties, and some of them demonstrated excellent anti-tubercular activity...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Fan-Cheng Meng, Zheng-Feng Wu, Zhi-Qi Yin, Li-Gen Lin, Ruibing Wang, Qing-Wen Zhang
Background: Coptidis rhizoma (CR) is the dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch., C. deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao or C. teeta Wall. (Ranunculaceae) and is commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of various diseases including bacillary dysentery, typhoid, tuberculosis, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, empyrosis, pertussis, and other illnesses. Methods: A literature survey was conducted via SciFinder, ScieneDirect, PubMed, Springer, and Wiley databases...
2018: Chinese Medicine
K Donaldson, W A Wallace, C Henry, A Seaton
The building of the Edinburgh New Town, from the mid-18th to the mid-19th centuries, was a major advance in harmonious and elegant town planning. However, there is anecdotal evidence that it led to the occurrence of an epidemic of silicosis/tuberculosis among the stonemasons. We have reviewed contemporary accounts of the episode and early records of the understanding of silicosis. We have also studied the lung of a contemporary stonemason, preserved in the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, and confirmed the presence of silico-tuberculosis in it...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Mariateresa Coppola, Susan J F van den Eeden, Naoko Robbins, Louis Wilson, Kees L M C Franken, Linda B Adams, Tom P Gillis, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Annemieke Geluk
Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy still represent significant public health challenges, especially in low- and lower middle-income countries. Both poverty-related mycobacterial diseases require better tools to improve disease control. For leprosy, there has been an increased emphasis on developing tools for improved detection of infection and early diagnosis of disease. For TB, there has been a similar emphasis on such diagnostic tests, while increased research efforts have also focused on the development of new vaccines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Theerasuk Kawamatawong, Jitsupa Onnipa, Thitiporn Suwatanapongched
Background: The prevalence rate of bronchiectasis in COPD is variable. Coexisting bronchiectasis and COPD may influence COPD severity and exacerbation. Objective: We investigated whether bronchiectasis is associated with frequent or severe COPD exacerbation. Lower airway bacterial and mycobacterial infections are a possible mechanism for bronchiectasis. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013-2014. COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations were reviewed...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Ann Jagger, Silke Reiter-Karam, Yohhei Hamada, Haileyesus Getahun
Objective: To review policies on management of latent tuberculosis infection in countries with low and high burdens of tuberculosis. Methods: We divided countries reporting data to the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Tuberculosis Programme into low and high tuberculosis burden, based on WHO criteria. We identified national policy documents on management of latent tuberculosis through online searches, government websites, WHO country offices and personal communication with programme managers...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
L S Tan, S Tan
Tuberculosis (TB) is still an endemic disease in Malaysia. Cystic lung disease in post primary tuberculosis is not common. It can occur before, during or after completion of anti-TB treatment. Clinical history and review of serial chest radiograph is paramount to make the diagnosis. This case report highlights an interesting case of a young female patient who developed extensive cystic lung disease during the course of anti-TB treatment and the importance of recognizing this unusual manifestation.
February 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Neha N Passi, Jim Buckley
Patients with tuberculosis admitted to the intensive care unit represent a small (1-3%) yet significant subset of the global tuberculosis burden. This article reviews current evidence supporting the diagnosis and management of patients with tuberculosis admitted to an intensive care unit from a combination of cohort studies and national and international tuberculosis guidelines. This review considers admission, diagnosis, mechanical ventilation, infection control, treatment and prognosis of patients with tuberculosis admitted to an intensive care unit...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Roberta J Melander, Daniel V Zurawski, Christian Melander
While broad spectrum antibiotics play an invaluable role in the treatment of bacterial infections, there are some drawbacks to their use, namely selection for and spread of resistance across multiple bacterial species, and the detrimental effect they can have upon the host microbiome. If the causitive agent of the infection is known, the use of narrow-spectrum antibacterial agents has the potential to mitigate some of these issues. This review outlines the advantages and challenges of narrow-spectrum antibacterial agents, discusses the progress that has been made toward developing diagnostics to enable their use, and describes some of the narrow-spectrum antibacterial agents currently being investigated against some of the most clinically important bacteria including Clostridium difficile, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and several ESKAPE pathogens...
2018: MedChemComm
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