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Malaria review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910476/no-ordinary-sleeper-cell-managing-the-varied-problems-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#1
Jason Jarvis
Plasmodium vivax malaria is an essential yet elusive target of tropical disease eradication efforts, and is the focus of this literature review. This review will reacquaint Special Operations Forces (SOF) Medics with the basic principles of malaria as context for understanding the several confounding issues particular to P. vivax infections. The review concludes with current malaria guidelines and malaria mitigation strategies.
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906438/acetylcholinesterase-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-schistosomes-and-other-parasitic-helminths
#2
REVIEW
Hong You, Chang Liu, Xiaofeng Du, Donald P McManus
Schistosomiasis, which is caused by helminth trematode blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, is a serious health and economic problem in tropical areas, and the second most prevalent parasitic disease after malaria. Currently, there is no effective vaccine available and treatment is entirely dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), raising a significant potential public health threat due to the emergence of PZQ drug resistance. It is thus urgent and necessary to explore novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of schistosomiasis...
September 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904114/the-lives-saved-tool-list-as-a-model-for-prevention-of-anemia-in-women-of-reproductive-age
#3
REVIEW
Rebecca Heidkamp, Renee Guida, Erica Phillips, Adrienne Clermont
Background: Anemia in women is a major public health burden worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is a complex condition with multiple nutritional and non-nutritional causes, and geographic heterogeneity of burden. The World Health Assembly has set a target of a 50% reduction in anemia among women of reproductive age (WRA) by 2025.Objective: This article seeks to identify the leading causes of anemia among women in LMICs, review the evidence supporting interventions to address anemia in these settings, and ultimately use this information to decide which interventions should be included in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model of anemia...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904111/a-literature-review-of-the-effect-of-malaria-on-stunting
#4
REVIEW
Bianca D Jackson, Robert E Black
Background: The current version of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) maternal and child health impact modeling software does not include an effect of malaria on stunting.Objective: This literature review was undertaken to determine whether such a causal link should be included in the LiST model.Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched by using broad search terms. The searches returned a total of 4281 documents. Twelve studies from among the retrieved documents were included in the review according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#5
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895659/implementation-strategies-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#6
REVIEW
Tomas Pantoja, Newton Opiyo, Simon Lewin, Elizabeth Paulsen, Agustín Ciapponi, Charles S Wiysonge, Cristian A Herrera, Gabriel Rada, Blanca Peñaloza, Lilian Dudley, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: A key function of health systems is implementing interventions to improve health, but coverage of essential health interventions remains low in low-income countries. Implementing interventions can be challenging, particularly if it entails complex changes in clinical routines; in collaborative patterns among different healthcare providers and disciplines; in the behaviour of providers, patients or other stakeholders; or in the organisation of care. Decision-makers may use a range of strategies to implement health interventions, and these choices should be based on evidence of the strategies' effectiveness...
September 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893264/maximizing-research-study-effectiveness-in-malaria-elimination-settings-a-mixed-methods-study-to-capture-the-experiences-of-field-based-staff
#7
Sara E Canavati, Cesia E Quintero, Britt Haller, Dysoley Lek, Sovann Yok, Jack S Richards, Maxine Anne Whittaker
BACKGROUND: In a drug-resistant, malaria elimination setting like Western Cambodia, field research is essential for the development of novel anti-malarial regimens and the public health solutions necessary to monitor the spread of resistance and eliminate infection. Such field studies often face a variety of similar implementation challenges, but these are rarely captured in a systematic way or used to optimize future study designs that might overcome similar challenges. Field-based research staff often have extensive experience and can provide valuable insight regarding these issues, but their perspectives and experiences are rarely documented and seldom integrated into future research protocols...
September 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890153/medicinal-plants-for-in-vitro-antiplasmodial-activities-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#8
REVIEW
Martha Tibebu Lemma, Ali Mahmoud Ahmed, Mohamed Tamer Elhady, Huyen Thi Ngo, Tran Le-Huy Vu, To Kim Sang, Eduardo Campos-Alberto, Abdelrahman Sayed, Shusaku Mizukami, Kesara Na-Bangchang, Nguyen Tien Huy, Kenji Hirayama, Juntra Karbwang
The increasing resistance of malaria to drugs raise the need to new antimalarial agents. Antiplasmodial herbs and their active compounds are the most promising source the new antimalarial agents. This study aimed to identify the medicinal plants with very good in vitro antiplasmodial activities, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50)≤1μg/ml, and to determine trends in the process of screening their antiplasmodial activities. A total of 58 reports published in the English language were retrieved from the bibliographical databases...
September 7, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887001/major-findings-and-recent-advances-in-virus-like-particle-vlp-based-vaccines
#9
REVIEW
Mona O Mohsen, Lisha Zha, Gustavo Cabral-Miranda, Martin F Bachmann
Virus-like particles (VLPs) have made giant strides in the field of vaccinology over the last three decades. VLPs constitute versatile tools in vaccine development due to their favourable immunological characteristics such as their size, repetitive surface geometry, ability to induce both innate and adaptive immune responses as well as being safe templates with favourable economics. Several VLP-based vaccines are commercially available including vaccines against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) such as Cervarix(®), Gardasil(®) & Gardasil9(®) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) including the 3rd generation Sci-B-Vac™...
September 5, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885590/ethnopharmacology-and-therapeutic-value-of-bridelia-micrantha-hochst-baill-in-tropical-africa-a-comprehensive-review
#10
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Bridelia micrantha is traditionally used in tropical Africa to treat a wide range of human and animal diseases. The aim of this study was to summarise the research that has been done on the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of B. micrantha so as to understand its importance and potential value in primary healthcare systems. The literature search for information on ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities of B. micrantha was undertaken using databases such as Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, BioMed Central (BMC), PubMed and Springerlink...
September 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884158/a-geo-coded-inventory-of-anophelines-in-the-afrotropical-region-south-of-the-sahara-1898-2016
#11
David Kyalo, Punam Amratia, Clara W Mundia, Charles M Mbogo, Maureen Coetzee, Robert W Snow
Background: Understanding the distribution of anopheline vectors of malaria is an important prelude to the design of national malaria control and elimination programmes. A single, geo-coded continental inventory of anophelines using all available published and unpublished data has not been undertaken since the 1960s. Methods: We have searched African, European and World Health Organization archives to identify unpublished reports on anopheline surveys in 48 sub-Saharan Africa countries. This search was supplemented by identification of reports that formed part of post-graduate theses, conference abstracts, regional insecticide resistance databases and more traditional bibliographic searches of peer-reviewed literature...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879859/applications-of-crispr-cas9-in-reproductive-biology
#12
Faheem Ahmed Khan, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari, Huang ChunJie, Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Kai Wang, Muhammad Jamil Ahmad, ShuJun Zhang
Genome editing is unraveling its benefits in wide areas of scientific development and understanding. The advances of genome editing from ZFNs and TALLENs to CRISPRs defines it wide applicability. Reproduction is the fundamental process by which all organisms maintain their generations. CRISPR/Cas9, a new versatile genome editing tool is recently tamed to correct several disease causing genetic mutations spreading its arms to improve reproductive health. It not only edit harmful genetic mutations but is also applied to control the spread of parasitic diseases like malaria by introducing selfish genetic elements, propagated through generations and population via reproduction...
September 7, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879600/infections-and-the-kidney-a-tale-from-the-tropics
#13
Nivedita Kamath, Arpana Iyengar
Tropical infections are caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses and parasitic organisms across varying geographical regions and are more often reported in adults than in children. Most of the infections are acute, presenting as a febrile illness with involvement of multiple organ systems, including the kidney. The gamut of renal manifestations extends from asymptomatic urinary abnormalities to acute kidney injury and-albeit rarely-chronic kidney disease. Tropical infections can involve the glomerular, tubulointerstitial and vascular compartments of the kidney...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879175/computer-vision-malaria-diagnostic-systems-progress-and-prospects
#14
REVIEW
Joseph Joel Pollak, Arnon Houri-Yafin, Seth J Salpeter
Accurate malaria diagnosis is critical to prevent malaria fatalities, curb overuse of antimalarial drugs, and promote appropriate management of other causes of fever. While several diagnostic tests exist, the need for a rapid and highly accurate malaria assay remains. Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the main diagnostic modalities available, yet they can demonstrate poor performance and accuracy. Automated microscopy platforms have the potential to significantly improve and standardize malaria diagnosis...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875841/new-molecular-targets-and-strategies-for-antimalarial-discovery
#15
Anna Caroline Aguiar, Lorena R F de Sousa, Celia R S Garcia, Glaucius Oliva, Rafael V C Guido
Malaria remains a major health problem, especially because of the emergence of resistant P. falciparum strains to artemisinin derivatives. In this context, safe and affordable antimalarial drugs are desperately needed. New proteins have been investigated as molecular targets for research and development of innovative compounds with well-defined mechanism of action. In this review, we highlight genetically and clinically validated plasmodial proteins as drug targets for the next generation of therapeutics. The enzymes described herein are involved in hemoglobin hydrolysis, the invasion process, elongation factors for protein synthesis, pyrimidine biosynthesis, post-translational modifications such as prenylation, phosphorylation and histone acetylation, generation of ATP in mitochondrial metabolism and aminoacylation of RNAs...
August 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868117/thiadiazoles-the-appropriate-pharmacological-scaffolds-with-leishmanicidal-and-antimalarial-activities-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Azar Tahghighi, Fateme Babalouei
Leishmaniasis and malaria are serious public health problems in tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. Development of drug-resistant strains has disrupted efforts to control the spread of these diseases in the world. The conventional antiparasitic chemotherapy still suffers from side effects and drug resistance. Therefore, the development of novel antimalarial and leishmanicidal drugs remains a critical topic to combat against these diseases. Five-membered heterocyclic systems have possessed antiparasitic activity such as thiadiazole scaffold which is a prevalent and an important heterocyclic ring...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867819/gliding-motility-powers-invasion-and-egress-in-apicomplexa
#17
REVIEW
Karine Frénal, Jean-François Dubremetz, Maryse Lebrun, Dominique Soldati-Favre
Protozoan parasites have developed elaborate motility systems that facilitate infection and dissemination. For example, amoebae use actin-rich membrane extensions called pseudopodia, whereas Kinetoplastida are propelled by microtubule-containing flagella. By contrast, the motile and invasive stages of the Apicomplexa - a phylum that contains the important human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum (which causes malaria) and Toxoplasma gondii (which causes toxoplasmosis) - have a unique machinery called the glideosome, which is composed of an actomyosin system that underlies the plasma membrane...
September 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859342/developing-research-in-infectious-and-tropical-diseases-in-africa-the-paradigm-of-senegal
#18
Cheikh Sokhna, Oumar Gaye, Ogobara Doumbo
Infectious diseases represent one of the greatest potential barriers to achievement of the third Sustainable Development Goals in African countries and around the world because they continue to pose major public health challenges. The surveillance of infectious diseases has recently assumed greater importance in most African countries, both because of the emergence of infectious diseases and because strains of pathogens that cause tuberculosis, malaria, cholera, dysentery, and pneumonia have developed resistance to common and inexpensive antimicrobial drugs...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852282/the-bone-pain-crisis-of-sickle-cell-disease-and-malaria-observations-from-gujarat-india
#19
Jyotish Patel, Bharati Patel, Graham R Serjeant
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a common problem across central India, but its clinical features may differ from that in African populations. There is a need to define the features of sickle cell disease in India, and the current study addresses some features of the bone pain crisis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of the bone pain crisis of sickle cell disease in Gujarat and explore the relationship with infection by Plasmodium vivax...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840449/from-mitochondrial-function-to-neuroprotection-an-emerging-role-for-methylene-blue
#20
REVIEW
Donovan Tucker, Yujiao Lu, Quanguang Zhang
Methylene blue (MB) is a well-established drug with a long history of use, owing to its diverse range of use and its minimal side effect profile. MB has been used classically for the treatment of malaria, methemoglobinemia, and carbon monoxide poisoning, as well as a histological dye. Its role in the mitochondria, however, has elicited much of its renewed interest in recent years. MB can reroute electrons in the mitochondrial electron transfer chain directly from NADH to cytochrome c, increasing the activity of complex IV and effectively promoting mitochondrial activity while mitigating oxidative stress...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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