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Malaria review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647178/traditional-usage-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-croton-sylvaticus-hochst-ex-c-krauss
#1
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Croton sylvaticus (C. sylvaticus) is widely used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of tropical Africa. The potential of C. sylvaticus as herbal medicine, the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of its parts used as herbal medicines are reviewed. The extensive literature survey revealed that C. sylvaticus is traditionally used to treat or manage at least 24 human and animal diseases and ailments. The species is used as herbal medicine for diseases and ailments such as abdominal pains, boils, fever, inflammation, malaria, rheumatism, swellings and tuberculosis and as ethnoveterinary medicine...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646586/vaccine-candidate-discovery-for-the-next-generation-of-malaria-vaccines
#2
REVIEW
James Tuju, Gathoni Kamuyu, Linda M Murungi, Faith H A Osier
Although epidemiological observations, IgG passive transfer studies and experimental infections in humans all support the feasibility of developing highly effective malaria vaccines, the precise antigens that induce protective immunity remain uncertain. Here, we review the methodologies applied to vaccine candidate discovery for Plasmodium falciparum malaria from the pre- to post- genomic era. Probing of genomic and/or cDNA libraries with antibodies of defined specificities or functional activity predominated the former, while reverse vaccinology encompassing high throughput in silico analyses of genomic, transcriptomic or proteomic parasite datasets is the mainstay of the latter...
June 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641558/bis-2-aminoimidazolines-and-bisguanidines-synthetic-approaches-antiparasitic-activity-and-dna-binding-properties
#3
Christophe Dardonville, J Jonathan Nué Martínez
BACKGROUND: Parasitic diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma and Plasmodium cause some of the deadliest and disabling human infections in tropical and subtropical areas. Diphenyl-based bis(2-phenylimino)imidazolidines and bisguanidines are extremely potent antiparasitic agents against Trypanosoma brucei (etiological agent of African trypanosomiasis) and Plasmodium falciparum (etiological agent of severe malaria). Many of these compounds are also curative in mouse models of stage 1 African trypanosomiasis representing promising leads for the development of antitrypanosomal drugs...
June 22, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636418/dxs-as-a-target-for-structure-based-drug-design
#4
Robin Matthias Gierse, Eswar Redeem, Eleonora Diamanti, Carsten Wrenger, Matthew R Groves, Anna Kh Hirsch
In this review, we analyze the enzyme DXS, the first and rate-limiting protein in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway. This pathway was discovered in 1996 and is one of two known metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of the universal building blocks for isoprenoids. It promises to offer new targets for the development of anti-infectives against the human pathogens, malaria or tuberculosis. We mapped the sequence conservation of 1-deoxy-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase on the protein structure and analyzed it in comparison with previously identified druggable pockets...
June 21, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634831/malaria-2017-update-on-the-clinical-literature-and-management
#5
REVIEW
Johanna P Daily
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malaria is a prevalent disease in travelers to and residents of malaria-endemic regions. Health care workers in both endemic and non-endemic settings should be familiar with the latest evidence for the diagnosis, management and prevention of malaria. This article will discuss the recent malaria epidemiologic and medical literature to review the progress, challenges, and optimal management of malaria. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a marked decrease in malaria-related global morbidity and mortality secondary to malaria control programs over the last few decades...
June 20, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630942/antimalarial-drugs-and-the-prevalence-of-mental-and-neurological-manifestations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Mary A Bitta, Symon M Kariuki, Clifford Mwita, Samson Gwer, Leah Mwai, Charles R J C Newton
Background: Antimalarial drugs affect the central nervous system, but it is difficult to differentiate the effect of these drugs from that of the malaria illness. We conducted a systematic review to determine the association between anti-malarial drugs and mental and neurological impairment in humans.  Methods: We systematically searched online databases, including Medline/PubMed, PsychoInfo, and Embase, for articles published up to 14th July 2016. Pooled prevalence, heterogeneity and factors associated with prevalence of mental and neurological manifestations were determined using meta-analytic techniques...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630631/urinalysis-and-clinical-correlations-in-patients-with-p-vivax-or-p-falciparum-malaria-from-colombia
#7
Alberto Tobón-Castaño, Sebastián Barrera Escobar, Cecilia Giraldo Castro
BACKGROUND: Urinalysis is a poorly reviewed diagnostic tool in malaria patients; its application can show the presence of severe malaria. METHODS: Urinalysis was performed in a total of 620 patients diagnosed with malaria by thick blood smear; complications were classified according to WHO major criteria for severity and minor criteria according to the Colombian malaria guideline. RESULTS: Severe or moderate clinical complications were diagnosed in 31...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626211/once-malaria-is-eliminated-more-attention-should-be-paid-to-imported-malaria-data-from-five-years-of-surveillance-in-the-city-of-yiwu-in-eastern-china
#8
Xuanjun Dong, Jie Yang, Lianqin Lou, Liebo Zhu, Xiayan Feng, Linong Yao
This study reviewed and analyzed data on malaria cases in Yiwu from 2012 to 2016 via a webbased system for managing and reporting information on infectious diseases. A total of 161 cases were diagnosed (77.02% due to Plasmodium falciparum, 18.01% due to P. vivax, 4.35% due to P. ovale, and 0.62% due to P. malariae). One case was imported from Yunnan Province in China and the others were imported from overseas. The ratio of male to female patients was 7.47:1. The average age was 36.34 years (SD: 9.63). Most cases (87...
June 18, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621561/a-patent-review-of-two-fruitful-decades-1997-2016-of-isocoumarin-research
#9
Hidayat Hussain, Ivan R Green
Isocoumarins comprise a six-membered oxygen heterocycle (α-pyranone) along with one aromatic ring and are known to possess interesting biological properties. During the last two decade (1997-2016), isocoumarin chemistry has attracted attention due to its biological and pharmaceutical effects viz., anticancer, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antimalarial, and fungicidal effects. Areas covered: This review covers the patents on the therapeutic activities of natural and synthetic isocoumarins over the last two decades (1997-2016)...
June 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620385/the-antibody-secreting-cell-response-to-infection-kinetics-and-clinical-applications
#10
REVIEW
Michael J Carter, Ruth M Mitchell, Patrick M Meyer Sauteur, Dominic F Kelly, Johannes Trück
Despite the availability of advances in molecular diagnostic testing for infectious disease, there is still a need for tools that advance clinical care and public health. Current methods focus on pathogen detection with unprecedented precision, but often lack specificity. In contrast, the host immune response is highly specific for the infecting pathogen. Serological studies are rarely helpful in clinical settings, as they require acute and convalescent antibody testing. However, the B cell response is much more rapid and short-lived, making it an optimal target for determining disease aetiology in patients with infections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619033/social-representations-of-malaria-in-the-guna-indigenous-population-of-comarca-guna-de-madungandi-panama
#11
Lorenzo Cáceres, José E Calzada, Amanda Gabster, Josue Young, Ricardo Márquez, Rolando Torres, Margarita Griffith
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to recognize the social representation of the Guna indigenous population by identifying cultural elements related to malaria, in order to create an intercultural approach to any health intervention to control and prevent the disease. METHODS: This qualitative study has an anthropological focus that used participant observation, informal conversations, focus groups, interviews, in-depth interviews with key actors. Analyses included review, classification and categorization of interviews...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615026/engaging-the-private-sector-in-malaria-surveillance-a-review-of-strategies-and-recommendations-for-elimination-settings
#12
Adam Bennett, Anton L V Avanceña, Jennifer Wegbreit, Chris Cotter, Kathryn Roberts, Roly Gosling
BACKGROUND: In malaria elimination settings, all malaria cases must be identified, documented and investigated. To facilitate complete and timely reporting of all malaria cases and effective case management and follow-up, engagement with private providers is essential, particularly in settings where the private sector is a major source of healthcare. However, research on the role and performance of the private sector in malaria diagnosis, case management and reporting in malaria elimination settings is limited...
June 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606149/malaria-research-in-malawi-from-1984-to-2016-a-literature-review-and-bibliometric-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Chikondi A Mwendera, Christiaan de Jager, Herbert Longwe, Charles Hongoro, Clifford M Mutero, Kamija S Phiri
BACKGROUND: Malaria research can play a vital role in addressing the malaria burden in Malawi. An organized approach in addressing malaria in Malawi started in 1984 by the establishment of the first National Malaria Control Programme and research was recognized to be significant. This study aimed to assess the type and amount of malaria research conducted in Malawi from 1984 to 2016 and its related source of funding. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the Medline/PubMed database for Malawian publications and approved malaria studies from two Ethical Committees were examined...
June 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606053/protein-kinase-inhibitors-as-potential-antimicrobial-drugs-against-tuberculosis-malaria-and-hiv
#14
Yong Cheng, Jeffrey S Schorey, Cheng-Cai Zhang, Xuejuan Tan
Infectious diseases that are caused by pathogenic microbes such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi remain the top major cause of death across the world, particularly in low income countries, and may be transmitted from person to person, or from insects or animals. In general, infectious diseases may be treated with antimicrobial agents including antibiotics, antiviral, antifungal or antiparasitic medications. The therapeutic application of antimicrobial drugs in the 20th century substantially contributed to the global control of infectious diseases worldwide...
June 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604122/blood-stage-malaria-vaccines-post-genome-strategies-for-the-identification-of-novel-vaccine-candidates
#15
Edward H Ntege, Eizo Takashima, Masayuki Morita, Hikaru Nagaoka, Tomoko Ishino, Takafumi Tsuboi
An efficacious malaria vaccine is necessary to advance the current control measures towards malaria elimination. To-date, only RTS,S/AS01, a leading pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine completed phase 3 trials, but with an efficacy of 28-36% in children, and 18-26% in infants, that waned over time. Blood-stage malaria vaccines protect against disease, and are considered effective targets for the logical design of next generation vaccines to improve the RTS,S field efficacy. Therefore, novel blood-stage vaccine candidate discovery efforts are critical, albeit with several challenges including, high polymorphisms in vaccine antigens, poor understanding of targets of naturally protective immunity, and difficulties in the expression of high AT-rich plasmodial proteins...
June 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603279/variant-surface-antigens-of-plasmodium-falciparum-and-their-roles-in-severe-malaria
#16
REVIEW
Mats Wahlgren, Suchi Goel, Reetesh R Akhouri
Proliferation and differentiation inside erythrocytes are important steps in the life cycle of Plasmodium spp. To achieve these, the parasites export polypeptides to the surface of infected erythrocytes; for example, to import nutrients and to bind to other erythrocytes and the host microvasculature. Binding is mediated by the adhesive polypeptides Plasmodium falciparum-encoded repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs), subtelomeric variant open reading frame (STEVOR) and P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), which are encoded by multigene families to ensure antigenic variation and evasion of host immunity...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602240/olfactory-learning-and-chemical-ecology-of-olfaction-in-disease-vector-mosquitoes-a-life-history-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Eleanor K Lutz, Chloé Lahondère, Clément Vinauger, Jeffrey A Riffell
Mosquitoes transmit many debilitating diseases including malaria, dengue and Zika. Odors mediate behaviors that directly impact disease transmission (blood-feeding) as well as life history events that contribute to mosquito survival and fitness (mating and oviposition, nectar foraging, larval foraging and predator avoidance). In addition to innate olfaction-mediated behaviors, mosquitoes rely on olfactory experience throughout their life to inform advantageous choices in many of these important behaviors. Previous reviews have addressed either the chemical ecology of mosquitoes, or olfactory-driven behaviors including host-feeding or oviposition...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599650/the-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-malaria-biology-and-pathogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Natalia Guimaraes Sampaio, Lesley Cheng, Emily M Eriksson
In the past decade, research on the functions of extracellular vesicles in malaria has expanded dramatically. Investigations into the various vesicle types, from both host and parasite origin, has revealed important roles for extracellular vesicles in disease pathogenesis and susceptibility, as well as cell-cell communication and immune responses. Here, work relating to extracellular vesicles in malaria is reviewed, and the areas that remain unknown and require further investigations are highlighted.
June 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599096/proteases-as-antimalarial-targets-strategies-for-genetic-chemical-and-therapeutic-validation
#19
REVIEW
Edgar Deu
Malaria is a devastating parasitic disease affecting half of the world's population. The rapid emergence of resistance against new antimalarial drugs, including artemisinin-based therapies, has made the development of drugs with novel mechanisms of action extremely urgent. Proteases are enzymes proven to be well suited for target-based drug development due to our knowledge of their enzymatic mechanisms and active site structures. More importantly, Plasmodium proteases have been shown to be involved in a variety of pathways that are essential for parasite survival...
June 9, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596841/targeting-endosomal-acidification-by-chloroquine-analogs-as-a-promising-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-emerging-viral-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Md Abdul Alim Al-Bari
Emerging viruses such as HIV, dengue, influenza A, SARS coronavirus, Ebola, and other viruses pose a significant threat to human health. Majority of these viruses are responsible for the outbreaks of pathogenic lethal infections. To date, there are no effective therapeutic strategies available for the prophylaxis and treatment of these infections. Chloroquine analogs have been used for decades as the primary and most successful drugs against malaria. Concomitant with the emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium strains and a subsequent decrease in the use as antimalarial drugs, other applications of the analogs have been investigated...
February 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
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