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Malaria review

Julia Berazneva, Tanya S. Byker
It is estimated that about one quarter of the global disease burden in terms of healthy life years lost and about one quarter of all premature deaths can be attributed to modifiable environmental factors (Pruss-Ustun and Corvalan 2006). Three infectious diseases--diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria--account for the largest absolute burden in developing countries with children facing the greatest impacts. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the health burden of air and water pollution, as well as important productivity and income effects (see, for example, reviews of the literature in Pattanayak and Pfaff 2009 and Greenstone and Jack 2016)...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Seda Yerlikaya, Ana Campillo, Iveth J Gonzalez
Despite the increased use and worldwide distribution of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which distinguish between Plasmodium falciparum and non-falciparum species, little is known about their performance for detecting Plasmodium knowlesi (Pk), Plasmodium malariae (Pm), and Plasmodium ovale (Po). The objective of this review is to analyze results of published studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of malaria RDTs in detecting Pk, Pm and Po mono-infections.MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and CENTRAL databases were systematically searched to identify studies which reported on the performance of RDTs in detecting Pk, Pm,Po mono-infections...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yanouk Epelboin, Sarah C Chaney, Amandine Guidez, Nausicaa Habchi-Hanriot, Stanislas Talaga, Lanjiao Wang, Isabelle Dusfour
Since the 1940s, French Guiana has implemented vector control to contain or eliminate malaria, yellow fever, and, recently, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Over time, strategies have evolved depending on the location, efficacy of the methods, development of insecticide resistance, and advances in vector control techniques. This review summarises the history of vector control in French Guiana by reporting the records found in the private archives of the Institute Pasteur in French Guiana and those accessible in libraries worldwide...
March 12, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Janie Anne Zuber, Shannon Takala-Harrison
Based on the emergence and spread throughout the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of multiple artemisinin-resistant lineages, the prevalence of multidrug resistance leading to high rates of artemisinin-based combination treatment failure in parts of the GMS, and the declining malaria burden in the region, the World Health Organization has recommended complete elimination of falciparum malaria from the GMS. Mass drug administration (MDA) is being piloted as one elimination intervention to be employed as part of this effort...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Ishag Adam, Yassin Ibrahim, Gasim I Gasim
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in endemic countries including Sudan, where about 75% of populations are at risk. Due to widespread of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is currently treatment of choice for malaria in the vast majority of malaria-endemic countries. This systematic review and meta-analysis is performed to obtain an overall stronger evidence of the outcomes of ACT in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria from the existing literature in Sudan...
March 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Bin Yang, Jingxia Huang, Xuefeng Zhou, Xiuping Lin, Juan Liu, Shengrong Liao, Junfeng Wang, Feng-An Liu, Huaming Tao, Yonghong Liu
Malaria caused by Plasmodium parasites is amongst many prevalent public health concerns in several tropical regions of the world. Nowadays, the parasite resistance patterns to most currently used drugs in therapy and insecticides have created an urgent need for new chemical entities exhibiting new modes of action and management strategies. Fungus have been proven to be excellent sources of biologically active compounds, which have been screened for antiplasmodial activity as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs...
March 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Yasmin A Williams, Lucy S Tusting, Sophia Hocini, Patricia M Graves, Gerry F Killeen, Immo Kleinschmidt, Fredros O Okumu, Richard G A Feachem, Allison Tatarsky, Roly D Gosling
BACKGROUND: Additional vector control tools (VCTs) are needed to supplement insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) to achieve malaria elimination in many settings. To identify options for expanding the malaria vector control toolbox, we conducted a systematic review of the availability and quality of the evidence for 21 malaria VCTs, excluding ITNs and IRS. METHODS: Six electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched from January 1, 1980 to September 28, 2015 to identify systematic reviews, Phase I-IV studies, and observational studies that measured the effect of malaria VCTs on epidemiological or entomological outcomes across any age groups in all malaria-endemic settings...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Johanna R Ohm, Francesco Baldini, Priscille Barreaux, Thierry Lefevre, Penelope A Lynch, Eunho Suh, Shelley A Whitehead, Matthew B Thomas
The time it takes for malaria parasites to develop within a mosquito, and become transmissible, is known as the extrinsic incubation period, or EIP. EIP is a key parameter influencing transmission intensity as it combines with mosquito mortality rate and competence to determine the number of mosquitoes that ultimately become infectious. In spite of its epidemiological significance, data on EIP are scant. Current approaches to estimate EIP are largely based on temperature-dependent models developed from data collected on parasite development within a single mosquito species in the 1930s...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Cheryl L Maier, Phillip J Gross, Christina L Dean, Satheesh Chonat, Andrew Ip, Morgan McLemore, Fuad El Rassi, Sean R Stowell, Cassandra D Josephson, Ross M Fasano
BACKGROUND: Fever accompanying vaso-occlusive crisis is a common presentation in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and carries a broad differential diagnosis. Here, we report a case of transfusion-transmitted malaria in a patient with SCD presenting with acute vaso-occlusive crisis and rapidly decompensating to multisystem organ failure (MSOF). CASE REPORT: An 18-year-old African American male with SCD was admitted after multiple days of fever and severe generalized body pain...
March 9, 2018: Transfusion
Kendra C Baker, Christy L Rettenmund, Samantha J Sander, Anne E Rivas, Kaitlin C Green, Lisa Mangus, Ellen Bronson
Vector-borne hemoparasites are commonly found in avian species. Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of avian malaria, are intraerythrocytic parasites that can cause signs ranging from subclinical infection to severe acute disease. In raptor species, most hemoparasites are associated with subclinical infection and are generally not treated when seen on blood evaluation. This case series reviews five cases of hemoparasite infection in snowy owls ( Bubo scandiacus). These animals were infected with a variety of hemoparasites, including Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leukocytozoon spp...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Jayleen K L Gunn, Kacey C Ernst, Katherine E Center, Kristi Bischoff, Annabelle V Nuñez, Megan Huynh, Amanda Okello, Mary H Hayden
Introduction: Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) cause significant mortality and morbidity in low-income and middle-income countries and present a risk to high-income countries. Vector control programmes may confront social and cultural norms that impede their execution. Anecdotal evidence suggests that incorporating women in the design, delivery and adoption of health interventions increases acceptance and compliance. A better understanding of programmes that have attempted to increase women's involvement in vector control could help shape best practices...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Sabrin Ibrahim, Gamal A Mohamed, Rwaida A Al Haidari, Amal A El-Kholy, Mohamed F Zayed
Malaria is one of the major infectious diseases and foremost cause of mortality and morbidity in many subtropical and tropical regions. In the last years, the situation has become worse in many ways, due to increase the parasites resistance to various available antimalarial agents. Furthermore, the malaria`s control is beginning to be more sophisticated by the parallel spread of mosquito vector`s resistance to the available insecticides. Recently, there is a wide consensus to seek for target specific, safe, affordable, and effective new antimalarial agents, which can compete with synthetic ones...
March 5, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
D Ji-Guang, Y U Shui-Lan, Nong-Zhi, Y Yi-Chao
Objective To analyze the results of inspection certification on malaria elimination in Baise City, and summarize the experiences of malaria elimination at a prefecture level. Methods According to Evaluation Schemes of Malaria Elimination (2014 edition) and Municipal Evaluation Schemes of Malaria Elimination in Guangxi (2016 edition), the malaria elimination work in Baise City was evaluated. In addition, 2 counties (cities, districts) in the administrative region of Baise City were randomly selected for review assessment...
April 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Mohammad Faruq Abd Rachman Isnadi, Voon Kin Chin, Roslaini Abd Majid, Tze Yan Lee, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah, Ramatu Bello Omenesa, Zaid Osamah Ibraheem, Rusliza Basir
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an IL-1 family member, which exhibits both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties solely based on the type of the disease itself. Generally, IL-33 is expressed by both endothelial and epithelial cells and mediates its function based on the interaction with various receptors, mainly with ST2 variants. IL-33 is a potent inducer for the Th2 immune response which includes defence mechanism in brain diseases. Thus, in this paper, we review the biological features of IL-33 and the critical roles of IL-33/ST2 pathway in selected neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and malaria infection to discuss the involvement of IL-33/ST2 pathway during these brain diseases and its potential as future immunotherapeutic agents or for intervention purposes...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Megan S F Soon, Ashraful Haque
CD4+ Th cell differentiation is crucial for protecting against blood-stage Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria. It has been known for decades that more than one type of Th cell develops during this infection, with early models proposing a biphasic Th1/Th2 model of differentiation. Over the past decade, a large body of research, in particular, reports over the past 2-3 y, have revealed substantial complexity in the Th differentiation program during Plasmodium infection. In this article, we review how several studies employing mouse models of malaria, and recent human studies, have redefined the process of Th differentiation, with a particular focus on Th1 and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Elvis Dzelamonyuy Chem, Damian Nota Anong, Jane-Francis K T Akoachere
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate use of antibiotics is a global public health challenge and has been associated with antibiotic resistance. WHO reports show that efforts to promote rational antibiotic use in developing countries are poor. With the growing number of infections with antibiotic resistant bacteria, rational drug use becomes imperative and studies that promote rational drug use are highly necessary. Considering this, we investigated prescribing patterns and predictors of antibiotic prescription in primary health care facilities in Kumbo East (KE) and Kumbo West (KW) health districts in North West Cameroon, to contribute data which could influence policy on antibiotic use...
2018: PloS One
So Hee Dho, Jae Cheong Lim, Lark Kyun Kim
The complement is a part of the immune system that plays several roles in removing pathogens. Despite the importance of the complement system, the exact role of each component has been overlooked because the complement system was thought to be a nonspecific humoral immune mechanism that worked against pathogens. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) is a known inhibitor of the complement system and has recently attracted substantial attention due to its role in various diseases, such as cancer, protein-losing enteropathy, and malaria...
February 2018: Immune Network
Kazuki Hirata, Taku Ogawa, Hiroyuki Fujikura, Yoshihiko Ogawa, Nobuyasu Hirai, Tomoko Nakagawa-Onishi, Kenji Uno, Masahiro Takeyama, Kei Kasahara, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Mitsuru Konishi, Keiichi Mikasa
Few studies have analyzed the characteristics of patients who develop physical disorders after overseas travel. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 183 patients who visited Nara Medical University Hospital from 2008 to 2016 because of physical problems after traveling abroad. The main travel destinations were Southeast Asia (n = 100), Africa (n = 27), and South Asia (n = 23). The main reasons for the travel were leisure (n = 96), business (n = 51), and volunteer work (n = 19). The most common final diagnosis was gastrointestinal disease (n = 72), followed by febrile disease (n = 59) and respiratory disease (n = 19)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Jeroen Spitzen, Willem Takken
The health impact of mosquito-borne diseases causes a huge burden on human societies. Recent vector control campaigns have resulted in promising declines in incidence and prevalence of these diseases, notably malaria, but resistance to insecticides and drugs are on the rise, threatening to overturn these gains. Moreover, several vector-borne diseases have re-emerged, requiring prompt and effective response measures. To improve and properly implement vector control interventions, the behaviour of the vectors must be well understood with detailed examination of mosquito flight being an essential component...
March 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Parisa Kalantari
Despite a global effort to develop an effective vaccine, malaria is still a significant health problem. Much of the pathology of malaria is immune mediated. This suggests that host immune responses have to be finely regulated. The innate immune system initiates and sets the threshold of the acquired immune response and determines the outcome of the disease. Yet, our knowledge of the regulation of innate immune responses during malaria is limited. Theoretically, inadequate activation of the innate immune system could result in unrestrained parasite growth...
February 28, 2018: Vaccines
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