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Malaria review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736757/malaria-parasite-proteins-involved-in-nutrient-channels-at-the-host-erythrocyte-membrane-advances-and-questions-for-future-research
#1
S Chalapareddy, S A Desai
Erythrocytes infected malaria parasites have increased permeability to nutrients and other solutes, as mediated by an unusual ion channel known as the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC). Although the increased permeability of infected erythrocytes was identified more than 70 years ago and subsequently characterized with tracer studies, its mechanism and role in parasite biology remained unclear until the introduction of patch-clamp methods and high-throughput screening technologies. These methods discovered and implicated PSAC as the primary mechanism, determined that this channel is essential for parasite development, led to identification of the channel's genes, and stimulated antimalarial drug discovery against this target...
March 2017: Int J Curr Multidiscip Stud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735972/pyrimidine-metabolism-in-schistosomes-a-comparison-with-other-parasites-and-the-search-for-potential-chemotherapeutic-targets
#2
REVIEW
Mahmoud H El Kouni
Schistosomes are responsible for the parasitic disease schistosomiasis, an acute and chronic parasitic ailment that affects more than 240 million people in 70 countries worldwide. It is the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. At least 200,000 deaths per year are associated with the disease. In the absence of the availability of vaccines, chemotherapy is the main stay for combating schistosomiasis. The antischistosomal arsenal is currently limited to a single drug, Praziquantel, which is quite effective with a single-day treatment and virtually no host-toxicity...
July 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735813/atypical-memory-b-cells-in-human-chronic-infectious-diseases-an-interim-report
#3
Silvia Portugal, Nyamekye Obeng-Adjei, Susan Moir, Peter D Crompton, Susan K Pierce
Immunological memory is a remarkable phenomenon in which survival of an initial infection by a pathogen leads to life-long protection from disease upon subsequent exposure to that same pathogen. For many infectious diseases, long-lived protective humoral immunity is induced after only a single infection in a process that depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells. However, over the past decade it has become increasingly evident that many chronic human infectious diseases to which immunity is not readily established, including HIV-AIDS, malaria and TB, are associated with fundamental alterations in the composition and functionality of MBC compartments...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734898/anopheles-vectors-in-mainland-china-while-approaching-malaria-elimination
#4
REVIEW
Shaosen Zhang, Shaohua Guo, Xinyu Feng, Aneta Afelt, Roger Frutos, Shuisen Zhou, Sylvie Manguin
China is approaching malaria elimination; however, well-documented information on malaria vectors is still missing, which could hinder the development of appropriate surveillance strategies and WHO certification. This review summarizes the nationwide distribution of malaria vectors, their bionomic characteristics, control measures, and related studies. After several years of effort, the area of distribution of the principal malaria vectors was reduced, in particular for Anopheles lesteri (synonym: An. anthropophagus) and Anopheles dirus s...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734784/drug-delivery-innovations-to-address-global-health-challenges-for-pediatric-and-geriatric-populations-through-improvements-in-patient-compliance
#5
Joshua Boateng
Despite significant advances in pharmaceutical and biotechnological drug discovery, the global population is plagued with many challenging diseases. These are further compounded by anticipated explosion in an ageing population, which presents several problems such as polypharmacy, dysphagia and neurological conditions, resulting in non-compliance and disease complications. For antibiotics, poor compliance, can result in development of drug resistant infections which can be fatal. Further, children, especially, in developing countries die unnecessarily from easily treatable diseases (e...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732142/network-meta-analysis-including-treatment-by-covariate-interactions-consistency-can-vary-across-covariate-values
#6
Sarah Donegan, Nicky J Welton, Catrin Tudur Smith, Umberto D'Alessandro, Sofia Dias
BACKGROUND: Many reviews aim to compare numerous treatments and report results stratified by subgroups (e.g. by disease severity). In such cases, a network meta-analysis model including treatment by covariate interactions can estimate the relative effects of all treatment pairings for each subgroup of patients. Two key assumptions underlie such models, consistency of treatment effects and consistency of the regression coefficients for the interactions. Consistency may differ depending on the covariate value at which consistency is assessed...
July 21, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731898/steady-progress-toward-a-malaria-vaccine
#7
Kirsten E Lyke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Great progress has been made in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, yet the parasite continues to cause a startling 200 million infections and 500 000 deaths annually. Malaria vaccine development is pushing new boundaries by steady advancement toward a licensed product. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite 50 years of research, the complexity of Plasmoidum falciparum confounds all attempts to eradicate the organism. This very complexity has pushed the boundaries of vaccine development to new heights, yet it remains to be seen if an affordable vaccine can provide durable and high-level protection...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728902/role-of-mirnas-in-development-and-disease-lessons-learnt-from-small-organisms
#8
REVIEW
Swati Chandra, Divya Vimal, Divya Sharma, Vipin Rai, Subash Chandra Gupta, D Kar Chowdhuri
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small (21-24 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and many other small organisms have been instrumental in deciphering the biological functions of miRNAs. While some miRNAs from small organisms are highly conserved across the taxa, others are organism specific. The miRNAs are known to play a crucial role during development and in various cellular functions such as cell survival, cell proliferation, and differentiation...
July 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722625/respiratory-complications-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Fernando Val, Kim Machado, Lisiane Barbosa, Jorge Luis Salinas, André Machado Siqueira, Maria Graças Costa Alecrim, Hernando Del Portillo, Quique Bassat, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda
Malaria, a major global public health problem, is mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, and is responsible for nearly half a million deaths annually. Although P. vivax malaria was not believed to cause severe disease, recent robust studies have proved otherwise. However, the clinical spectrum and pathogenesis of severe vivax malaria and, especially, its respiratory complications remain poorly understood. A systematic search for articles reporting respiratory complications associated with vivax malaria was performed in Lilacs, Cochrane, Scielo, Web of Science, and Medline databases irrespective of publication date...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712183/association-of-abo-and-rh-blood-group-types-to-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-hiv-and-syphilis-infection-a-five-year-experience-in-healthy-blood-donors-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#10
Zufishan Batool, Saadia Haroon Durrani, Shazia Tariq
BACKGROUND: Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to find out the frequency of Hepatitis B Hepatitis C, Syphilis, HIV and malaria in apparently healthy blood donors and to find out any association between ABO and Rh blood groups. METHODS: It was a descriptive study carried out at Rehman Medical Institute laboratory. All blood donors who volunteered for blood donation from Jan 2008 to Dec 2014 were reviewed for blood groups and screening tests. Those who were eligible were then screened for Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, syphilis and malaria on Architect 8200i through chemiluminescent immunoassay whereas malaria was screened by a thin film...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711439/updates-on-k13-mutant-alleles-for-artemisinin-resistance-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#11
REVIEW
Myo Thura Zaw, Nor Amalina Emran, Zaw Lin
BACKGROUND: In the fight against malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the successes achieved by artemisinin were endangered by resistance of the parasites to the drug. Whole genome sequencing approach on artemisinin resistant parasite line discovered k13 gene associated with drug resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated mutations in the k13 gene were linked to the artemisinin resistance. METHODOLOGY: The literatures published after April, 2015 up to December, 2016 on k13 mutant alleles for artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and relevant literatures were comprehensively reviewed...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709077/phytonanotherapy-for-management-of-diabetes-using-green-synthesis-nanoparticles
#12
K Anand, C Tiloke, Pragalathan Naidoo, A A Chuturgoon
The world has a rich diversity of indigenous medicinal plants. The World Health Organization (WHO) gives high priority to eco-friendly, non-hazardous and cost effective healthcare such as the use of medicinal plants to treat various illnesses, including Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), diabetes mellitus (DM), malaria, and cancer. In developing countries, a high proportion of the population tends to use complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) together with conventional prescription drugs...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702342/pulmonary-manifestation-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Fatehi Elzein, Nazik Mohammed, Najoud Ali, Abdelkarim Bahloul, Abeer Albadani, Nisreen Alsherbeeni
Pulmonary complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are well described in P. falciparum (PF) and to a lesser extent in other malaria species. In non-endemic areas, malaria diagnosis may be overlooked; if a thorough travel history is not obtained on all patients with acute febrile illness. Three patients with malaria associated respiratory distress were admitted to our intensive care unit. The diagnosis was delayed; however, all patients received artesunate and intensive therapy with a satisfactory outcome...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699823/the-gmz2-malaria-vaccine-from-concept-to-efficacy-in-humans
#14
Michael Theisen, Bright Adu, Benjamin Mordmüller, Subhash Singh
GMZ2 is a recombinant protein consisting of conserved domains of GLURP and MSP3, two asexual blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, and is designed with the aim of mimicking naturally acquired anti-malarial immunity. The rationale for combining these two antigens is based on a series of immune epidemiological studies from geographically diverse malaria endemic regions; functional in vitro studies; and pre-clinical studies in rodents and New World monkeys. GMZ2 adjuvanted with alhydrogel® (alum) was well tolerated and immunogenic in three phase 1 studies...
July 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697665/variant-gene-expression-and-antigenic-variation-by-malaria-parasites
#15
Kirk W Deitsch, Ron Dzikowski
Malaria is a significant threat throughout the developing world. Among the most fascinating aspects of the protozoan parasites responsible for this disease are the methods they employ to avoid the immune system and perpetuate chronic infections. Key among these is antigenic variation: By systematically altering antigens that are displayed to the host's immune system, the parasite renders the adaptive immune response ineffective. For Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for the most severe form of human malaria, this process involves a complicated molecular mechanism that results in continuously changing patterns of variant-antigen-encoding gene expression...
July 11, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695836/a-case-series-of-imported-malaria-caused-by-plasmodium-falciparum-in-kayseri-and-review-of-literature
#16
Necati Mumcu, Hayati Demiraslan, Ahmet Dündar, Salih Kuk, Süleyman Yazar, Mehmet Doğanay
Malaria is a major worldwide public health problem. In the last years, no domestic cases of malaria have been detected and cases of imported malaria exist only in Turkey. In this study, clinical and laboratory findings of five Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria patients who were admitted to the emergency department between January 2013 and December 2015 were retrospectively presented. One of the patients was an African student, and the other patients had a history of travelling to Africa. Ring formation was observed when Giemsa staining was performed on the blood smears of all patients, and in three patients, P...
June 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693552/chloroquine-efficacy-for-plasmodium-vivax-in-myanmar-in-populations-with-high-genetic-diversity-and-moderate-parasite-gene-flow
#17
Myo Win Htun, Nan Cho Nwe Mon, Khin Myo Aye, Chan Myae Hlaing, Myat Phone Kyaw, Irene Handayuni, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Dorina Bustos, Pascal Ringwald, Ric N Price, Sarah Auburn, Kamala Thriemer
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria remains a major public health burden in Myanmar. Resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the first-line treatment for P. vivax, has been reported in the country and has potential to undermine local control efforts. METHODS: Patients over 6 years of age with uncomplicated P. vivax mono-infection were enrolled into clinical efficacy studies in Myawaddy in 2014 and Kawthoung in 2012. Study participants received a standard dose of CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) followed by weekly review until day 28...
July 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688800/protein-degradation-systems-as-antimalarial-therapeutic-targets
#18
REVIEW
Caroline L Ng, David A Fidock, Matthew Bogyo
Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapies are the most efficacious treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Alarmingly, P. falciparum strains have acquired resistance to ART across much of Southeast Asia. ART creates widespread protein and lipid damage inside intraerythrocytic parasites, necessitating macromolecule degradation. The proteasome is the main engine of Plasmodium protein degradation. Indeed, proteasome inhibition and ART have shown synergy in ART-resistant parasites. Moreover, ubiquitin modification is associated with altered parasite susceptibility to multiple antimalarials...
July 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685046/comprehensive-review-of-the-evidence-regarding-the-effectiveness-of-community-based-primary-health-care-in-improving-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-8-summary-and-recommendations-of-the-expert-panel
#19
Robert E Black, Carl E Taylor, Shobha Arole, Abhay Bang, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, A Mushtaque R Chowdhury, Betty R Kirkwood, Nazo Kureshy, Claudio F Lanata, James F Phillips, Mary Taylor, Cesar G Victora, Zonghan Zhu, Henry B Perry
BACKGROUND: The contributions that community-based primary health care (CBPHC) and engaging with communities as valued partners can make to the improvement of maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) is not widely appreciated. This unfortunate reality is one of the reasons why so few priority countries failed to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals by 2015. This article provides a summary of a series of articles about the effectiveness of CBPHC in improving MNCH and offers recommendations from an Expert Panel for strengthening CBPHC that were formulated in 2008 and have been updated on the basis of more recent evidence...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685042/comprehensive-review-of-the-evidence-regarding-the-effectiveness-of-community-based-primary-health-care-in-improving-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-4-child-health-findings
#20
Paul A Freeman, Meike Schleiff, Emma Sacks, Bahie M Rassekh, Sundeep Gupta, Henry B Perry
BACKGROUND: This paper assesses the effectiveness of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) in improving child health beyond the neonatal period. Although there has been an accelerated decline in global under-5 mortality since 2000, mortality rates remain high in much of sub-Saharan Africa and in some south Asian countries where under-5 mortality is also decreasing more slowly. Essential interventions for child health at the community level have been identified. Our review aims to contribute further to this knowledge by examining how strong the evidence is and exploring in greater detail what specific interventions and implementation strategies appear to be effective...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
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