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Malaria review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144217/mechanisms-of-naturally-acquired-immunity-to-p-falciparum-and-approaches-to-identify-merozoite-antigen-targets
#1
Julie Healer, Chris Y Chiu, Diana S Hansen
Malaria is one the most serious infectious diseases with over 200 million clinical cases annually. Most cases of the severe disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The blood stage of Plasmodium parasite is entirely responsible for malaria-associated pathology. The population most susceptible to severe malaria are children under the age of 5, with low levels of immunity. It is only after many years of repeated exposure that individuals living in endemic areas develop clinical immunity. This form of protection prevents clinical episodes by substantially reducing parasite burden...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143647/modelling-stillbirth-mortality-reduction-with-the-lives-saved-tool
#2
Hannah Blencowe, Victoria B Chou, Joy E Lawn, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: The worldwide burden of stillbirths is large, with an estimated 2.6 million babies stillborn in 2015 including 1.3 million dying during labour. The Every Newborn Action Plan set a stillbirth target of ≤12 per 1000 in all countries by 2030. Planning tools will be essential as countries set policy and plan investment to scale up interventions to meet this target. This paper summarises the approach taken for modelling the impact of scaling-up health interventions on stillbirths in the Lives Saved tool (LiST), and potential future refinements...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143406/oncogenic-spiral-by-infectious-pathogens-the-cooperation-of-multiple-factors-in-cancer-development
#3
Jun-Ichirou Yasunaga, Masao Matsuoka
Chronic infection is one of the major causes of cancer, and there are several mechanisms for infection-mediated oncogenesis. Some pathogens encode gene products that behave like oncogenic factors, hijacking cellular pathways to promote the survival and proliferation of infected cells in vivo. Some of these viral oncoproteins trigger a cellular damage defense response leading to senescence; however, other viral factors hinder this suppressive effect, suggesting that cooperation of those viral factors is important for malignant transformation...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137664/therapeutic-efficacy-of-artemether-lumefantrine-in-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Mohammed Biset Ayalew
BACKGROUND: As Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries with a great burden of malaria the effectiveness of first line anti-malarial drugs is the major concern. The aim of this study was to synthesize the available evidence on the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ethiopia. This was done by performing a meta-analysis of recent studies conducted in the country on this topic. METHODS: Studies published between January 2010 and January 2017 that reported on the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of P...
November 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136773/the-potential-use-of-melatonin-to-treat-protozoan-parasitic-infections-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Ahmad Daryani, Mahbobeh Montazeri, Abdol Satar Pagheh, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Russel J Reiter, Ramtin Hadighi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Habib Ghaznavi, Saeed Mehrzadi
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a circadian hormone produced in vertebrates by the pineal gland and other organs. Melatonin is believed to influence immune cells leading to modulation of the proliferative response of stimulated lymphocytes as well as cytokine production. Due to the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of melatonin, it is suggested that this molecule could be a therapeutic alternative agent to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections by a variety of mechanisms. Herein, we review the effects of melatonin on the cell biology of protozoan parasites and host's immune response...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132357/mapping-multiple-components-of-malaria-risk-for-improved-targeting-of-elimination-interventions
#6
REVIEW
Justin M Cohen, Arnaud Le Menach, Emilie Pothin, Thomas P Eisele, Peter W Gething, Philip A Eckhoff, Bruno Moonen, Allan Schapira, David L Smith
There is a long history of considering the constituent components of malaria risk and the malaria transmission cycle via the use of mathematical models, yet strategic planning in endemic countries tends not to take full advantage of available disease intelligence to tailor interventions. National malaria programmes typically make operational decisions about where to implement vector control and surveillance activities based upon simple categorizations of annual parasite incidence. With technological advances, an enormous opportunity exists to better target specific malaria interventions to the places where they will have greatest impact by mapping and evaluating metrics related to a variety of risk components, each of which describes a different facet of the transmission cycle...
November 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127677/current-standards-of-care-and-long-term-outcomes-for-thalassemia-and-sickle-cell-disease
#7
Satheesh Chonat, Charles T Quinn
Thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD) are disorders of hemoglobin that affect millions of people worldwide. The carrier states for these diseases arose as common, balanced polymorphisms during human history because they afforded protection against severe forms of malaria. These complex, multisystem diseases are reviewed here with a focus on current standards of clinical management and recent research findings. The importance of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary and lifelong system of care is also emphasized...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126812/infectious-disease-risks-among-refugees-from-north-korea
#8
Hiroshi Nishiura, Hyojung Lee, Baoyin Yuan, Akira Endo, Andrei R Akhmetzhanov, Gerardo Chowell
OBJECTIVES: Disease characteristics of North Korea including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks have not been openly and widely analyzed. The present study aimed to estimate infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea. METHODS: To statistically estimate risks of infectious diseases among North Korean, literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted. RESULTS: A total of six groups of data from five publications were identified from 2004 to 2014...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125615/towards-lab-on-a-chip-diagnostics-for-malaria-elimination
#9
REVIEW
N Kolluri, C M Klapperich, M Cabodi
Malaria continues to be one of the most devastating diseases impacting global health. Although there have been significant reductions in global malaria incidence and mortality rates over the past 17 years, the disease remains endemic throughout the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has put forth ambitious milestones moving toward a world free of malaria as part of the United Nations Millennium Goals. Mass screening and treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria infections in endemic regions is integral to these goals and requires diagnostics that are both sensitive and affordable...
November 10, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123551/discovery-of-antimalarial-drugs-from-streptomycetes-metabolites-using-a-metabolomic-approach
#10
REVIEW
Siti Junaidah Ahmad, Mohd Badrin Hanizam Abdul Rahim, Syarul Nataqain Baharum, Mohd Shukri Baba, Noraziah Mohamad Zin
Natural products continue to play an important role as a source of biologically active substances for the development of new drug. Streptomyces, Gram-positive bacteria which are widely distributed in nature, are one of the most popular sources of natural antibiotics. Recently, by using a bioassay-guided fractionation, an antimalarial compound, Gancidin-W, has been discovered from these bacteria. However, this classical method in identifying potentially novel bioactive compounds from the natural products requires considerable effort and is a time-consuming process...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123481/development-in-assay-methods-for-in-vitro-antimalarial-drug-efficacy-testing-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Shweta Sinha, Phulen Sarma, Rakesh Sehgal, Bikash Medhi
The emergence and spread of drug resistance are the major challenges in malaria eradication mission. Besides various strategies laid down by World Health Organization, such as vector management, source reduction, early case detection, prompt treatment, and development of new diagnostics and vaccines, nevertheless the need for new and efficacious drugs against malaria has become a critical priority on the global malaria research agenda. At several screening stages, millions of compounds are screened (1,000-2,000,000 compounds per screening campaign), before pre-clinical trials to select optimum lead...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121954/temporal-variation-in-confirmed-diagnosis-of-fever-related-malarial-cases-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-by-community-health-workers-and-in-health-facilities-between-years-2013-and-2015-in-siaya-county-kenya
#12
Donald O Apat, John M Gachohi, Mohamed Karama, Jusper R Kiplimo, Sonia E Sachs
BACKGROUND: Malaria case management continues to experience dynamic changes. Building community capacity is instrumental in both prevention and treatment of malaria. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends utilization of well-trained and supervised community health workers (CHWs) to reduce the burden of malaria deaths among children under-5 years of age in Africa. Longitudinally-tracked information on utilization of CHWs by communities in terms of trends in diagnosis of malaria in children under-5 years of age is essential in influencing national and local malaria control policies and strategies...
November 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119937/use-of-human-dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase-hdhodh-inhibitors-in-autoimmune-diseases-and-new-perspectives-in-cancer-therapy
#13
Marco L Lolli, Stefano Sainas, Agnese C Pippione, Marta Giorgis, Donatella Boschi, Franco Dosio
BACKGROUND: Human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH, EC 1.3.5.2), a flavin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme involved in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, is a validated therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, human DHODH inhibitors have also been investigated as treatment for cancer, parasite infections (i.e. malaria) and viruses as well as in the agrochemicals industry. OBJECTIVE: An overview of current knowledge of hDHODH inhibitors and their potential uses in diseases where hDHODH is involved...
November 8, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117626/unravelling-the-roles-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-cerebral-malaria-pathogenesis
#14
J Palomo, Vfj Quesniaux, D Togbe, F Reverchon, B Ryffel
Cerebral malaria (CM) is due to Plasmodium parasite infection leading to inflammatory immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS), accompanied by lung inflammation and anemia. Here, we focus on the role of the innate immune response in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) caused by blood-stage murine Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infection. While T cells are important for ECM pathogenesis, the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) is only emerging. The role of ILCs and non-lymphoid cells such as neutrophils and platelets contributing to the host immune response leading to ECM and human cerebral malaria (HCM) is reviewed...
November 8, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109698/the-emerging-facets-of-non-cancerous-warburg-effect
#15
Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem, Nathan E Lewis, Neema Jamshidi, Katsuhiko Mineta, Xin Gao, Takashi Gojobori
The Warburg effect (WE), or aerobic glycolysis, is commonly recognized as a hallmark of cancer and has been extensively studied for potential anti-cancer therapeutics development. Beyond cancer, the WE plays an important role in many other cell types involved in immunity, angiogenesis, pluripotency, and infection by pathogens (e.g., malaria). Here, we review the WE in non-cancerous context as a "hallmark of rapid proliferation." We observe that the WE operates in rapidly dividing cells in normal and pathological states that are triggered by internal and external cues...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107173/deaths-and-parasuicides-associated-with-mefloquine-chemoprophylaxis-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Maya Tickell-Painter, Rachel Saunders, Nicola Maayan, Vittoria Lutje, Alberto Mateo-Urdiales, Paul Garner
BACKGROUND: Mefloquine is recommended in international health guidelines for preventing malaria in travellers. Reports of psychosis and suicide are often alluded to but are not clearly established. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review to identify and critically appraise any death or parasuicide associated with mefloquine prophylaxis. We developed a comprehensive search that included publications up to 11 July 2017. We included case studies but excluded newspaper reports...
October 25, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101806/tetrandrine-and-cancer-an-overview-on-the-molecular-approach
#17
REVIEW
Bhagya N, Chandrashekar K R
Tetrandrine has been known in the treatment of tuberculosis, hyperglycemia, negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects on myocardium, malaria, cancer and fever since years together. It has been known that, tetrandrine could modulate multiple signaling molecules such as kinases of cell cycle and rat sarcoma (RAS) pathway along with proteins of tumor suppressor genes, autophagy related, β-catenins, caspases, and death receptors. Moreover, tetrandrine exhibited reversal of drug resistance by modulating P-glyco protein (P-gp) expression levels in different cancers which is an added advantage of this compound compared to other chemotherapy drugs...
November 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097634/asymptomatic-plasmodial-infection-in-pregnant-women-a-global-scenario
#18
REVIEW
Jaime Carmona-Fonseca, Eliana M Arango
Though asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) is well known phenomenon and play an important role in different populations and malaria transmission settings, it has received less attention in malaria intervention strategies. This review was aimed to estimate the prevalence of API in pregnant women across the world. The bibliography records relevant to the study were searched on PubMed and Lilacs, till August 15, 2016, without restriction of language. A total of 78 references were identified, of which 29 met the inclusion criteria...
July 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096194/molecular-interactions-governing-host-specificity-of-blood-stage-malaria-parasites
#19
REVIEW
Erik J Scully, Usheer Kanjee, Manoj T Duraisingh
Non-human primates harbor diverse species of malaria parasites, including the progenitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Cross-species transmission of some malaria parasites-most notably the macaque parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi-continues to this day, compelling the scientific community to ask whether these zoonoses could impede malaria control efforts by acting as a source of recurrent human infection. Host-restriction varies considerably among parasite species and is governed by both ecological and molecular variables...
October 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092797/gold-nanoparticles-against-parasites-and-insect-vectors
#20
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli
Nanomaterials are currently considered for many biological, biomedical and environmental purposes, due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is of high interest for research in parasitology and entomology, since these nanomaterials showed promising applications, ranging from detection techniques to drug development, against a rather wide range of parasites of public health relevance, as well as on insect vectors. Here, I reviewed current knowledge about the bioactivity of Au NPs on selected insect species of public health relevance, including major mosquito vectors, such as Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus...
October 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
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