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Malaria review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447193/ebola-and-marburg-virus-vaccines
#1
REVIEW
Pierce Reynolds, Andrea Marzi
The filoviruses, Ebola virus (EBOV), and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most pathogenic viruses known to man and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Africa with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Nearly 30,000 infections were observed in the latest EBOV epidemic in West Africa; previous outbreaks were much smaller, typically only affecting less than a few hundred people. Compared to other diseases such as AIDS or Malaria with millions of cases annually, filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) is one of the neglected infectious diseases...
April 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446847/knowledge-experiences-and-training-needs-of-health-professionals-about-disaster-preparedness-and-response-in-southwest-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Negalign Berhanu, Hailay Abrha, Yohannes Ejigu, Kifle Woldemichael
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, the magnitude and intensity of disasters have been vividly rising globally due to the forces of nature or man. This study aimed at assessing the perceived knowledge, experiences and training needs of health professionals regarding disasters, their prevention and management in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 377 health professionals taken from 9 randomly selected districts out of 18...
September 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446445/susceptibility-testing-of-medically-important-parasites
#3
REVIEW
Abebe Genetu Bayih, Anjan Debnath, Edward Mitre, Christopher D Huston, Benoît Laleu, Didier Leroy, Benjamin Blasco, Brice Campo, Timothy N C Wells, Paul A Willis, Peter Sjö, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Dylan R Pillai
In the last 2 decades, renewed attention to neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has spurred the development of antiparasitic agents, especially in light of emerging drug resistance. The need for new drugs has required in vitro screening methods using parasite culture. Furthermore, clinical laboratories sought to correlate in vitro susceptibility methods with treatment outcomes, most notably with malaria. Parasites with their various life cycles present greater complexity than bacteria, for which standardized susceptibility methods exist...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446198/effect-of-anti-malarial-interventions-on-trends-of-malaria-cases-hospital-admissions-and-deaths-2005-2015-ghana
#4
Maru Aregawi, Keziah L Malm, Mohammed Wahjib, Osae Kofi, Naa-Korkor Allotey, Peprah Nana Yaw, Wilmot Abba-Baffoe, Sylvester Segbaya, Felicia Owusu-Antwi, Abderahmane T Kharchi, Ryan O Williams, Mark Saalfeld, Nibretie Workneh, Estifanos Biru Shargie, Abdisalan M Noor, Constance Bart-Plange
BACKGROUND: Since 2005, the Government of Ghana and its partners, in concerted efforts to control malaria, scaled up the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Beginning in 2011, a mass campaign of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was implemented, targeting all the population. The impact of these interventions on malaria cases, admissions and deaths was assessed using data from district hospitals. METHODS: Records of malaria cases and deaths and availability of ACT in 88 hospitals, as well as at district level, ITN distribution, and indoor residual spraying were reviewed...
April 26, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438914/does-deforestation-promote-or-inhibit-malaria-transmission-in-the-amazon-a-systematic-literature-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-current-evidence
#5
REVIEW
Joanna M Tucker Lima, Amy Vittor, Sami Rifai, Denis Valle
Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438218/malaria-elimination-in-lao-pdr-the-challenges-associated-with-population-mobility
#6
REVIEW
Sengchanh Kounnavong, Deyer Gopinath, Bouasy Hongvanthong, Chanthalone Khamkong, Odai Sichanthongthip
Although the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is comparatively small landlocked country with patterns of both in- and out-migration, its human migration situation has been poorly studied. This is despite all of the country's 18 provinces sharing both official and unofficial border checkpoints with neighboring countries. Economic reforms in the last decade have seen a gradual increase in the promotion of foreign investment, and main towns and transportation networks have been expanding thus offering new opportunities for livelihoods and economic activities...
April 25, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434405/ivermectin-to-reduce-malaria-transmission-ii-considerations-regarding-clinical-development-pathway
#7
REVIEW
Carlos Chaccour, N Regina Rabinovich
The development of ivermectin as a complementary vector control tool will require good quality evidence. This paper reviews the different eco-epidemiological contexts in which mass drug administration with ivermectin could be useful. Potential scenarios and pharmacological strategies are compared in order to help guide trial design. The rationale for a particular timing of an ivermectin-based tool and some potentially useful outcome measures are suggested.
April 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430103/genomic-characterization-of-recrudescent-plasmodium-malariae-after-treatment-with-artemether-lumefantrine
#8
Gavin G Rutledge, Ian Marr, G Khai Lin Huang, Sarah Auburn, Jutta Marfurt, Mandy Sanders, Nicholas J White, Matthew Berriman, Chris I Newbold, Nicholas M Anstey, Thomas D Otto, Ric N Price
Plasmodium malariae is the only human malaria parasite species with a 72-hour intraerythrocytic cycle and the ability to persist in the host for life. We present a case of a P. malariae infection with clinical recrudescence after directly observed administration of artemether/lumefantrine. By using whole-genome sequencing, we show that the initial infection was polyclonal and the recrudescent isolate was a single clone present at low density in the initial infection. Haplotypic analysis of the clones in the initial infection revealed that they were all closely related and were presumably recombinant progeny originating from the same infective mosquito bite...
August 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427418/immunity-as-a-predictor-of-anti-malarial-treatment-failure-a-systematic-review
#9
Katherine O'Flaherty, Julia Maguire, Julie A Simpson, Freya J I Fowkes
BACKGROUND: Naturally acquired immunity can reduce parasitaemia and potentially influence anti-malarial treatment outcomes; however, evidence for this in the current literature provides conflicted results. The available evidence was synthesized to determine and quantify the association between host immunity and anti-malarial treatment failure. METHODS: Four databases were searched to identify studies investigating malaria antibody levels in patients receiving anti-malarial treatment for symptomatic malaria with treatment failure recorded according to the World Health Organization classification...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427389/defining-micro-epidemiology-for-malaria-elimination-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Kristien Verdonck, Susanna Hausmann-Muela, Charlotte Gryseels, Joan Muela Ribera, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Malaria risk can vary markedly between households in the same village, or between villages, but the determinants of this "micro-epidemiological" variation in malaria risk remain poorly understood. This study aimed to identify factors that explain fine-scale variation in malaria risk across settings and improve definitions and methods for malaria micro-epidemiology. METHODS: A systematic review of studies that examined risk factors for variation in malaria infection between individuals, households, clusters, hotspots, or villages in any malaria-endemic setting was conducted...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426114/infectious-diseases-and-migrant-worker-health-in-singapore-a-receiving-country-s-perspective
#11
Sapna P Sadarangani, Poh Lian Lim, Shawn Vasoo
Background.: Approximately 1.4 million migrant workers reside in Singapore, presenting unique infectious disease challenges to both migrants and Singapore. Methods.: A Pubmed, MEDLINE (Ovid), EBSCO Host (Global Health) and Google Scholar search was performed for both peer, non-peer reviewed articles and reports relevant to migrant health in Singapore, published between 1 January 1989 and 1 September 2016. Additional studies were identified from citations within searched articles...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420988/heme-as-a-target-for-therapeutic-interventions
#12
REVIEW
Stephan Immenschuh, Vijith Vijayan, Sabina Janciauskiene, Faikah Gueler
Heme is a complex of iron and the tetrapyrrole protoporphyrin IX with essential functions in aerobic organisms. Heme is the prosthetic group of hemoproteins such as hemoglobin and myoglobin, which are crucial for reversible oxygen binding and transport. By contrast, high levels of free heme, which may occur in various pathophysiological conditions, are toxic via pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects. The toxicity of heme plays a major role for the pathogenesis of prototypical hemolytic disorders including sickle cell disease and malaria...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420389/assessment-of-copy-number-variation-in-genes-related-to-drug-resistance-in-plasmodium-vivax-and-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-from-the-brazilian-amazon-and-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#13
Gabriel Luíz Costa, Lara Cotta Amaral, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes, Luzia Helena Carvalho, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Taís Nóbrega de Sousa
BACKGROUND: Parasite resistance to anti-malarials represents a great obstacle for malaria elimination. The majority of studies have investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and drug resistance; however, it is becoming clear that the copy number variation (CNV) is also associated with this parasite phenotype. To provide a baseline for molecular surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance in the Brazilian Amazon, the present study characterized the genetic profile of both markers in the most common genes associated with drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax isolates...
April 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414071/epigenetic-landscapes-underlining-global-patterns-of-gene-expression-in-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#14
REVIEW
Archana P Gupta, Zbynek Bozdech
The dynamic chromatin landscape displaying combinatorial complexity of the epigenome impacts gene expression that underlies many events of differentiation and cell cycle progression. In the past few years, epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as important processes involved in the tight gene regulation in malaria parasites, Plasmodium spp. Focusing predominantly on Plasmodium falciparum, the species associated with the most severe form of the disease, many advances have been made in our understanding of the interaction between transcriptional regulation and epigenetic mechanisms as the pivotal processes in regulating life cycle progression, host parasite interactions and parasite adaptation to the host environment...
April 13, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412962/prospects-for-malaria-control-through-manipulation-of-mosquito-larval-habitats-and-olfactory-mediated-behavioural-responses-using-plant-derived-compounds
#15
REVIEW
Jackson M Muema, Joel L Bargul, Sospeter N Njeru, Joab O Onyango, Susan S Imbahale
Malaria presents an overwhelming public health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where vector favourable conditions and poverty prevail, potentiating the disease burden. Behavioural variability of malaria vectors poses a great challenge to existing vector control programmes with insecticide resistance already acquired to nearly all available chemical compounds. Thus, approaches incorporating plant-derived compounds to manipulate semiochemical-mediated behaviours through disruption of mosquito olfactory sensory system have considerably gained interests to interrupt malaria transmission cycle...
April 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411937/preparing-for-international-travel-and-global-medical-care
#16
REVIEW
Swaminatha V Mahadevan, Matthew C Strehlow
Thorough pretravel preparation and medical consultation can mitigate avoidable health and safety risks. A comprehensive pretravel medical consultation should include an individualized risk assessment, immunization review, and discussion of arthropod protective measures, malaria prophylaxis, traveler's diarrhea, and injury prevention. Travel with children and jet lag reduction require additional planning and prevention strategies; travel and evacuation insurance may prove essential when traveling to less resourced countries...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407810/does-task-shifting-yield-cost-savings-and-improve-efficiency-for-health-systems-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-from-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#17
Gabriel Seidman, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: Task shifting has become an increasingly popular way to increase access to health services, especially in low-resource settings. Research has demonstrated that task shifting, including the use of community health workers (CHWs) to deliver care, can improve population health. This systematic review investigates whether task shifting in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) results in efficiency improvements by achieving cost savings. METHODS: Using the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, we searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and the Health Economic Evaluation Database on March 22, 2016...
April 13, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404673/update-on-malaria-diagnostics-and-test-utilization
#18
Blaine A Mathison, Bobbi S Pritt
Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease requiring rapid diagnosis and treatment. Although microscopic examination of thick and thin blood films remains the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis, rapid antigen tests and nucleic acid amplification methods may also play a useful role for detection of acute infection. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the commonly-used diagnostic methods and provides important practice points for optimal malaria test utilization.
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402391/the-relative-effects-of-artemether-lumefantrine-and-non-artemisinin-antimalarials-on-gametocyte-carriage-and-transmission-of-plasmodium-falciparum-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Matthew M Ippolito, Julia Johnson, Christopher Mullin, Christopher Mallow, Nadia Morgan, Erika Wallender, Tianjing Li, Philip J Rosenthal
Background.: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been widely adopted as first-line agents to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria due to their activity against multidrug resistant parasites. ACTs may also disrupt transmission through a direct antigametocyte effect, but the extent of this effect is uncertain. We assessed the evidence for and estimated the effects of the most widely deployed ACT, artemether-lumefantrine (AL), relative to non-ACTs on gametocyte clearance and transmission interruption...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400771/signaling-strategies-of-malaria-parasite-for-its-survival-proliferation-and-infection-during-erythrocytic-stage
#20
REVIEW
Rani Soni, Drista Sharma, Praveen Rai, Bhaskar Sharma, Tarun K Bhatt
Irrespective of various efforts, malaria persist the most debilitating effect in terms of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the existing drugs are also vulnerable to the emergence of drug resistance. To explore the potential targets for designing the most effective antimalarial therapies, it is required to focus on the facts of biochemical mechanism underlying the process of parasite survival and disease pathogenesis. This review is intended to bring out the existing knowledge about the functions and components of the major signaling pathways such as kinase signaling, calcium signaling, and cyclic nucleotide-based signaling, serving the various aspects of the parasitic asexual stage and highlighted the Toll-like receptors, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling, and molecular events in cytoadhesion, which elicit the host immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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