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Malaria review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525963/the-use-of-transgenic-parasites-in-malaria-vaccine-research
#1
Ahmad Syibli Othman, Catherin Marin-Mogollon, Ahmed M Salman, Blandine M Franke-Fayard, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan
Transgenic malaria parasites expressing foreign genes, for example fluorescent and luminescent proteins, are used extensively to interrogate parasite biology and host-parasite interactions associated with malaria pathology. Increasingly transgenic parasites are also exploited to advance malaria vaccine development. Areas Covered: We review how transgenic malaria parasites are used, in vitro and in vivo, to determine protective efficacy of different antigens and vaccination strategies and to determine immunological correlates of protection...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521798/use-of-malaria-rdts-in-various-health-contexts-across-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#2
Matthew R Boyce, Wendy P O'Meara
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends parasitological confirmation of malaria prior to treatment. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) represent one diagnostic method that is used in a variety of contexts to overcome limitations of other diagnostic techniques. Malaria RDTs increase the availability and feasibility of accurate diagnosis and may result in improved quality of care. Though RDTs are used in a variety of contexts, no studies have compared how well or effectively RDTs are used across these contexts...
May 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510633/obesity-and-diabetes-as-risk-factors-for-severe-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-results-from-a-swedish-nationwide-study
#3
Katja Wyss, Andreas Wångdahl, Maria Vesterlund, Ulf Hammar, Saduddin Dashti, Pontus Naucler, Anna Färnert
Background: Noncommunicable diseases and obesity are increasing in prevalence globally, also in populations at risk of malaria. We sought to investigate if comorbidity, in terms of chronic diseases and obesity, is associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study in adults (≥18 years) diagnosed with malaria in Sweden between January 1995 and May 2015. We identified cases through the surveillance database at the Public Health Agency of Sweden and reviewed clinical data from 18 hospitals...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507567/performance-of-pfhrp2-versus-pldh-antigen-rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-the-detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Bo Li, Zhiqiang Sun, Xiaohan Li, Xiaoxi Li, Han Wang, Weijiao Chen, Peng Chen, Mengran Qiao, Yuanli Mao
INTRODUCTION: There have been many inconsistent reports about the performance of histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) antigens as rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for the diagnosis of past Plasmodium falciparum infections. This meta-analysis was performed to determine the performance of pfHRP2 versus pLDH antigen RDTs in the detection of P. falciparum. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After a systematic review of related studies, Meta-DiSc 1.4 software was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR)...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507380/malaria-and-diabetes
#5
Sanjay Kalra, Deepak Khandelwal, Rajiv Singla, Sameer Aggarwal, Deep Dutta
Both malaria and diabetes are more common in the developing world, and are major public health challenges. A direct relationship between these 2 conditions has not been evaluated. This review article assessed the literature guaging the relationship between these two conditions, and suggests a pragmatic approach to management. References for this review were identified through searches of PubMed, Medline, and Embase for articles published to October 2016 using the terms "diabetes" [MeSH Terms] AND "malaria" [All Fields]...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507195/molecular-signaling-involved-in-entry-and-exit-of-malaria-parasites-from-host-erythrocytes
#6
Shailja Singh, Chetan E Chitnis
During the blood stage, Plasmodium spp. merozoites invade host red blood cells (RBCs), multiply, exit, and reinvade uninfected RBCs in a continuing cycle that is responsible for all the clinical symptoms associated with malaria. Entry into (invasion) and exit from (egress) RBCs are highly regulated processes that are mediated by an array of parasite proteins with specific functional roles. Many of these parasite proteins are stored in specialized apical secretory vesicles, and their timely release is critical for successful invasion and egress...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507193/current-and-future-prospects-for-preventing-malaria-transmission-via-the-use-of-insecticides
#7
Hilary Ranson
Malaria vectors have developed resistance to all classes of insecticides that are used to target the adult mosquito to prevent parasite transmission. The number of resistant mosquito populations has increased dramatically in recent years, most likely as a result of the scale-up of vector control activities, and the intensity of this resistance is increasing rapidly and compromising the performance of vector control tools. Bednets and indoor residual spray formulations containing alternative active ingredients have shown promise in field trials but are still several years away from implementation...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506781/implementation-of-quality-management-for-clinical-bacteriology-in-low-resource-settings
#8
REVIEW
Barbara Barbé, Cedric P Yansouni, Dissou Affolabi, Jan Jacobs
BACKGROUND: The declining trend of malaria and the recent prioritization of containment of antimicrobial resistance have created a momentum to implement clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings (LRS). Successful implementation relies on guidance by a quality management system (QMS). Over the past decade, international initiatives were launched towards implementation of QMS in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. AIMS: To describe the progress towards accreditation of medical laboratories and to identify the challenges and "Best practices" for implementation of QMS in clinical bacteriology in LRS...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504626/-danish-malaria-research-from-the-frail-beginning-to-internationally-acknowledged-research
#9
Micha Phill Grønholm Jepsen, Søren Jepsen, Jørgen Kurtzhals, Lars Hviid
Malaria - and particularly the disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum - remains a direct as well as indirect cause of poverty and immense human suffering. Research is imperative to alleviate this situation and to control and eventually eradicate the disease. Since the mid-1970s, Danish scientists have contributed increasingly to this effort by publishing more than 700 scientific papers and by training about 60 highly skilled malaria researchers. The efforts which continue to be thoroughly dependent on extensive external funding and public goodwill are briefly reviewed in this article...
May 15, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495308/pharmaceutical-prospects-of-naturally-occurring-quinazolinone-and-its-derivatives
#10
REVIEW
Dan He, Menglei Wang, Siyu Zhao, Yisong Shu, Honglian Zeng, Cheng Xiao, Cheng Lu, Yuanyan Liu
Quinazolinones belong to a family of heterocyclic nitrogen compounds that have attracted increasing interest because of their broad spectrum of biological functions. This review describes three types of natural quinazolinones and their synthesized derivatives and summarizes their various pharmacological activities, including antifungal, anti-tumor, anti-malaria, anticonvulsant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and antihyperlipidemic activities. In addition, structure-activity relationships of quinazolinone derivatives are also reviewed...
May 8, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493472/turf-wars-exploring-splenomegaly-in-sickle-cell-disease-in-malaria-endemic-regions
#11
REVIEW
Venée N Tubman, Julie Makani
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of recessively inherited disorders of erythrocyte function that presents an ongoing threat to reducing childhood and adult morbidity and mortality around the world. While decades of research have led to improved survival for SCD patients in wealthy countries, survival remains dismal in low- and middle-income countries. Much of the early mortality associated with SCD is attributed to increased risk of infections due to early loss of splenic function. In the West, bacterial infections with encapsulated organisms are a primary concern...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490535/vaccines-to-accelerate-malaria-elimination-and-eventual-eradication
#12
Julie Healer, Alan F Cowman, David C Kaslow, Ashley J Birkett
Remarkable progress has been made in coordinated malaria control efforts with substantial reductions in malaria-associated deaths and morbidity achieved through mass administration of drugs and vector control measures including distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated bednets and indoor residual spraying. However, emerging resistance poses a significant threat to the sustainability of these interventions. In this light, the malaria research community has been charged with the development of a highly efficacious vaccine to complement existing malaria elimination measures...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487118/pittosporum-viridiflorum-sims-pittosporaceae-a-review-on-a-useful-medicinal-plant-native-to-south-africa-and-tropical-africa
#13
REVIEW
B Madikizela, L J McGaw
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims, a Pittosporaceae species, is used extensively in African traditional medicine (ATM) by various tribes. This review is an appraisal of the information concerning the description, distribution, conservation status, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this species with the aim of reconciling it with its traditional use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A wide-ranging literature search was conducted using database platforms such as Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PubMed and books including local reports and thesis submissions...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472981/infectious-diseases-of-poverty-the-first-five-years
#14
EDITORIAL
Wei Wang, Jin Chen, Hui-Feng Sheng, Na-Na Wang, Pin Yang, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Robert Bergquist
Although the focus in the area of health research may be shifting from infectious to non-communicable diseases, the infectious diseases of poverty remain a major burden of disease of global health concern. A global platform to communicate and share the research on these diseases is needed to facilitate the translation of knowledge into effective approaches and tools for their elimination. Based on the "One health, One world" mission, a new, open-access journal, Infectious Diseases of Poverty (IDP), was launched by BioMed Central in partnership with the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) on October 25, 2012...
May 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467668/oxidative-stress-in-malaria-and-artemisinin-combination-therapy-pros-and-cons
#15
REVIEW
Reginald A Kavishe, Jan B Koenderink, Michael Alifrangis
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been adopted as a strategy to mitigate multidrug resistance to antimalarial monotherapies. ACT combines the rapid and effective but rather short plasma half-life antimalarial action of an artemisinin derivative with a longer acting partner drug. Although the exact mechanisms of action of artemisinins is not well understood, several studies have proposed multiple cellular targets of artemisinins with involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Most of the currently used ACT partner drugs are also known to involve ROS production in their mechanisms of action...
May 3, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464945/private-sector-opportunities-and-threats-to-achieving-malaria-elimination-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion-results-from-malaria-outlet-surveys-in-cambodia-the-lao-pdr-myanmar-and-thailand
#16
Sochea Phok, Saysana Phanalasy, Si Thu Thein, Asawin Likhitsup
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to review multi-country evidence of private sector adherence to national regulations, guidelines, and quality-assurance standards for malaria case management and to document current coverage of private sector engagement and support through ACTwatch outlet surveys implemented in 2015 and 2016. RESULTS: Over 76,168 outlets were screened, and approximately 6500 interviews were conducted (Cambodia, N = 1303; the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), N = 724; Myanmar, N = 4395; and Thailand, N = 74)...
May 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460016/physicians-compliance-with-the-national-drug-policy-on-malaria-in-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-india-from-2010-to-2015-a-mixed-method-study
#17
Soundappan Kathirvel, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Zaw Myo Tun, Binod Kumar Patro, Tarundeep Singh, Ashish Bhalla, Mahesh Devnani, Ewan Wilkinson
Background: National drug policies are formulated to encourage rational use of drugs and to reduce drug resistance. This study assessed physicians' compliance with the National Drug Policy on Malaria at a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: This mixed method study extracted data from adult malaria inpatient records of the hospital from 2010-2015, and assessed drug supply at pharmacies. Physicians' practices and perspectives were explored by in-depth interviews...
February 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455236/genomics-and-epigenetics-of-sexual-commitment-in-plasmodium
#18
REVIEW
D P Bechtsi, A P Waters
Malaria is the disease caused by the apicomplexan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Expanding our arsenal to include transmission-blocking agents in our fight against malaria is becoming increasingly important. Such an implementation requires detailed understanding of the biology of the Plasmodium life cycle stages that are transmissible. Plasmodium gametocytes are the only parasite stage that can be transmitted to the mosquito vector and are the product of sexual development in a small percentage of parasites that continually proliferate in host blood...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452684/dynamic-interactions-of-plasmodium-spp-with-vascular-endothelium
#19
Mark R Gillrie, May Ho
Plasmodial species are protozoan parasites that infect erythrocytes. As such, they are in close contact with microvascular endothelium for most of the life cycle in the mammalian host. The host-parasite interactions of this stage of the infection are responsible for the clinical manifestations of the disease that range from a mild febrile illness to severe and frequently fatal syndromes such as cerebral malaria and multi-organ failure. Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most severe form of malaria, is particularly predisposed to modulating endothelial function through either direct adhesion to endothelial receptor molecules, or by releasing potent host and parasite products that can stimulate endothelial activation and/or disrupt barrier function...
January 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450185/prophylactic-efficacy-of-primaquine-for-preventing-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-parasitaemia-in-travelers-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Goodarz Kolifarhood, Ahmad Raeisi, Mansour Ranjbar, Ali Akbar Haghdoust, Allan Schapira, Saeed Hashemi, Hossein Masoumi-Asl, Hossein Mozafar Sadati, Sara Azimi, Nasim Khosravi, Anatoly Kondrashin
BACKGROUND: With increased international travel over the world the need for safe and effective chemoprophylaxis for malaria is as great as ever. The choice of regimen is difficult, as effectiveness should be weighted against potential adverse effects. Although, some studies have reported high prophylactic efficacy of primaquine, there is no comprehensive evidence comparing its prophylactic effectiveness as well as toxicity. To fill the gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis study was carried out...
April 24, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
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