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Malaria review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923205/spontaneous-rupture-of-splenic-hematoma-in-a-malaria-patient-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#1
Bassem M Abou Hussein, Ali M Al Ani, Omar Al-Mayoofi, Mahpara Mehraj, Afra A Joher, Juanita A Bonilla, Alya S Al-Mazrouei, Faisal M Badri
INTRODUCTION: Blunt abdominal trauma is the most common cause of splenic rupture. Malaria is the most frequent tropical infectious cause of spontaneous splenic rupture. The exact mechanism is not well-defined. CASE REPORT: We report a case of thirty-year-old male patient known to have malaria who presented with spontaneous splenic rupture. A trial of conservative treatment failed and splenecomy was done to control bleeding. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous splenic rupture should be kept in mind in malaria patients presenting with left upper quadrant pain and signs of hypovolemia...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#2
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#3
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920569/does-calcium-channel-blockade-have-a-role-in-prevention-of-expression-of-sepsis-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#4
REVIEW
John A D'Elia, Ray E Gleason, Anthony P Monaco, Larry A Weinrauch
Many antihypertensive agents have been demonstrated to assist in preservation of kidney function, among them those that modulate calcium channels. Calcium channel blockers may also be of value in protecting hemodialysis patients from complications of sepsis. In diabetic recipients of kidney transplant allografts treated with cyclosporine, calcium channel blockade has been retrospectively linked to improved graft preservation and to fewer episodes of sepsis. This brief review outlines clinical and experimental publications on potential protection from sepsis by addition of calcium channel blockers to standard antibiotic therapy in individuals who may or may not have normal kidney function, or in the presence or absence of immunosuppression...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913644/the-impact-of-established-immunoregulatory-networks-on-vaccine-efficacy-and-the-development-of-immunity-to-malaria
#5
REVIEW
Marcela Montes de Oca, Michael F Good, James S McCarthy, Christian R Engwerda
The development of vaccines to protect against parasites is difficult, in large part due to complex host-parasite interactions that have evolved over millennia. Parasitic factors such as antigenic variation and host factors such as age, transmission intensity, and genetic influences are all thought to contribute to the limited efficacy of parasite vaccines. A developing theme in field studies investigating antiparasitic immunity is the emergence, establishment, and maintenance of immunoregulatory networks that shape the immune responses to new infections, as well as vaccines, thereby influencing disease outcome...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905921/systematic-review-of-the-role-of-angiopoietin-1-and-angiopoietin-2-in-plasmodium-species-infections-biomarkers-or-therapeutic-targets
#6
Gerdie M de Jong, Jasper J Slager, Annelies Verbon, Jaap J van Hellemond, Perry J J van Genderen
BACKGROUND: Levels of both angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) correlate with malaria disease severity and are proposed as biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets. To establish their role in malaria, a systematic review was performed of the literature on Ang-1 and Ang-2 with regard to their potential as biomarkers in malaria and discuss their possible place in adjuvant treatment regimens. METHODS: Ten electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies investigating Ang-1 and Ang-2 in human and murine malaria in both clinical and experimental settings...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899329/plasmodium-vivax-vaccine-research-we-ve-only-just-begun
#7
REVIEW
Wai-Hong Tham, James G Beeson, Julian C Rayner
Plasmodium vivax parasites cause the majority of malaria cases outside Africa, and are increasingly being acknowledged as a cause of severe disease. The unique attributes of P. vivax biology, particularly the capacity of the dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, to maintain blood-stage infections even in the absence of active transmission, make blood-stage vaccines particularly attractive for this species. However, P. vivax vaccine development remains resolutely in first gear, with only a single blood-stage candidate having been evaluated in any depth...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896890/diterpenes-as-lead-molecules-against-neglected-tropical-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Maria das Graças Freire de Medeiros, Gilberto Santos Cerqueira, Fernanda Regina de Castro Almeida, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, José Arimatéia Dantas Lopes, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Md Torequl Islam
Nowadays, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are reported to be present everywhere. Poor and developing areas in the world have received great attention to NTDs. Drug resistance, safety profile, and various challenges stimulate the search for alternative medications. Plant-based drugs are viewed with great interest, as they are believed to be devoid of side effects. Diterpenes, a family of essential oils, have showed attractive biological effects. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize available evidences of diterpenes against NTDs...
November 29, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895911/under-five-mortality-among-displaced-populations-in-meheba-refugee-camp-zambia-2008-2014
#9
Nachela Malisenti Chelwa, Rosemary Ndonyo Likwa, Jeremiah Banda
BACKGROUND: Under-five mortality, which is the probability of a child dying before their fifth birthday, is of concern in Zambia as infant and child mortality rates are important social indicators. Displaced population in camps provide a basis for under-five mortality surveillance because detailed registration databases have been developed. Additionally, health data routinely collected on mortality allowed for a review of mortality trends and identification of correlating factors to under-five mortality...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894320/successful-malaria-elimination-in-the-ecuador-peru-border-region-epidemiology-and-lessons-learned
#10
Lyndsay K Krisher, Jesse Krisher, Mariano Ambuludi, Ana Arichabala, Efrain Beltrán-Ayala, Patricia Navarrete, Tania Ordoñez, Mark E Polhemus, Fernando Quintana, Rosemary Rochford, Mercy Silva, Juan Bazo, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
BACKGROUND: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents...
November 28, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890922/progress-in-imaging-methods-insights-gained-into-plasmodium-biology
#11
Mariana De Niz, Paul-Christian Burda, Gesine Kaiser, Hernando A Del Portillo, Tobias Spielmann, Freddy Frischknecht, Volker T Heussler
Over the past decade, major advances in imaging techniques have enhanced our understanding of Plasmodium spp. parasites and their interplay with mammalian hosts and mosquito vectors. Cryoelectron tomography, cryo-X-ray tomography and super-resolution microscopy have shifted paradigms of sporozoite and gametocyte structure, the process of erythrocyte invasion by merozoites, and the architecture of Maurer's clefts. Intravital time-lapse imaging has been revolutionary for our understanding of pre-erythrocytic stages of rodent Plasmodium parasites...
November 28, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886547/comprehensive-review-on-various-strategies-for-antimalarial-drug-discovery
#12
Mitali Mishra, Vikash K Mishra, Varsha Kashaw, Arun K Iyer, Sushil Kumar Kashaw
The resistance of malaria parasites to existing drugs carries on growing and progressively limiting our ability to manage this severe disease and finally lead to a massive global health burden. Till now, malaria control has relied upon the traditional quinoline, antifolate and artemisinin compounds. Very few new antimalarials were developed in the past 50 years. Among recent approaches, identification of novel chemotherapeutic targets, exploration of natural products with medicinal significance, covalent bitherapy having a dual mode of action into a single hybrid molecule and malaria vaccine development are explored heavily...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884751/a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-cannabidiol-on-cognitive-function-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#13
REVIEW
Ashleigh L Osborne, Nadia Solowij, Katrina Weston-Green
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment is a core symptom domain of schizophrenia, neurological disorders and substance abuse. It is characterised by deficits in learning, memory, attention and executive functioning and can severely impact daily living. Antipsychotic drugs prescribed to treat schizophrenia provide limited cognitive benefits and novel therapeutic targets are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), a component of the cannabis plant, has anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic-like properties; however, its ability to improve cognitive impairment has not been thoroughly explored...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884199/a-bibliometric-analysis-of-literature-on-malaria-vector-resistance-1996-2015
#14
Waleed M Sweileh, Ansam F Sawalha, Samah W Al-Jabi, Sa'ed H Zyoud, Naser Y Shraim, Adham S Abu-Taha
BACKGROUND: Emergence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a real threat to future goals of elimination and control of malaria. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess research trend on insecticide resistance of Anopheles mosquito. In specific, number of publications, countries, institutions, and authors' research profile, citation analysis, international collaborations, and impact of journals publishing documents on insecticide resistance will be presented. It was conducted via Scopus search engine which was used to retrieve relevant data...
November 25, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882478/unexpected-hosts-imaging-parasitic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Pablo Rodríguez Carnero, Paula Hernández Mateo, Susana Martín-Garre, Ángela García Pérez, Lourdes Del Campo
Radiologists seldom encounter parasitic diseases in their daily practice in most of Europe, although the incidence of these diseases is increasing due to migration and tourism from/to endemic areas. Moreover, some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain European regions, and immunocompromised individuals also pose a higher risk of developing these conditions. This article reviews and summarises the imaging findings of some of the most important and frequent human parasitic diseases, including information about the parasite's life cycle, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment...
November 23, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881136/community-health-workers-adherence-to-referral-guidelines-evidence-from-studies-introducing-rdts-in-two-malaria-transmission-settings-in-uganda
#16
Sham Lal, Richard Ndyomugenyi, Lucy Paintain, Neal D Alexander, Kristian S Hansen, Pascal Magnussen, Daniel Chandramohan, Siân E Clarke
BACKGROUND: Many malaria-endemic countries have implemented national community health worker (CHW) programmes to serve remote populations that have poor access to malaria diagnosis and treatment. Despite mounting evidence of CHWs' ability to adhere to malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and treatment guidelines, there is limited evidence whether CHWs adhere to the referral guidelines and refer severely ill children for further management. In southwest Uganda, this study examined whether CHWs referred children according to training guidelines and described factors associated with adherence to the referral guideline...
November 24, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875317/cyp2d6-variability-in-populations-from-venezuela
#17
Nancy Moreno, Carlos Flores-Angulo, Cecilia Villegas, Yuselin Mora
CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used...
December 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872120/large-scale-implementation-of-disease-control-programmes-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-long-lasting-insecticide-treated-bed-net-distribution-channels-in-a-malaria-endemic-area-of-western-kenya-a-study-protocol
#18
Elvis Gama, Vincent Were, Peter Ouma, Meghna Desai, Louis Niessen, Ann M Buff, Simon Kariuki
INTRODUCTION: Historically, Kenya has used various distribution models for long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) with variable results in population coverage. The models presently vary widely in scale, target population and strategy. There is limited information to determine the best combination of distribution models, which will lead to sustained high coverage and are operationally efficient and cost-effective. Standardised cost information is needed in combination with programme effectiveness estimates to judge the efficiency of LLIN distribution models and options for improvement in implementing malaria control programmes...
November 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867517/protective-immunity-to-liver-stage-malaria
#19
REVIEW
Lauren E Holz, Daniel Fernandez-Ruiz, William R Heath
Despite decades of research and recent clinical trials, an efficacious long-lasting preventative vaccine for malaria remains elusive. This parasite infects mammals via mosquito bites, progressing through several stages including the relatively short asymptomatic liver stage followed by the more persistent cyclic blood stage, the latter of which is responsible for all disease symptoms. As the liver acts as a bottleneck to blood-stage infection, it represents a potential site for parasite and disease control...
October 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867026/artemisinin-and-its-derivatives-in-treating-protozoan-infections-beyond-malaria
#20
REVIEW
Cecilia Shi Ni Loo, Nelson Siu Kei Lam, Deying Yu, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
Many parasitic protozoan diseases continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems, which are also common among poor populations. Currently available drugs for treatment present drawbacks, urging the need for more effective, safer, and cheaper drugs. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives are some of the most important classes of antimalarial agents originally derived from Artemisia annua L. However, besides the outstanding antimalarial and antischistosomal activities, ART and its derivatives also possess activities against other parasitic protozoa...
November 17, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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