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Leptospirosis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236923/whole-genome-sequencing-of-leptospira-interrogans-from-southern-brazil-genetic-features-of-a-highly-virulent-strain
#1
Sérgio Jorge, Frederico Schmitt Kremer, Natasha Rodrigues de Oliveira, Gabrielle de Oliveira Sanches Valerio Navarro, Amanda Munari Guimarães, Christian Domingues Sanchez, Rafael Danelon Dos Santos Woloski, Karine Forster Ridieri, Vinícius Farias Campos, Luciano da Silva Pinto, Odir Antônio Dellagostin
BACKGROUND Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease. It is caused by infection with pathogenic Leptospira species, of which over 300 serovars have been described. The accurate identification of the causative Leptospira spp. is required to ascertain the pathogenic status of the local isolates. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to obtain the complete genome sequence of a virulent Leptospira interrogans strain isolated from southern Brazil and to describe its genetic features. METHODS The whole genome was sequenced by next-generation sequencing (Ion Torrent)...
February 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229654/protocol-for-developing-a-database-of-zoonotic-disease-research-in-india-dozoori
#2
Pranab Chatterjee, Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan, Manish Kakkar
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) represent a public health threat that has been acknowledged only recently although they have been on the rise for the past several decades. On an average, every year since the Second World War, one pathogen has emerged or re-emerged on a global scale. Low/middle-income countries such as India bear a significant burden of zoonotic and EIDs. We propose that the creation of a database of published, peer-reviewed research will open up avenues for evidence-based policymaking for targeted prevention and control of zoonoses...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217379/major-epidemiological-factors-associated-with-leptospirosis-in-malaysia
#3
REVIEW
Bashiru Garba, Abdul Rani Bahaman, Siti Khairani Bejo, Zunita Zakaria, Abdul Rahim Mutalib, Faruku Bande
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a diverse pathogenic leptospira species and serovars. The disease is transmitted directly following contact with infected urine and other body fluids or indirectly after contact with water or soil contaminated with infected urine. OBJECTIVES: While a wide range of domestic and wild animals are known to be reservoirs of the disease, occupation, international travel and recreation are beginning to assume a center stage in the transmission of the disease...
December 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122476/efficacy-of-leptospiral-commercial-vaccines-on-the-protection-against-an-autochtonous-strain-recovered-in-brazil
#4
Rafael Bazaglia Sonada, Sérgio Santos de Azevedo, Francisco Rafael Martins Soto, Diego Figueiredo da Costa, Zenaide Maria de Morais, Gisele Oliveira de Souza, Amane Paldês Gonçales, Fabiana Miraglia, Sílvio Arruda Vasconcellos
In swine and bovines, leptospirosis prevention and control is carried out via vaccination of susceptible animals using bacterins. However, the efficiency of leptospirosis vaccines has been questioned. This work aimed to investigate the potency of five leptospirosis vaccines sold commercially in Brazil, challenging the animals with one autochthonous strain of Leptospira, Canicola serovar, denoted LO4, isolated from swine. The standard protocol was followed, and renal carriers of Leptospira were identified among the surviving animals by culture and PCR...
October 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967042/a-systematic-review-of-leptospirosis-on-wild-animals-in-latin-america
#5
REVIEW
Anahi S Vieira, Priscila S Pinto, Walter Lilenbaum
Leptospirosis is a bacterial systemic infection which affects domestic animals and wildlife, as well as humans. Many wild animals act as reservoirs of leptospires. Nevertheless, the real role of wildlife animals as source of infection to livestock and humans, as well as the most important reservoirs and leptospiral strains remains unclear. This systematic review assesses the available data about wildlife and their biomes in Latin America, concerning to leptospiral infection. In addition, we discuss the development of the research on leptospirosis in wildlife in this region...
October 1, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942820/domestic-reptiles-as-source-of-zoonotic-bacteria-a-mini-review
#6
REVIEW
Valentina Virginia Ebani
Captive reptiles, always more often present in domestic environment as pets, may harbor and excrete a large variety of zoonotic pathogens. Among them, Salmonella is the most well-known agent, whereas there are very scant data about infections by mycobacteria, chlamydiae and leptospirae in cold-blooded animals. However, the investigations that found antibody reactions and/or the bacteria in samples collected from free-ranging and captive reptiles show that herpetofauna may be involved in the epidemiology of these infections...
August 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934773/leptospirosis-in-three-workers-on-a-dairy-farm-with-unvaccinated-cattle
#7
Jackie Benschop, Julie Collins-Emerson, Allie Maskill, Patrick O'Connor, Margaret Tunbridge, Yuni Yupiana, Jenny Weston
AIM: We report a one-health investigation of three cases of leptospirosis on a dairy farm with unvaccinated cattle in New Zealand. The cases are discussed in the context of diagnostics, risk factors, persistence of symptoms and outbreak mitigation measures. METHOD: Clinical and laboratory records from the human cases were reviewed and serological and molecular investigations were conducted into the Leptospira status of cattle and pigs on the farm. RESULTS: Cases presented early in their illness and all three were confirmed within seven days of onset of symptoms by urine PCR and within 18 days by convalescent MAT (two Hardjo-bovis, one Pomona)...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882437/dna-vaccines-against-leptospirosis-a-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Marcelle Moura Silveira, Thaís Larré Oliveira, Rodrigo Andrade Schuch, Alan John Alexander McBride, Odir Antônio Dellagostin, Daiane Drawanz Hartwig
Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. The vaccines that are currently available for leptospirosis are composed of whole-cell preparations and suffer from limitations such as low efficacy, multiple side-effects, poor immunological memory and lack of cross-protection against different serovars of Leptospira spp. In light of the global prevalence of this disease, the development of a more effective vaccine against leptospirosis is of paramount importance. Genetic immunization is a promising alternative to conventional vaccine development...
October 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879600/infections-and-the-kidney-a-tale-from-the-tropics
#9
Nivedita Kamath, Arpana Iyengar
Tropical infections are caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses and parasitic organisms across varying geographical regions and are more often reported in adults than in children. Most of the infections are acute, presenting as a febrile illness with involvement of multiple organ systems, including the kidney. The gamut of renal manifestations extends from asymptomatic urinary abnormalities to acute kidney injury and-albeit rarely-chronic kidney disease. Tropical infections can involve the glomerular, tubulointerstitial and vascular compartments of the kidney...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830472/a-process-for-developing-multisectoral-strategies-for-zoonoses-the-case-of-leptospirosis-in-fiji
#10
Simon A Reid, Anna Rodney, Mike Kama, Peter S Hill
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis occur as a result of the often complex interactions that exist at the human-animal-environment interface. The most obvious consequence of this complexity is the need for the health sector to partner with institutions in other sectors of society such as agriculture, labour and local government. This multisectoral engagement is complicated by the different agendas and cultures of the various institutions and their ability to "see" their role and ant benefits in a collaborative response...
August 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804053/leptospirosis-on-captive-wild-animals-in-latin-america
#11
REVIEW
Anahi S Vieira, Walter Lilenbaum
Leptospirosis is a worldwide bacterial infection, being more prevalent in tropical regions. Human beings, domestic animals and wildlife species are susceptible to a wide variety of serovars. Zoos have a great importance in keeping endangered species, increasing populations and accumulating knowledge on these species. Although some studies describe the occurrence of leptospirosis in captivity animals, a systematic review regarding the infection in these animals in tropical areas has never been conducted. Thus, the objective of this study was to systematically gather and analyze data regarding leptospirosis among captive wild animals in Latin America...
August 4, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799185/punctate-retinal-hemorrhage-and-its-relation-to-ocular-and-systemic-disease-in-dogs-83-cases
#12
Nathaniel P Violette, Eric C Ledbetter
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical aspects of dogs with punctate retinal hemorrhage (PRH). ANIMALS STUDIED: 83 dogs (119 eyes) with PRH. PROCEDURES: Medical records of dogs evaluated by the Cornell University ophthalmology service with a clinical diagnosis of PRH between 2006 and 2015 were reviewed. For this study, PRH was defined as retinal hemorrhages ≤ 1 optic disk diameter in size and dogs with other posterior segment ocular diseases were excluded...
August 10, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763150/pneumonia-in-the-tropics
#13
REVIEW
Tow Keang Lim, Wen Ting Siow
Pneumonia in the tropics poses a heavy disease burden. The complex interplay of climate change, human migration influences and socio-economic factors lead to changing patterns of respiratory infections in tropical climate but also increasingly in temperate countries. Tropical and poorer countries, especially South East Asia, also bear the brunt of the global tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, accounting for almost one-third of the burden. But, as human migration patterns evolve, we expect to see more TB cases in higher income as well as temperate countries, and rise in infections like scrub typhus from ecotourism activities...
August 1, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754706/critical-knowledge-gaps-in-our-understanding-of-environmental-cycling-and-transmission-of-leptospira-spp
#14
REVIEW
Veronica Barragan, Sonora Olivas, Paul Keim, Talima Pearson
Exposure to soil or water contaminated with the urine of Leptospira-infected animals is the most common way in which humans contract leptospirosis. Entire populations can be at high risk of leptospirosis while working in inundated fields, when engaging in aquatic sports, or after periods of heavy rainfall. The risk of infection after contact with these environmental sources depends on the ability of Leptospira bacteria to survive, persist, and infect new hosts. Multiple variables such as soil and water pH, temperature, and even environmental microbial communities are likely to shape the environmental conditions needed by the pathogen to persist...
October 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725301/review-of-infectious-etiology-of-acute-pancreatitis
#15
REVIEW
Prashanth Rawla, Sathyajit S Bandaru, Anantha R Vellipuram
While gallstones and alcoholism are widely known to be the most common causative agents of acute pancreatitis, about 10% of cases are thought to be caused by infectious microorganisms. These microorganisms include viruses (e.g. mumps, Coxsackie B, and hepatitis), bacteria (e.g. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and leptospirosis), and parasites (e.g. Ascaris lumbricoides, Fasciola hepatica, and hydatid disease). Each organism causes acute pancreatitis through diverse mechanisms. The review is primarily conducted in an attempt to provide a better understanding of the possibility of acute pancreatitis presenting as a complication relating to these organisms, and the aim is to guide future diagnoses, management, and predictions of complications...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716157/advances-and-challenges-in-barcoding-pathogenic-and-environmental-leptospira
#16
Vanina Guernier, Kathryn J Allan, Cyrille Goarant
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease of global importance. A large spectrum of asymptomatic animal hosts can carry the infection and contribute to the burden of human disease. Environmental sources of human contamination also point to the importance of a hydrotelluric reservoir. Leptospirosis can be caused by as many as 15 different pathogenic or intermediate Leptospira species. However, classification of these bacteria remains complicated through the use of both serological and genetic classification systems that show poor correlation...
July 18, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606191/no-calm-after-the-storm-a-systematic-review-of-human-health-following-flood-and-storm-disasters
#17
Dell D Saulnier, Kim Brolin Ribacke, Johan von Schreeb
Introduction How the burden of disease varies during different phases after floods and after storms is essential in order to guide a medical response, but it has not been well-described. The objective of this review was to elucidate the health problems following flood and storm disasters. METHODS: A literature search of the databases Medline (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA); Cinahl (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Global Health (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters; New York, New York USA); Embase (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands); and PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA) was conducted in June 2015 for English-language research articles on morbidity or mortality and flood or storm disasters...
October 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604791/challenges-in-developing-methods-for-quantifying-the-effects-of-weather-and-climate-on-water-associated-diseases-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Giovanni Lo Iacono, Ben Armstrong, Lora E Fleming, Richard Elson, Sari Kovats, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Gordon L Nichols
Infectious diseases attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene (e.g. Cholera, Leptospirosis, Giardiasis) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in low-income countries. Climate and weather factors are known to affect the transmission and distribution of infectious diseases and statistical and mathematical modelling are continuously developing to investigate the impact of weather and climate on water-associated diseases. There have been little critical analyses of the methodological approaches...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587195/the-use-of-chemoprophylaxis-after-floods-to-reduce-the-occurrence-and-impact-of-leptospirosis-outbreaks
#19
REVIEW
Maria Cristina Schneider, Jorge Velasco-Hernandez, Kyung-Duk Min, Deise Galan Leonel, David Baca-Carrasco, Matthew E Gompper, Rudy Hartskeerl, Claudia Munoz-Zanzi
Record-breaking and devastating rainfall events have occurred in the past decade. Rain and floods are considered the main risk factors for leptospirosis and several outbreaks have been reported following extreme weather events. In such situations, one possible intervention to prevent leptospirosis cases in high-risk groups is the use of chemoprophylaxis. However, not enough evidence of its effect is available. The objectives of this study were to review the literature on the current practices of chemoprophylaxis for leptospirosis and to explore, using a mathematical model, how various chemoprophylaxis scenarios may affect the progression of a leptospirosis outbreak...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527874/pressor-support-during-a-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-initiation-of-treatment-for-weil-s-disease
#20
Randi Connor-Schuler, Anee Khan, Nikhil Goyal, Erin Zimny
We present a case of Weil's disease complicated by a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) after initiation of antibiotics while in the emergency department requiring invasive monitoring and vasopressor support. The case is followed by a brief review of the JHR which is rarely observed with treatment of leptospirosis. A healthy 28-year-old female who recently returned from the Caribbean presented to the emergency department with flu-like symptoms. The patient appeared jaundiced with conjunctival suffusion and was ultimately treated with the appropriate antibiotics for leptospirosis in the ED...
August 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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