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Leptospirosis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270811/animal-models-of-leptospirosis-of-mice-and-hamsters
#1
REVIEW
Maria Gomes-Solecki, Ignacio Santecchia, Catherine Werts
Pathogenic Leptospira sp. are spirochetal bacteria responsible for leptospirosis, an emerging worldwide zoonosis. These spirochetes are very successful pathogens that infect a wide range of hosts such as fish, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and mammals. Transmission occurs when chronically infected animals excrete live bacteria in their urine, contaminating the environment. Leptospira sp. enter their hosts through damaged skin and mucosa. Chronically infected rats and mice are asymptomatic and are considered as important reservoirs of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260786/virulence-of-the-zoonotic-agent-of-leptospirosis-still-terra-incognita
#2
REVIEW
Mathieu Picardeau
Pathogenic leptospires are the bacterial agents of leptospirosis, which is an emerging zoonotic disease that affects animals and humans worldwide. The success of leptospires as pathogens is explained by their spiral shape and endoflagellar motility (which enable these spirochetes to rapidly cross connective tissues and barriers), as well as by their ability to escape or hijack the host immune system. However, the basic biology and virulence factors of leptospires remain poorly characterized. In this Review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, taxonomy, genomics and the molecular basis of virulence in leptospires, and how these properties contribute to the mechanism of pathogenesis of leptospirosis...
March 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220151/prioritizing-zoonotic-diseases-in-ethiopia-using-a-one-health-approach
#3
Emily G Pieracci, Aron J Hall, Radhika Gharpure, Abraham Haile, Elias Walelign, Asefa Deressa, Getahun Bahiru, Meron Kibebe, Henry Walke, Ermias Belay
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has the second largest human population in Africa and the largest livestock population on the continent. About 80% of Ethiopians are dependent on agriculture and have direct contact with livestock or other domestic animals. As a result, the country is vulnerable to the spread of zoonotic diseases. As the first step of the country's engagement in the Global Health Security Agenda, a zoonotic disease prioritization workshop was held to identify significant zoonotic diseases of mutual concern for animal and human health agencies...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129788/meta-analysis-to-estimate-the-load-of-leptospira-excreted-in-urine-beyond-rats-as-important-sources-of-transmission-in-low-income-rural-communities
#4
REVIEW
Veronica Barragan, Nathan Nieto, Paul Keim, Talima Pearson
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a major zoonotic disease with widespread distribution and a large impact on human health. Carrier animals excrete pathogenic Leptospira primarily in their urine. Infection occurs when the pathogen enters a host through mucosa or small skin abrasions. Humans and other animals are exposed to the pathogen by direct contact with urine, contaminated soil or water. While many factors influence environmental cycling and the transmission of Leptospira to humans, the load of pathogenic Leptospira in the environment is likely to play a major role...
January 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098813/reverse-vaccinology-an-approach-for-identifying-leptospiral-vaccine-candidates
#5
REVIEW
Odir A Dellagostin, André A Grassmann, Caroline Rizzi, Rodrigo A Schuch, Sérgio Jorge, Thais L Oliveira, Alan J A McBride, Daiane D Hartwig
Leptospirosis is a major public health problem with an incidence of over one million human cases each year. It is a globally distributed, zoonotic disease and is associated with significant economic losses in farm animals. Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. that can infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals. Given the inability to control the cycle of transmission among animals and humans, there is an urgent demand for a new vaccine. Inactivated whole-cell vaccines (bacterins) are routinely used in livestock and domestic animals, however, protection is serovar-restricted and short-term only...
January 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088326/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-tropical-infectious-diseases-and-animal-venoms-a-tale-of-2-continents
#6
REVIEW
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
January 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077740/the-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-antibiotic-treatment-of-spirochetal-infections-a-review-of-recent-cases-and-our-understanding-of-pathogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Butler
Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#8
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#9
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909915/a-systematic-review-of-leptospirosis-on-dogs-pigs-and-horses-in-latin-america
#10
REVIEW
Priscila S Pinto, Hugo Libonati, Walter Lilenbaum
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis which can affect many species. Control programs need accurate diagnosis to be successful, and currently, diagnosis relies on serology. It presents three main issues: the sampling, the antigen panel, and the cutoff point. Herein, we propose a systematic review on leptospirosis among dogs, pigs, and horses in Latin America in order to improve the understanding of the seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in these species in the region as well as the temporal development of the research on this topic and, consequently, improve the chances of success on control programs...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862246/a-retrospective-analysis-of-mortality-in-captive-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis-from-1912-to-2014
#11
Gabriella L Flacke, Suzana Tkalčić, Beatrice Steck, Kristin Warren, Graeme B Martin
The pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) is an IUCN Red List Endangered species (CITES Appendix II) that has been housed in zoological collections since 1912. As wild populations continue to decline throughout the species' range, successful ex situ breeding and management, including an understanding of morbidity and mortality, are of utmost importance. This study is the first comprehensive review of mortality data from the captive population since 1982 and significantly expands on previous analyses. We solicited necropsy reports from 129/187 zoological institutions worldwide that currently or previously held pygmy hippos and received data for 404 animals (177 ♂, 220 ♀, 7 undermined sex), representing 43% of pygmy hippos that have died in captivity...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821124/severe-leptospirosis-and-pancreatitis-a-case-series-from-a-leptospirosis-outbreak-in-anuradhapura-district-sri-lanka
#12
N J Herath, C J Kamburapola, S B Agampodi
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis is identified as an atypical and rare presentation of leptospirosis. In this report, we discuss a case series of severe leptospirosis with pancreatitis as a main complication during an unusual outbreak of leptospirosis in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. CASE PRESENTATION: We retrospectively reviewed clinical presentation, investigations, treatment and outcome of six confirmed cases of severe leptospirosis admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura, within a three months period from November 2014 to January 2015...
November 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734587/canine-panuveitis-a-retrospective-evaluation-of-55-cases-2000-2015
#13
Benjamin E Bergstrom, Jean Stiles, Wendy M Townsend
OBJECTIVE: To determine the most common etiologies of panuveitis in a group of dogs, patient response to therapy, and visual outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 55 dogs diagnosed with panuveitis at the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital between December 2000 and December 2015 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, season of diagnosis, descriptions of ocular lesions, diagnostic testing, treatment protocols, etiologic diagnoses (when determined), and visual outcome...
October 12, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727271/enhanced-surveillance-for-fatal-dengue-like-acute-febrile-illness-in-puerto-rico-2010-2012
#14
Kay M Tomashek, Aidsa Rivera, Brenda Torres-Velasquez, Elizabeth A Hunsperger, Jorge L Munoz-Jordan, Tyler M Sharp, Irma Rivera, Dario Sanabria, Dianna M Blau, Renee Galloway, Jose Torres, Rosa Rodriguez, Javier Serrano, Carlos Chávez, Francisco Dávila, Janice Perez-Padilla, Esther M Ellis, Gladys Caballero, Laura Wright, Sherif R Zaki, Carmen Deseda, Edda Rodriguez, Harold S Margolis
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a leading cause of morbidity throughout the tropics; however, accurate population-based estimates of mortality rates are not available. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established the Enhanced Fatal Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance System (EFASS) to estimate dengue mortality rates in Puerto Rico. Healthcare professionals submitted serum and tissue specimens from patients who died from a dengue-like acute febrile illness, and death certificates were reviewed to identify additional cases...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570780/colonic-spirochetosis-in-a-60-year-old-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-and-review
#15
Taiwo Ngwa, Jennifer L Peng, Euna Choi, Sucharat Tayarachakul, Suthat Liangpunsakul
Spirochetes, a genetically and morphologically distinct group of bacteria, are thin, spiral-shaped, and highly motile. They are known causes of several human diseases such as syphilis, Lyme disease, relapsing fever, and leptospirosis. We report a case of colonic spirochetosis in a healthy patient presenting for surveillance colonoscopy. The diagnosis of intestinal spirochetosis was made accidentally during the histological examination of colonic polyps, which were removed during colonoscopy. We also performed an extensive review on intestinal spirochetosis with a focus on clinical presentation and outcomes of reported cases from the past two decades...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553785/a-retrospective-chart-review-study-to-describe-selected-zoonotic-and-arboviral-etiologies-in-hospitalized-febrile-patients-in-the-republic-of-armenia
#16
Lusine Paronyan, Eduard Zardaryan, Vahe Bakunts, Zaruhi Gevorgyan, Vigen Asoyan, Hripsime Apresyan, Alvard Hovhannisyan, Karo Palayan, Christian T Bautista, Tinatin Kuchuloria, Robert G Rivard
BACKGROUND: Scant information is available on the infectious causes of febrile illnesses in Armenia. The goal of this study was to describe the most common causes, with a focus on zoonotic and arboviral infections and related epidemiological and clinical patterns for hospitalized patients with febrile illnesses of infectious origin admitted to Nork Infectious Diseases Clinical Hospital, the referral center for infectious diseases in the capital city, Yerevan. METHOD: A chart review study was conducted in 2014...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537829/molecular-diagnostics-for-human-leptospirosis
#17
Jesse J Waggoner, Benjamin A Pinsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The definitive diagnosis of leptospirosis, which results from infection with spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, currently relies on the use of culture, serological testing (microscopic agglutination testing), and molecular detection. The purpose of this review is to describe new molecular diagnostics for Leptospira and discuss advancements in the use of available methods. RECENT FINDINGS: Efforts have been focused on improving the clinical sensitivity of Leptospira detection using molecular methods...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509584/fever-thrombocytopenia-and-aki-a-profile-of-malaria-dengue-and-leptospirosis-with-renal-failure-in-a-south-indian-tertiary-care-hospital
#18
Mayoor V Prabhu, Arun S, Venkat Ramesh
INTRODUCTION: In the tropics, the triad of fever, thrombocytopenia, and AKI portends a grim prognosis with high mortality and a severe strain on already-stretched resources. Malaria, dengue, and leptospirosis account for most cases. We undertook a review of cases to determine factors accounting for adverse prognosis. METHODS: All patients presenting to the emergency room (ER) with a history of fever, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure were included in the study...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488496/pulmonary-melanoma-and-crazy-paving-patterns-in-chest-images-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Yikuan Feng, Jianping Zhao, Qun Yang, Weining Xiong, Guohua Zhen, Yongjian Xu, Zhenxiang Zhang, Huilan Zhang
BACKGROUND: In the lung, melanoma is mostly arranged as patterns of multiple nodules, solitary nodules, or miliary invasions. Very rarely, it also displays a "crazy paving" pattern (also described as a "paving stone," "flagstone," or "slabstone" pattern), which is rarer still in discrete bilateral nodules. This pattern is considered to be caused by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, but its association with various diseases is unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old man was diagnosed with pulmonary melanoma...
2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479026/situation-of-sri-lanka-where-autochthonous-malaria-is-no-longer-a-problem-and-other-infections-dominate-such-as-dengue-leptospirosis-and-rickettsioses
#20
Suneth Agampodi, Buddhika Wijerathne, Kosala Weerakoon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sri Lanka achieved a major milestone in communicable disease control in 2012 by reporting zero incidence of autochthonous malaria. However, reduction of malaria was associated with concurrent increase of several tropical diseases. This review looks into the time trends and epidemiology of these communicable diseases in Sri Lanka. RECENT FINDINGS: Reduction of malaria cases coincides with an increase of dengue, leptospirosis and rickettsioses in Sri Lanka...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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