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Leptospirosis review

Benjamin E Bergstrom, Jean Stiles, Wendy M Townsend
OBJECTIVE: To determine the most common etiologies of panuveitis in a group of dogs, patient response to therapy, and visual outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 55 dogs diagnosed with panuveitis at the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital between December 2000 and December 2015 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, season of diagnosis, descriptions of ocular lesions, diagnostic testing, treatment protocols, etiologic diagnoses (when determined), and visual outcome...
October 12, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Kay M Tomashek, Aidsa Rivera, Brenda Torres-Velasquez, Elizabeth A Hunsperger, Jorge L Munoz-Jordan, Tyler M Sharp, Irma Rivera, Dario Sanabria, Dianna M Blau, Renee Galloway, Jose Torres, Rosa Rodriguez, Javier Serrano, Carlos Chávez, Francisco Dávila, Janice Perez-Padilla, Esther M Ellis, Gladys Caballero, Laura Wright, Sherif R Zaki, Carmen Deseda, Edda Rodriguez, Harold S Margolis
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a leading cause of morbidity throughout the tropics; however, accurate population-based estimates of mortality rates are not available. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established the Enhanced Fatal Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance System (EFASS) to estimate dengue mortality rates in Puerto Rico. Healthcare professionals submitted serum and tissue specimens from patients who died from a dengue-like acute febrile illness, and death certificates were reviewed to identify additional cases...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Taiwo Ngwa, Jennifer L Peng, Euna Choi, Sucharat Tayarachakul, Suthat Liangpunsakul
Spirochetes, a genetically and morphologically distinct group of bacteria, are thin, spiral-shaped, and highly motile. They are known causes of several human diseases such as syphilis, Lyme disease, relapsing fever, and leptospirosis. We report a case of colonic spirochetosis in a healthy patient presenting for surveillance colonoscopy. The diagnosis of intestinal spirochetosis was made accidentally during the histological examination of colonic polyps, which were removed during colonoscopy. We also performed an extensive review on intestinal spirochetosis with a focus on clinical presentation and outcomes of reported cases from the past two decades...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Lusine Paronyan, Eduard Zardaryan, Vahe Bakunts, Zaruhi Gevorgyan, Vigen Asoyan, Hripsime Apresyan, Alvard Hovhannisyan, Karo Palayan, Christian T Bautista, Tinatin Kuchuloria, Robert G Rivard
BACKGROUND: Scant information is available on the infectious causes of febrile illnesses in Armenia. The goal of this study was to describe the most common causes, with a focus on zoonotic and arboviral infections and related epidemiological and clinical patterns for hospitalized patients with febrile illnesses of infectious origin admitted to Nork Infectious Diseases Clinical Hospital, the referral center for infectious diseases in the capital city, Yerevan. METHOD: A chart review study was conducted in 2014...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jesse J Waggoner, Benjamin A Pinsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The definitive diagnosis of leptospirosis, which results from infection with spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, currently relies on the use of culture, serological testing (microscopic agglutination testing), and molecular detection. The purpose of this review is to describe new molecular diagnostics for Leptospira and discuss advancements in the use of available methods. RECENT FINDINGS: Efforts have been focused on improving the clinical sensitivity of Leptospira detection using molecular methods...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Mayoor V Prabhu, Arun S, Venkat Ramesh
INTRODUCTION: In the tropics, the triad of fever, thrombocytopenia, and AKI portends a grim prognosis with high mortality and a severe strain on already-stretched resources. Malaria, dengue, and leptospirosis account for most cases. We undertook a review of cases to determine factors accounting for adverse prognosis. METHODS: All patients presenting to the emergency room (ER) with a history of fever, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure were included in the study...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Yikuan Feng, Jianping Zhao, Qun Yang, Weining Xiong, Guohua Zhen, Yongjian Xu, Zhenxiang Zhang, Huilan Zhang
BACKGROUND: In the lung, melanoma is mostly arranged as patterns of multiple nodules, solitary nodules, or miliary invasions. Very rarely, it also displays a "crazy paving" pattern (also described as a "paving stone," "flagstone," or "slabstone" pattern), which is rarer still in discrete bilateral nodules. This pattern is considered to be caused by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, but its association with various diseases is unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old man was diagnosed with pulmonary melanoma...
2016: BMC Cancer
Suneth Agampodi, Buddhika Wijerathne, Kosala Weerakoon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sri Lanka achieved a major milestone in communicable disease control in 2012 by reporting zero incidence of autochthonous malaria. However, reduction of malaria was associated with concurrent increase of several tropical diseases. This review looks into the time trends and epidemiology of these communicable diseases in Sri Lanka. RECENT FINDINGS: Reduction of malaria cases coincides with an increase of dengue, leptospirosis and rickettsioses in Sri Lanka...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Marco Torres-Castro, Silvia Hernández-Betancourt, Piedad Agudelo-Flórez, Esteban Arroyave-Sierra, Jorge Zavala-Castro, Fernando I Puerto
Spirochete bacteria Leptospira spp. is the causative agent of leptospirosis, antropozoonotic endemic disease in many parts of the world, mainly in underdeveloped countries with high levels of poverty. Its incidence and prevalence rates are higher and important in human populations living in tropical and subtropical climates. Leptospira spp., is capable of infecting more than 160 species of domestic and wild mammals, including human beings, causing various and nonspecific clinical manifestations that make the diagnosis of the disease rarely accurate...
September 2016: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Aneesh Basheer, Nayyar Iqbal, Sudhagar Mookkappan, Patricia Anitha, Shashikala Nair, Reba Kanungo, Ravichandran Kandasamy
BACKGROUND: Concurrent infection with multiple pathogens is common in tropics, posing diagnostic and treatment challenges. Although co-infections of dengue, malaria, leptospirosis and typhoid in various combinations have been described, data on dengue and scrub typhus co-infection is distinctly limited. METHODOLOGY: This study was a retrospective analysis of dengue and scrub typhus co-infection diagnosed between January 2010 and July 2014 at a tertiary care center...
2016: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Heather S Herman, Saurabh Mehta, Washington B Cárdenas, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra, Julia L Finkelstein
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses and represents a major threat to human health. Due to the high burden of disease, limitations in diagnostics, and limited coverage and availability of effective human and veterinary vaccines, leptospirosis remains an important neglected zoonotic disease. Improved surveillance and identification of modifiable risk factors for leptospirosis are urgently needed to inform preventive interventions and reduce the risk and severity of Leptospira infection...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Emilie U Andersen-Ranberg, Christian Pipper, Per M Jensen
Leptospirosis is a widespread emerging bacterial zoonosis. As the transmission is believed to be predominantly waterborne, human incidence is expected to increase in conjunction with global climate change and associated extreme weather events. Providing more accurate predictions of human leptospirosis requires more detailed information on animal reservoirs that are the source of human infection. We evaluated the prevalence of Leptospira in vertebrates worldwide and its association with taxonomy, geographic region, host biology, ambient temperature, and precipitation patterns...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Chamidri Naotunna, Suneth Buddhika Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala Agampodi
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the etiological agent causing human leptospirosis in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Published articles on leptospirosis and Leptospira in Sri Lanka were all reviewed to determine serovar, strain and species level identification of Leptospira. After screening process, 74 full text articles/reports were reviewed and among of them, 12 published papers describing isolation of Leptospira from Sri Lankan patients/animals, 5 molecular epidemiology papers on newer typing methods citing Sri Lanka isolates, with a descriptions of the isolates and 6 published papers reporting PCR based species level identification were identified...
April 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Stephen K Obaro, Gregory Storch
Acute febrile illness is a common cause of hospital admission, and its associated infectious causes contribute to substantial morbidity and death among children worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Declining transmission of malaria in many regions, combined with the increasing use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, has led to the increasing recognition of leptospirosis, rickettsioses, respiratory viruses, and arboviruses as etiologic agents of fevers. However, clinical discrimination between these etiologies can be difficult...
June 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Vilada Chansamouth, Syvilay Thammasack, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Valy Keoluangkot, Catrin E Moore, Stuart D Blacksell, Josee Castonguay-Vanier, Audrey Dubot-Pérès, Jarasporn Tangkhabuanbutra, Narongchai Tongyoo, Phooksavanh Souphaphonh, Onanong Sengvilaipaseuth, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Koukeo Phommasone, Davanh Sengdethka, Amphayvanh Seurbsanith, Scott B Craig, Laura Hermann, Michel Strobel, Paul N Newton
INTRODUCTION: Laos has the highest maternal mortality ratio in mainland Southeast Asia and a high incidence of infectious diseases. Globally, malaria has been the pathogen most intensively investigated in relation to impact on pregnancy, but there has been relatively little research on the aetiology and impact of other diseases. We therefore aimed to determine the causes and impact of fever in pregnant women admitted to two central hospitals in Vientiane City, Lao PDR (Laos). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Mahosot Hospital and the Mother and Child Hospital, Vientiane, between 2006 and 2010, with the aim to recruit 250 consenting pregnant women admitted with tympanic temperature ≥37...
April 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Douadi Benacer, Kwai Lin Thong, Khebir Bin Verasahib, Renee L Galloway, Rudy A Hartskeerl, John W Lewis, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
The history and epidemiology of human leptospirosis in Malaysia from 1925 to 2012 are described. Previous studies have demonstrated that leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Malaysia occurring in both urban and rural locations. The number of cases has risen dramatically since the Ministry of Health Malaysia highlighted leptospirosis as a notifiable disease in 2010, with reported cases increasing from 248 cases in 2004 to 3604 in 2012. The incidence of infection among the population suggests that occupation, sex, age, ethnic background, water recreational activities, and sporting events are risk factors...
May 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Y Yuszniahyati, F R Kenneth, J Daisy Vanitha
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to review published research articles on leptospirosis, in particular the recent incidence of leptospirosis in Malaysia and the currently available diagnostic methods for the detection of leptospirosis. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar and Google Search databases were searched using the key words Leptospira and leptospirosis. A total of seventy-six references were reviewed including sixty-seven research articles, three annual reports from Ministry of Health and six online newspaper articles...
December 2015: Medical Journal of Malaysia
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
M W Sperling
The aim of this study was to conduct a literature and secondary data review regarding leptospirosis and its impact in Grenada. The data analysed consisted of a published secondary source of animal investigations. The results of this investigation suggested that the burden of disease is quite substantial and significant for the population of Grenada, as well as its global visitors. An examination into the literature related to public health policies and practices that could be suited to a developing nation like Grenada was then conducted...
June 1, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Marco Costa, Martin Oberholzer-Riss, Christoph Hatz, Robert Steffen, Milo Puhan, Patricia Schlagenhauf
BACKGROUND: In the last decades, there have been several natural disasters and global catastrophies with a steady increase in humanitarian relief work. This has resulted in increased research in the field of humanitarian aid, however the focus is mostly on the victims of the disasters and not on the individuals and organisations providing aid. OBJECTIVES: The intent of this research is to review the information available on pre-deployment interventions and recommendations such as vaccinations and other health preserving measures in volunteers and professionals deploying abroad in humanitarian relief missions...
November 2015: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
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