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Prenatal Ultrasonography

Przemysław Bombiński, Stanisław Warchoł, Michał Brzewski, Zofia Majkowska, Teresa Dudek-Warchoł, Maria Żerańska, Małgorzata Panek, Magdalena Drop
BACKGROUND: Extravaginal testicular torsion (ETT), also called prenatal or perinatal, occurs prenatally and is present at birth or appears within the first month of life. It has different etiology than intravaginal torsion, which appears later in life. Testicular torsion must be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute scrotum and should be confirmed or ruled out at first diagnostic step. Ultrasonography is a basic imaging modality, however diagnostic pitfalls are still possible...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
Namita Chandra, Sanjay Kumar, Vaibhav Raj, Pawan Kumar Vishwakarma, Sheela Sinha, Ram Prakash Saha
BACKGROUND Jarcho-Levin syndrome, also known as spondylothoracic dysplasia and spondylocostal dysplasia, is characterized by varieties of vertebrae and rib anomalies. Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a clinical-radiological diagnosis with clinical evidence of short neck, short trunk, normal-sized limbs, or increased arm span, and vertebral and rib defects on the skeletal survey. CASE REPORT About 400 cases have been reported in world literature and 18 in our Indian literature. We report the case of a one-day-old female baby with a short trunk, short neck, low hairline, apparently long limbs, protuberant abdomen, mild midfacial dysmorphism, low-set ears, and a high-arched palate...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Mohamed Ali Abdelkader, Wafaa Ramadan, Amir A Gabr, Ahmed Kamel, Rasha W Abdelrahman
PURPOSE: To determine the sonographic criteria for diagnosis of fetal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), using both gray scale ultrasound, and tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective multicenter study, recruiting patients at risk of fetal ICH over four years. All cases with fetal ICH had serial ultrasound assessments, including TUI, fetal and postnatal MRIs. RESULTS: 21 patients were diagnosed with fetal ICH, 2 cases had extracerebral (subdural) hemorrhage, 16 cases had intracerebral (intraventricular) hemorrhage and 3 cases had combined hemorrhage...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo, Renato Santana Aguiar, Melania Maria Ramos Amorim, Monica B Arruda, Fabiana de Oliveira Melo, Suelem Taís Clementino Ribeiro, Alba Gean Medeiros Batista, Thales Ferreira, Mayra Pereira Dos Santos, Virgínia Vilar Sampaio, Sarah Rogéria Martins Moura, Luciana Portela Rabello, Clarissa Emanuelle Gonzaga, Gustavo Malinger, Renato Ximenes, Patricia Soares de Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Leila Chimelli, Paola Paz Silveira, Rodrigo Delvechio, Luiza Higa, Loraine Campanati, Rita M R Nogueira, Ana Maria Bispo Filippis, Jacob Szejnfeld, Carolina Moreira Voloch, Orlando C Ferreira, Rodrigo M Brindeiro, Amilcar Tanuri
Importance: Recent studies have reported an increase in the number of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly whose mothers were infected with the Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy. To our knowledge, most reports to date have focused on select aspects of the maternal or fetal infection and fetal effects. Objective: To describe the prenatal evolution and perinatal outcomes of 11 neonates who had developmental abnormalities and neurological damage associated with ZIKV infection in Brazil...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Neurology
E Merz, C Thode, B Eiben, S Wellek
AIM: Both previous versions of the German PRC algorithm developed by our group for routine first-trimester screening relied on the assumption that maternal blood sampling and fetal ultrasonography are performed at the same visit of a pregnant women. In this paper we present an extension of our method allowing also for constellations where this synchronization is abandoned through preponing blood sampling to dates before 11 weeks of gestation. METHODS: In contrast to the directly measured concentrations of the serum parameters PAPP-A and free ß-hCG, the logarithmically transformed values could be shown to admit the construction of reference bands covering the whole range from 16 to 84 mm CRL [corresponding to 63 to 98 days of gestation]...
March 2016: Ultrasound Int Open
Wei-Hsiu Chiu, Shy-Ming Lee, Tao-Hsin Tung, Xiao-Mei Tang, Ren-Shyan Liu, Ran-Chou Chen
Antenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) is still low even though screening was first introduced over 25 years ago. The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy of a second-trimester prenatal ultrasonographic method of screening for CHD.From September 2012 to September 2013, the length and width of the fetal ductus venosus were measured sonographically in 1006 singleton fetuses, and the ratio of length to width was calculated. The accuracy of each fetal measurement and Doppler ultrasonography were determined...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Qinghai Peng, Qichang Zhou, Ming Zang, Jiawei Zhou, Ran Xu, Tao Wang, Shi Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To screen and detect cortex gyration in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) using Ultrasonography (US) during routine obstetric scans. METHODS: The depth of the Sylvian fissure (SF), parieto-occipital fissure (POF) and calcarine (CF) fissure were prospectively serially measured and compared in 45 fetuses with CHD and 45 normal fetuses. Cardiac hemodynamic parameters, including aortic valve diameter (AV), pulmonary valve diameter (PV), velocity time integral of the aortic valve (VTIav), and velocity time integral of the pulmonary valve (VTIpv), were recorded...
September 28, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Heron Werner, Pedro Daltro, Taisa Davaus, Edward Araujo Júnior
We report a case of a fetus with an ultrasonography diagnosis of a neuroblastoma during a routine third trimester fetal scan, which presented as a hyperechogenic nodule located above the right kidney. No other abnormalities were found in the ultrasonography scan; however, the follow-up ultrasonography during the 36th week of gestation revealed that the lesion had doubled in size. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a round mass in the topography of the right adrenal gland with a low signal on T1-weighted images and slightly high signal on T2-weighted images, causing a slight inferior displacement of the kidney...
September 2016: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
M E Carazo-Palacios, M Couselo-Jerez, A Serrano-Durbá, B Pemartín-Comella, C Sangüesa-Nebot, F Estornell-Moragues, C Domínguez-Hinarejos
OBJECTIVES: To assess the need for implementing renal scintigraphy in the diagnosis of the multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) and the safety of its conservative treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with unilateral MCDK was conducted at our centre from January 2005 to August 2015. We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) of ultrasonography, taking renal scintigraphy and pathology as the gold standard. We calculated a survival curve according to the Kaplan-Meier method to assess the annual probability of spontaneous resolution of the multicystic kidney...
September 22, 2016: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Melanie A McNally, Julia Johnson, Thierry A Huisman, Andrea Poretti, Kristin W Baranano, Ahmet A Baschat, Carl E Stafstrom
BACKGROUND: SCN8A mutations are rare and cause a phenotypically heterogeneous early onset epilepsy known as early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 13 (EIEE13, OMIM #614558). There are currently no clear genotype-phenotype correlations to help guide patient counseling and management. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a patient with EIEE13 (de novo heterozygous pathogenic mutation in SCN8A - p.Ile240Val (ATT>GTT)) who presented prenatally with maternally reported intermittent, rhythmic movements that, when observed on ultrasound, were concerning for fetal seizures...
August 16, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
M S Kutuk, O Altun, S Tutus, M E Dogan, M T Ozgun, M Dundar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Rachel V O'Connell, Sarah K Dotters-Katz, Jeffrey A Kuller, Robert A Strauss
We performed an evidence-based review of the obstetrical management of gastroschisis. Gastroschisis is an abdominal wall defect, which has increased in frequency in recent decades. There is variation of prevalence by ethnicity and several known maternal risk factors. Herniated intestinal loops lacking a covering membrane can be identified with prenatal ultrasonography, and maternal serum α-fetoprotein level is commonly elevated. Because of the increased risk for growth restriction, amniotic fluid abnormalities, and fetal demise, antenatal testing is generally recommended...
September 2016: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Kim M J Verdurmen, Noortje B Eijsvoogel, Carlijn Lempersz, Rik Vullings, Christian Schroer, Judith O E H van Laar, S Guid Oei
BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common severe congenital anomaly worldwide. Diagnosis early in pregnancy is important, but the detection rate by two-dimensional ultrasonography is only 65%-81%. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate existing data on CHD and noninvasive abdominal fetal electrocardiography (ECG). SEARCH STRATEGY: A systematic review was performed through a search of the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase for studies published up to April 2016 using the terms "congenital heart disease," "fetal electrocardiogram," and other similar keywords...
November 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Hye-Kyung Yoon, Seong Whi Cho
Brain ultrasound is widely used for the screening of prematurely born babies. Although the best imaging modality for the central nervous system anomaly is brain MRI, the first imaging study in the post-natal period is brain ultrasonography in most cases. Anomalies could be found incidentally on screening ultrasound, or in those cases already suspected on prenatal ultrasound. In order not to miss congenital structural abnormalities of the brain on screening ultrasound, systematic approaches would be very helpful...
September 2016: Medical Ultrasonography
Pamela Magini, Flavia Palombo, Simona Boito, Giulia Lanzoni, Patrizia Mongelli, Tommaso Rizzuti, Marco Baccarin, Tommaso Pippucci, Marco Seri, Faustina Lalatta
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an overgrowth syndrome and it is usually diagnosed postnatally, on the basis of phenotype. Prenatal ultrasonography may show fetal alterations, but they are not pathognomonic and most of them are frequently detectable only from the 20th week of gestation. Nevertheless, early diagnosis is important to avoid neonatal complications and make timely and informed decisions about the pregnancy. We report on four fetuses from two unrelated families, in whom the application of whole exome sequencing and array-CGH allowed the identification of GPC3 alterations causing SGBS...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Naoyuki Iwahashi, Nami Ota, Michihisa Shiro, Shigetaka Yagi, Sawako Minami, Kazuhiko Ino
OBJECTIVE: Vasa previa is a rare complication, and rupture of vasa previa during pregnancy may lead to significant perinatal mortality. Here, we report a case of vasa previa evaluated prenatally using noncontrast time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA). CASE REPORT: A 22-year-old primiparous woman was referred to our hospital due to suspicion of vasa previa. Transvaginal ultrasonography showed two vessels running over the internal os. To obtain further information, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and TOF MRA were performed...
August 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Kazuhiro Kajiwara, Tomohiro Tanemoto, Chie Nagata, Aikou Okamoto
Agnathia is a rare disease characterized by the absence of a mandible. Few cases of prenatally diagnosed isolated agnathia have been reported. We present a case report and review of the literature of prenatally diagnosed agnathia. A 38-year-old woman (gravida 0, para 0) was referred to our hospital at 28 weeks and 3 days of gestation for fetal evaluation because of polyhydramnios and suspected facial anomalies. Three-dimensional ultrasonography and MRI indicated agnathia. Premature rupture of the membranes occurred before the parents could reach a decision on the postnatal treatment...
2016: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Kaouther Dimassi, Abir Karoui, Amel Triki, Mohamed Faouzi Gara
BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography is an essential tool in the management of twin pregnancies. Fetal weight estimation is useful to anticipate neonatal care in case of weight restriction or growth discordance. AIMS: To assess the accuracy of estimated fetal weight (EFW) in twins and to assess the accuracy of sonographic examination to predict birth weight discordance (BWD) and small birth weight (SBW).    Methods : This was  a longitudinal prospective study over a period of one year...
March 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Masataka Kawamura, Sohei Kuribayashi, Gaku Yamamichi, Kosuke Nakano, Nozomu Kishimoto, Koichi Tsutahara, Go Tanigawa, Tetsuya Takao, Seiji Yamaguchi
We report a prenatal case of neonatal testicular torsion. A 0-day-old boy with left scrotal swelling from the time of birth was referred to us. The physical examination revealed left intrascrotal hard mass. The ultrasonography with doppler color flow showed heterogeneous parenchymal echogenicity and the lack of blood flow to the affected testis. Testicular torsion was suspected and emergent surgical exploration was performed. The left testis was necrotic with extravaginal torsion of the spermatic cord. Left high orchiectomy was performed, considering the possibility of inguinal hernia...
July 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
G Ducellier, P Moussy, L Sahmoune, S Bonneau, E Alanio, J-P Bory
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal diagnosis of complex laparoschisis is difficult and yet it is associated with a significantly increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to define ultrasonographic factor and obstetrical criteria to predicting adverse neonatal outcome. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study over 10 years, of 35 gastroschisis cases in CHU of Reims (France). The primary outcome was the neonatal death due to gastroschisis. The sonographic markers was bowel dilatation intra- or extra-abdominale, amniotic fluid, intra-uterin growth...
September 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
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