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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108645/whole-body-hyperthermia-but-not-skin-hyperthermia-accelerates-brain-and-locomotor-limb-circulatory-strain-and-impairs-exercise-capacity-in-humans
#1
Steven J Trangmar, Scott T Chiesa, Kameljit K Kalsi, Niels H Secher, José González-Alonso
Cardiovascular strain and hyperthermia are thought to be important factors limiting exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans, however, the contribution of elevations in skin (Tsk) versus whole body temperatures on exercise capacity has not been characterized. To ascertain their relationships with exercise capacity, blood temperature (TB), oxygen uptake (V̇O2), brain perfusion (MCA Vmean), locomotor limb hemodynamics, and hematological parameters were assessed during incremental cycling exercise with elevated skin (mild hyperthermia; HYPmild), combined core and skin temperatures (moderate hyperthermia; HYPmod), and under control conditions...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101770/factors-controlling-fetal-echocardiography-determine-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-isolated-ventricular-septal-defect
#2
Jiao Chen, Liang Xie, Han-Min Liu
BACKGROUND: Fetal echocardiography (FECG) is a key screening tool for prenatal cardiac abnormalities. Herein, we examined the ultrasonic factors determining prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis of isolated ventricular septal defect (IVSD). METHODS: The diagnostic role of ultrasonic factors was investigated in patients in middle or late pregnancy, diagnosed with IVSD by FECG and confirmed using postnatal echocardiography. RESULTS: One hundred and six patients with IVSD were enrolled; the majority had perimembranous VSD...
January 19, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101124/reduced-up-regulation-of-the-nitric-oxide-pathway-and-impaired-endothelial-and-smooth-muscle-functions-in-the-female-type-2-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-rat-heart
#3
Martine Desrois, Carole Lan, Jamileh Movassat, Monique Bernard
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with greater relative risk of cardiovascular diseases in women than in men, which is not well understood. Consequently, we have investigated if male and female displayed differences in cardiac function, energy metabolism, and endothelial function which could contribute to increased cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetic female. METHODS: Male and female Control and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) isolated rat hearts were perfused during 28 min with a physiological buffer before freeze-clamping for biochemical assays...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100453/mechanisms-of-vasovagal-syncope-in-the-young-reduced-systemic-vascular-resistance-versus-reduced-cardiac-output
#4
Julian M Stewart, Marvin S Medow, Richard Sutton, Paul Visintainer, David L Jardine, Wouter Wieling
BACKGROUND: Syncope is a sudden transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by cerebral hypoperfusion. The most common form is vasovagal syncope (VVS). Presyncopal progressive early hypotension in older VVS patients is caused by reduced cardiac output (CO); younger patients have reduced systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Using a priori criteria for reduced CO (↓CO) and SVR (↓SVR), we studied 48 recurrent young fainters comparing subgroups of VVS with VVS-↓CO, VVS-↓SVR, and both VVS-↓CO&↓SVR...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093803/novel-ecg-synchronized-pulsatile-ecls-system-with-various-heart-rates-and-cardiac-arrhythmias-an-in-vitro-study
#5
Shigang Wang, Shannon B Spencer, Allen R Kunselman, Akif Ündar
The objective of this study is to evaluate electrocardiography (ECG)-synchronized pulsatile flow under varying heart rates and different atrial and ventricular arrhythmias in a simulated extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system. The ECLS circuit consisted of an i-cor diagonal pump and console, an iLA membrane ventilator, and an 18 Fr arterial cannula. The circuit was primed with lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells (hematocrit 35%). An ECG simulator was used to trigger pulsatile flow and to generate selected cardiac rhythms...
January 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077904/regadenoson-in-myocardial-perfusion-study-first-institutional-experiences-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#6
Nermina Beslic, Renata Milardovic, Amera Sadija, Sejla Ceric, Zeljka Raic
INTRODUCTION: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is widely used in the evaluation of known and suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Imaging of heart in stress and rest enables the comparison of myocardial uptake of radiotracer in proportion to the needs and coronary flow, which is used for detection of perfusion defects. Exercise stress and pharmacologic agents are used for the stressing purpose. Novel pharmacologic stressor regadenoson is A2A selective adenosine agonist, which selectively binds to the adenosine receptors in coronary arteries causing coronary dilatation...
December 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077517/two-phase-hospital-associated-outbreak-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-investigation-and-mitigation
#7
Arthur W Baker, Sarah S Lewis, Barbara D Alexander, Luke F Chen, Richard J Wallace, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Pamela J Isaacs, Lisa C Pickett, Chetan B Patel, Peter K Smith, John M Reynolds, Jill Engel, Cameron R Wolfe, Carmelo A Milano, Jacob N Schroder, Robert D Davis, Matthew G Hartwig, Jason E Stout, Nancy Strittholt, Eileen K Maziarz, Jennifer Horan Saullo, Kevin C Hazen, Richard J Walczak, Ravikiran Vasireddy, Sruthi Vasireddy, Celeste M McKnight, Deverick J Anderson, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) commonly colonize municipal water and cause healthcare-associated outbreaks. We investigated a biphasic outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Case patients had recent hospital exposure and laboratory-confirmed colonization or infection with M. abscessus from January 2013 through December 2015. We conducted a multidisciplinary epidemiologic, field, and laboratory investigation. RESULTS: The incidence rate of M...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069165/on-the-quantification-and-visualization-of-transient-periodic-instabilities-in-pulsatile-flows
#8
Muhammad Owais Khan, Christophe Chnafa, Diego Gallo, Filippo Molinari, Umberto Morbiducci, David A Steinman, Kristian Valen-Sendstad
Turbulent-like flows without cycle-to-cycle variations are more frequently being reported in studies of cardiovascular flows. The associated stimuli might be of mechanobiological relevance, but how to quantify them objectively is not obvious. Classical Reynolds decomposition, where the flow is separated into mean and fluctuating velocity components, is not applicable as the phase-average is zero. We therefore expanded on established techniques and present the idea, analogous to Reynolds decomposition, to decompose a flow with transient instabilities into low- versus high frequency components, respectively, to discriminate flow instabilities from the underlying cardiac pulsatility...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065491/meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials-on-remote-ischemic-conditioning-during-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#9
Ayman Elbadawi, Le Dung Ha, Ahmed S Abuzaid, Gabriele Crimi, Muhammad S Azzouz
Ischemia/reperfusion injury adversely affects the final infarct size (IS) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Few studies have evaluated the role of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in reducing ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the results of these studies were not consistent, and an overview of overall effectiveness of this technique in patients with STEMI is lacking. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the available evidence in literature regarding the application of RIC in patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057364/deferred-versus-conventional-stent-implantation-in-patients-with-acute-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-an-updated-meta-analysis-of-10-studies
#10
Joo Myung Lee, Tae-Min Rhee, Haseong Chang, Chul Ahn, Taek Kyu Park, Jeong Hoon Yang, Young Bin Song, Seung-Hyuk Choi, Hyeon-Cheol Gwon, Joo-Yong Hahn
BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate safety and efficacy of the deferred stenting versus immediate stent implantation of infarct-related arteries in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: A meta-analysis using random-effects models were conducted. The primary outcome, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), was a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), any unplanned target vessel revascularization (TVR), and hospitalization due to cardiac cause...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055829/validation-of-a-multimodality-flow-phantom-and-its-application-for-assessment-of-dynamic-spect-and-pet-technologies
#11
Hanif Gabrani-Juma, Owen J Clarkin, Amir Pourmoghaddas, Brandon Driscoll, R Glenn Wells, Robert A deKemp, Ran Klein
Simple and robust techniques are lacking to assess performance of flow quantification using dynamic imaging. We therefore developed a method to qualify flow quantification technologies using a physical compartment exchange phantom and image analysis tool. We validate and demonstrate utility of this method using dynamic PET and SPECT. Dynamic image sequences were acquired on two PET/CT and a cardiac dedicated SPECT (with and without attenuation and scatter corrections) systems. A two-compartment exchange model was fit to image derived time-activity curves to quantify flow rates...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051093/a-four-compartment-pbpk-heart-model-accounting-for-cardiac-metabolism-model-development-and-application
#12
Zofia Tylutki, Sebastian Polak
In the field of cardiac drug efficacy and safety assessment, information on drug concentration in heart tissue is desirable. Because measuring drug concentrations in human cardiac tissue is challenging in healthy volunteers, mathematical models are used to cope with such limitations. With a goal of predicting drug concentration in cardiac tissue, we have developed a whole-body PBPK model consisting of seventeen perfusion-limited compartments. The proposed PBPK heart model consisted of four compartments: the epicardium, midmyocardium, endocardium, and pericardial fluid, and accounted for cardiac metabolism using CYP450...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043677/pressure-volume-loop-derived-cardiac-indices-during-dobutamine-stress-a-step-towards-understanding-limitations-in-cardiac-output-in-children-with-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome
#13
James Wong, Kuberan Pushparajah, Adelaide de Vecchi, Bram Ruijsink, Gerald F Greil, Tarique Hussain, Reza Razavi
BACKGROUND: Children with a single systemic right ventricle, such as in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), frequently experience reduced exercise capacity. Elucidating the causes could help with optimising treatment strategies. METHODS: Prospective data from 10 consecutive symptomatic patients with HLHS undergoing clinical cardiac magnetic resonance with catheterisation (XMR) were analysed. Mean age 8.6years (range 3.5-11.6years), mean time since Fontan completion 5...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041575/the-impact-of-major-depression-on-heart-rate-variability-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-patients-with-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#14
Esra Aydin Sunbul, Murat Sunbul, Huseyin Gulec
BACKGROUND: Depression is an independent risk factor in cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the cardiac autonomic functions and pro-inflammatory processes are potential biological factors. Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of major depression on heart rate variability and endothelial dysfunction in patients with stable CAD. METHODS: The study group included 65 CAD patients with a diagnosis of major depression and 54 CAD patients without major depression...
January 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040284/outcome-of-coronary-lesions-with-deferred-revascularization-due-to-negative-fractional-flow-reserve-in-subjects-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#15
Andrea Picchi, Antonio Maria Leone, Filippo Zilio, Enrico Cerrato, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Massimo Fineschi, Stefano Rigattieri, Marco Ferlini, Matteo Cameli, Paolo Calabria, Alberto Cresti, Ugo Limbruno
OBJECTIVE: Revascularization of functionally non-significant stenoses in patients with stable coronary artery disease can safely be deferred as rate of adverse cardiovascular events is low. It is not clear whether fractional flow reserve (FFR) is just as accurate in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The aim of this study is to assess the outcome of coronary lesions whose revascularization was deferred based on negative FFR values in subjects with ACS. METHODS: Patients with acute coronary syndrome and showing at least one coronary stenosis whose revascularization was deferred based on FFR value >0...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038771/superior-performance-of-continuous-over-pulsatile-flow-ventricular-assist-devices-in-the-single-ventricle-circulation-a-computational-study
#16
Tyler Schmidt, David Rosenthal, Olaf Reinhartz, Kirk Riemer, Fei He, Tain-Yen Hsia, Alison Marsden, Ethan Kung
This study compares the physiological responses of systemic-to-pulmonary shunted single ventricle patients to pulsatile and continuous flow ventricular assist devices (VADs). Performance differences between pulsatile and continuous flow VADs have been clinically observed, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Six systemic-to-pulmonary shunted single ventricle patients (mean BSA=0.30m(2)) were computationally simulated using a lumped-parameter network tuned to match patient specific clinical data...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029214/long-term-outcomes-of-rotational-atherectomy-for-the-percutaneous-treatment-of-chronic-total-occlusions
#17
Lorenzo Azzalini, Rustem Dautov, Soledad Ojeda, Antonio Serra, Susanna Benincasa, Barbara Bellini, Francesco Giannini, Jorge Chavarría, Livia L Gheorghe, Manuel Pan, Mauro Carlino, Antonio Colombo, Stéphane Rinfret
OBJECTIVES: To study the long-term outcomes of rotational atherectomy (RA) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: There is little evidence on the incidence, procedural results and long-term outcomes of RA for CTO PCI. METHODS: This registry included data from consecutive patients undergoing CTO PCI at four specialized centers. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE: cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction and ischemia-driven target-vessel revascularization) on follow-up were the primary endpoint...
December 28, 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029066/cardiac-autonomic-and-haemodynamic-recovery-after-a-single-session-of-aerobic-exercise-with-and-without-blood-flow-restriction-in-older-adults
#18
Marina Lívia Venturini Ferreira, Amanda Veiga Sardeli, Giovana Vergínia De Souza, Valéria Bonganha, Lucas Do Carmo Santos, Alex Castro, Cláudia Regina Cavaglieri, Mara Patrícia Traina Chacon-Mikahil
This study investigated the autonomic and haemodynamic responses to different aerobic exercise loads, with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). In a crossover study, 21 older adults (8 males and 13 females) completed different aerobic exercise sessions: low load without BFR (LL) (40% VO2max), low load with BFR (LL-BFR) (40% VO2max + 50% BFR) and high load without BFR (HL) (70% VO2max). Heart rate variability and haemodynamic responses were recorded during rest and throughout 30 min of recovery. HL reduced R-R interval, the root mean square of successive difference of R-R intervals and high frequency during 30 min of recovery at a greater magnitude compared with LL and LL-BFR...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018896/factors-influencing-neurodevelopment-after-cardiac-surgery-during-infancy
#19
REVIEW
Hedwig Hubertine Hövels-Gürich
Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011410/rates-of-oxygen-uptake-increase-independently-of-changes-in-heart-rate-in-late-stages-of-development-and-at-hatching-in-the-green-iguana-iguana-iguana
#20
Marina R Sartori, Augusto S Abe, Dane A Crossley, Edwin W Taylor
Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (fH), heart mass (Mh) and body mass (Mb) were measured during embryonic incubation and in hatchlings of green iguana (Iguana iguana). Mean fH and VO2 were unvarying in early stage embryos. VO2 increased exponentially during the later stages of embryonic development, doubling by the end of incubation, while fH was constant, resulting in a 2.7-fold increase in oxygen pulse. Compared to late stage embryos, the mean inactive level of VO2 in hatchlings was 1.7 fold higher, while fH was reduced by half resulting in a further 3...
December 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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