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Gert Helgesson, Göran Bertilsson, Helena Domeij, Gunilla Fahlström, Emelie Heintz, Anders Hjern, Christina Nehlin Gordh, Viviann Nordin, Jenny Rangmar, Ann-Margret Rydell, Viveka Sundelin Wahlsten, Monica Hultcrantz
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term covering several conditions for which alcohol consumption during pregnancy is taken to play a causal role. The benefit of individuals being identified with a condition within FASD remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to identify ethical aspects and consequences of diagnostics, interventions, and family support in relation to FASD. METHODS: Ethical aspects relating to diagnostics, interventions, and family support regarding FASD were compiled and discussed, drawing on a series of discussions with experts in the field, published literature, and medical ethicists...
January 5, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Shannon Lange, Jürgen Rehm, Evdokia Anagnostou, Svetlana Popova
Owing to their central nervous system impairments, children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) commonly exhibit externalizing behaviours such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and (or) delinquency. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders with prominent externalizing behaviours, namely Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder (CD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), as well as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) among children with FASD...
April 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Uta B Schambra, C Nicole Lewis, Theresa A Harrison
Debate continues on the merits of strictly limiting alcohol consumption during all of pregnancy, and whether "safe" consumption levels and/or times exist. Only a relatively few experimental studies have been conducted that limit the timing of exposure to specific events during development and the exposure level to one that might model sporadic, incidental drinking during pregnancy. In the present study, the effects of two acute gavage exposures to low and moderate levels of ethanol (peak blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 104 and 177mg/dl, respectively) either during gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 (at GD7:0h and GD7:4h) or during neurulation on GD8 (at GD8:6h and GD8:10h) on the spatial learning and memory abilities of adult mice in the radial arm maze (RAM) were examined...
July 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Sheliza Ali, Kimberly A Kerns, Bryce P Mulligan, Heather Carmichael Olson, Susan J Astley
Intra-individual variability (IIV) is defined as systematic within-person variation in performance either across test sessions (e.g., test/retest performance on the same task) or in one session (e.g., variations in performance on multiple trials of a single task). Higher levels of IIV have been noted as a characteristic of neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder​ (ADHD), but IIV is yet to be investigated in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD is a term used to describe a range of conditions resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol...
March 16, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Matthew M Gerhold, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Colin M Andrew
BACKGROUND: Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies of response inhibition in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have used a visual Go/NoGo task to study the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition. No studies exist using auditory versions of the task; thus, it is unclear how the deficits observed in visual tasks translate into the auditory domain. METHODS: This study examined ERPs using an auditory Go/NoGo paradigm in a sample of 35 school-age children-18 with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and 17 normally developing controls...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Emma L Louth, Warren Bignell, Christine L Taylor, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic prenatal exposure to ethanol can lead to a spectrum of teratogenic outcomes that are classified in humans as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). One of the most prevalent and persistent neurocognitive components of FASD is attention deficits, and it is now thought that these attention deficits differ from traditional attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in their quality and response to medication. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying attention deficits in FASD are not well understood...
September 2016: ENeuro
Sara A Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Kelly Nash, Joanne Rovet
Although the profile of social cognitive difficulties is well recognized in children with certain neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this profile is not as well established in other clinical pediatric populations. The objective of the present study is to examine patterns of social perception in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared to typically-developing (TD) control children. A total of 56 children between 8 and 12 years of age-35 with FASD and 21 TD-completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task - Children's Version (RMET-C)...
November 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Jennifer E Khoury, Karen Milligan
OBJECTIVE: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are associated with a range of neurocognitive impairments. Executive functioning deficits are a hallmark feature of both disorders. METHOD: The present meta-analysis was undertaken to disentangle the behavioral phenotype of FASD and ADHD by quantitatively differentiating executive functioning differences between these two groups. The current meta-analysis reviews 15 studies comparing children and adolescents with FASD and ADHD to typically developing (TD) samples, on a variety of executive function measures...
January 3, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Danielle Kingdon, Christopher Cardoso, Jennifer J McGrath
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms are common in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD and ADHD groups both display executive function impairments; however, there is ongoing debate whether the pattern and magnitude of executive function deficits differs between these two types of disorders. METHODS: An electronic literature search was conducted (PubMed, PsychInfo; 1972-2013) to identify studies comparing the executive functioning of children with FASD with ADHD or control groups...
February 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Carrie R O'Conaill, Krisztina L Malisza, Joan L Buss, R Bruce Bolster, Christine Clancy, Patricia Dreessen de Gervai, Albert E Chudley, Sally Longstaffe
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) falls under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Diagnosis of ARND is difficult because individuals do not demonstrate the characteristic facial features associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). While attentional problems in ARND are similar to those found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the underlying impairment in attention pathways may be different. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted at 3 T...
2015: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Jak Ozsarfati, Gideon Koren
The majority of children with FASD suffer from disruptive behaviors and most of them need medications to modify these behaviors. The objective of this review is to familiarize professionals caring for children with FASD with stimulants and other drugs for ADHD, and the second generation antipsychotic risperidone - for aggressive and defiant behaviors.
2015: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Tarah L Raldiris, Thomas G Bowers, Carla Towsey
OBJECTIVE: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) can easily be misdiagnosed as having ADHD. METHOD: A total of 164 children were compared on cognitive and behavioral measures for four groups of children: FASD, ADHD, FASD + ADHD, and other neuropsychological disorders. RESULTS: The ADHD group was not significantly different from the "other diagnosis" group on any of the measurements. The children with FASD were found to perform significantly worse than ADHD on externalizing problems, Full-Scale IQ, and indices of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Working Memory...
December 18, 2014: Journal of Attention Disorders
M Alejandra Infante, Eileen M Moore, Tanya T Nguyen, Nikolaos Fourligas, Sarah N Mattson, Edward P Riley
Attention deficits are often observed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in this population. This study used an objective assessment tool to examine differences between alcohol-exposed and non-exposed children on core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Two groups of individuals, aged 7-14years, participated in the study: alcohol-exposed children (AE, n=43), and non-exposed children (CON, n=54). Subjects were evaluated with the Quotient ADHD System, which provides objective data on ADHD core symptoms by combining an infrared motion tracking system and a computerized continuous performance task...
September 1, 2015: Physiology & Behavior
Kerstin Strömland, Liana O Ventura, Layla Mirzaei, Keyla Fontes de Oliveira, José Marcelino Bandim, Adriana Parente Ivo, Carlos Brandt
BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate the frequency of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and ophthalmologic anomalies in orphanage children in Brazil. METHODS: A prospective study was performed on 94 children living in an orphanage in Brazil. The children were examined by a multidisciplinary team consisting of specialists in pediatrics, neurology, psychology, neuropsychiatry, and ophthalmology. RESULTS: The main reasons for living in the orphanage, in 61% of the children, were negligence, child abuse, and abandonment...
March 2015: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Kimberly A Lane, Jillian Stewart, Tania Fernandes, Natalie Russo, James T Enns, Jacob A Burack
Parental reports of attention problems and clinical symptomatology of ADHD among children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorder (FASD) were assessed in relation to performance on standardized subtests of attentional control/shifting and selective attention from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch; Manly etal., 1998). The participants included 14 children with FASD with a mean chronological age (CA) of 11.7 years and a mean mental age (MA) of 9.7 years, and 14 typically developing (TD) children with no reported history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or attention problems with a mean CA of 8...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Gideon Koren, Irene Zelner, Kelly Nash, Gal Koren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the first description of the foetal damage of alcohol in 1967, numerous studies have outlined different aspects of neurodevelopmental dysfunction, adversely affecting the lives of children worldwide. Although the cause of the syndrome is sorted out, the pathogenesis of brain damage is far from being clear. In contrast to children exhibiting the full facial dysmorphology, who are relatively easy to diagnose, in those presenting only with alcohol-related neurodevelopmental damage diagnosis is much more challenging due to poor specificity of the brain dysfunction...
March 2014: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Petra Breiner, Irena Nulman, Gideon Koren
BACKGROUND: Most children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) do not display the typical facial changes, making the diagnosis much more challenging due to poor specificity of the brain dysfunction exhibited by these children. We have recently described and validated a behavioral phenotype of FASD using items from the Child Behavior Checklist (The Neurobehavioral Screening Test, NST). This tool has high sensitivity and specificity in separating children aged 6-13 yrs with FASD from those with ADHD and from healthy controls...
2013: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Mansfield Mela, Audrey McFarlane, Tolulope T Sajobi, Hasu Rajani
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is relevant for the reduction of long term adverse sequalae. However, the diagnostic guidelines require a multidisciplinary approach which may hinder access to diagnostic and management services. Most diagnostic clinics are located in urban areas. There is less emphasis on the operations, capacities, and outcomes from rural diagnostic clinics. METHODS: Over a ten and half years of clinic operations to diagnose children and subsequently adults, all consenting adults provided answers to interviews, participated in measurements and other diagnostic procedures...
2013: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Marni D Brownell, Ana C de B Hanlon Dearman, Leonard R Macwilliam, Albert E Chudley, Noralou P Roos, Lauren P Yallop, Sally E A Longstaffe
BACKGROUND: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is the leading cause of intellectual disability in western society, presenting a significant burden on health, education and social services. Quantifying the burden of FASD is important for service planning and policy and program development. OBJECTIVE: To describe the health, education and social service use of individuals with FASD to provide an indication of the burden of service use of the disorder. METHODS: Using a matched-cohort design health, education and social service data were linked with clinical records on individuals 6+ years diagnosed with FASD between 1999/2000-2009/10 (N=717)...
2013: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Osman S Ipsiroglu, William H McKellin, Norma Carey, Christine Loock
Children and adolescents with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) are at high-risk for developing sleep problems (SPs) triggering daytime behavioral co-morbidities such as inattention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and emotional impairments. However, symptoms of sleep deprivation are solely associated with typical daytime diagnosis, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with psychotropic medications. To understand how and why SPs are missed, we conducted qualitative interviews (QIs) with six parents and seven health care professionals (HCPs), and performed comprehensive clinical sleep assessments (CCSAs) in 27 patients together with their caregivers referred to our clinic for unresolved SPs...
February 2013: Social Science & Medicine
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