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Abdalmajeed M Alajlouni, Amer J Al-Malahmeh, Sebastiaan Wesseling, Marina Kalli, Jacques Vervoort, Ivonne M C M Rietjens
A risk assessment was performed of parsley and dill based plant food supplements (PFS) containing apiol and related alkenylbenzenes. First the levels of the alkenylbenzenes in the PFS and the resulting estimated daily intake (EDI) resulting from use of the PFS were quantified. Since most PFS appeared to contain more than one alkenylbenzene a combined risk assessment was performed based on equal potency or using a so-called Toxic Equivalency (TEQ) approach based on Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) for the different alkenylbenzenes...
June 5, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Amer J Al-Malahmeh, Abdalmajeed M Alajlouni, Jia Ning, Sebastiaan Wesseling, Jacques Vervoort, Ivonne M C M Rietjens
A risk assessment of nutmeg-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing different alkenylbenzenes was performed based on the alkenylbenzene levels quantified in a series of PFS collected via the online market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the alkenylbenzenes amounted to 0.3 to 312 μg kg(-1) body weight (bw) for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 1.5 to 631 μg kg(-1) bw when adding up the alkenylbenzene levels assuming equal potency, and to 0.4 to 295 μg kg(-1) bw when expressed in safrole equivalents using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Vandimilli A Lima, Fernanda V Pacheco, Rafaella P Avelar, Ivan C A Alvarenga, José Eduardo B P Pinto, Amauri A DE Alvarenga
Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated...
April 27, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
M F Andrés, G E Rossa, E Cassel, R M F Vargas, O Santana, C E Díaz, A González-Coloma
In this study we evaluated the effect of a pressure gradient (1-2 atm) in the extraction and composition of the essential oil (EO) of Piper hispidinervum by steam distillation. We also evaluated the insect antifeedant effects (Spodoptera littoralis, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi) and nematicidal activity (Meloidogyne javanica) of the oils, their major components and their synergistic interactions. Safrole was the major component (78-81%) followed by terpinolene (5-9%). The EOs tested were effective insect antifeedants...
April 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Gabriel Garcia, Adrien Garcia, Marc Gibernau, Ange Bighelli, Félix Tomi
The aim of this survey was to determine the chemical composition of essential oils (EO) of five conifers acclimated in Corsica by GC(RI), GC-MS and (13)C NMR. L. decidua needle and wood EOs contained as majors components: α- and β-pinenes, germacrene D (needles) and bornyl acetate (wood). The EOs of needles, wood and cones of P. menziesii were characterised by β- and α-pinenes, terpinen-4-ol, sabinene, terpinolene (needles and wood), Δ-3-carene (wood) and limonene (cones). Needles and wood EOs of P. ponderosa contained as major components: β- and α-pinenes, Δ-3-carene (wood) and estragole (needles)...
July 2017: Natural Product Research
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To develop 6 conjugate agents of the moribund antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) joined to 6 individual monoterpenes, followed by protocols of medicinal chemistry as potent antibacterials, against multidrug resistant (MDR) human gruesome pathogenic bacteria. METHODS: Antibacterial activities of the proposed conjugates were ascertained by the 'prediction of activity spectra of substances' (PASS) program. Drug-likeness parameters and toxicity profiles of conjugates were standardized with the Lipinski rule of five, using cheminformatic tools, Molsoft, molinspiration, OSIRIS and ProTox...
March 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Stephen A Adefegha, Ganiyu Oboh, Bathlomew M Okeke, Sunday I Oyeleye
Aframomum melegueta (alligator pepper (AP)) and Aframomum danielli (bastered melegueta (BM)) seeds have been known to improve sexual function in folkloric medicine. This study investigates the effects of AP and BM seeds' alkaloid extracts on the activities of enzymes (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE), phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), and arginase) relevant to erectile dysfunction (ED). Alkaloids from the seeds were prepared by the solvent extraction method and their interactions with AChE, ACE, PDE-5, and arginase were assessed...
September 3, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Milene Aparecida Andrade, Clênia Dos Santos Azevedo, Flávia Nader Motta, Maria Lucília Dos Santos, Camila Lasse Silva, Jaime Martins de Santana, Izabela M D Bastos
BACKGROUND: The current chemotherapy for cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) has a series of drug limitations such as toxic side effects, long duration, high costs and drug resistance, which requires the development of new drugs or effective alternatives to the CL treatment. Essential oils (EOs) are complex mixtures of secondary metabolites from various plants. It has been shown that several EOs, or their constituents, have inhibitory activity against protozoa. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the biological activity of different essential oils (EOs) on Leishmania (L...
November 8, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Abdalmajeed M Alajlouni, Amer J Al-Malahmeh, Farida Nur Isnaeni, Sebastiaan Wesseling, Jacques Vervoort, Ivonne M C M Rietjens
Risk assessment of parsley and dill based teas that contain alkenylbenzenes was performed. To this end the estimated daily intake (EDI) of alkenylbenzenes resulting from use of the teas was quantified. Since most teas appeared to contain more than one alkenylbenzene, a combined risk assessment was performed based on equal potency of all alkenylbenzenes or using a so-called toxic equivalency (TEQ) approach through defining toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for the different alkenylbenzenes. The EDI values resulting from consuming one cup of tea a day were 0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
M Weil, A Shum Cheong Sing, J M Méot, R Boulanger, P Bohuon
Low pungency, high aromatic potential and red color, give to Piper borbonense its originality when compared to Piper nigrum. Effects of blanching, sweating and drying on these characteristics were assessed. The three operations had no impact on the concentration of piperine and essential oil but affected the composition of essential oil slightly and considerably affected the color of the pepper. The "wet process", including blanching, sweating and drying, had the largest impact on the composition of aroma, increasing para-cymene content by 89% and reducing safrole content by 33% in dried pepper compared to fresh...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Michael Collins, Christopher Donnelly, Shane Cameron, Mark Tahtouh, Helen Salouros
In September 2015, 80 litres of a viscous, light-red liquid, described as hair product, was seized by the Australian Border Force (ABF). Initial testing by ABF indicated that the liquid was the 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) precursor chemical safrole and custody of the material was transferred to the Australian Federal Police (AFP) who coordinated all subsequent investigations. Initial gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis by the AFP indicated that the material was not safrole and samples of the liquid were transferred to the National Measurement Institute Australia (NMIA) for identification...
March 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Tabea Pflaum, Thomas Hausler, Claudia Baumung, Svenja Ackermann, Thomas Kuballa, Jürgen Rehm, Dirk W Lachenmeier
The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC...
October 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Amer J Al-Malahmeh, Abdelmajeed Al-Ajlouni, Sebastiaan Wesseling, Ans E M F Soffers, Ala' Al-Subeihi, Reiko Kiwamoto, Jacques Vervoort, Ivonne M C M Rietjens
The present study describes physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models for the alkenylbenzene myristicin that were developed by extension of the PBK models for the structurally related alkenylbenzene safrole in rat and human. The newly developed myristicin models revealed that the formation of the proximate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-hydroxymyristicin in liver is at most 1.8 fold higher in rat than in human and limited for the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-sulfoxymyristicin to (2.8-4.0)-fold higher in human...
February 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Tetyana Kobets, Jian-Dong Duan, Klaus D Brunnemann, Sylvain Etter, Benjamin Smith, Gary M Williams
Certain alkenylbenzenes (AB), flavoring chemicals naturally occurring in spices and herbs, are established to be cytotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. The purpose of the present study was to determine the DNA damaging potential of key representatives of this class using the Turkey Egg Genotoxicity Assay. Medium white turkey eggs with 22- to 24-day-old fetuses received three injections of nine AB with different carcinogenic potentials: safrole (1, 2 mg/egg), methyl eugenol (2, 4 mg/egg), estragole (20, 40 mg/egg), myristicin (25, 50 mg/egg), elemicin (20, 50 mg/egg), anethole (5, 10 mg/egg), methyl isoeugenol (40, 80 mg/egg), eugenol (1, 2...
April 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
T L M Fanela, E L L Baldin, L E R Pannuti, P L Cruz, A E M Crotti, R Takeara, M J Kato
The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most severe tomato pests in the world. The damage caused by this insect may compromise up to 100% of crop production, and management of this pest has relied on spraying of synthetic insecticides. However, due to the environmental issues associated with this practice, alternative methods such as the use of botanical pesticides are now used as a strategy of integrated pest management (IPM). We evaluated the effects of essential oils of five plant species on B...
April 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Jun-Ran Kim, Haribalan Perumalsamy, Ju-Hee Lee, Young-Joon Ahn, Young Su Lee, Sang-Guie Lee
The acaricidal activity of Asarum heterotropoides root-derived principles, methyleugenol, safrole, 3-carene, α-asarone, pentadecane and A. heterotropoides root steam distillate constituents was tested against poultry red mites Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer). All active principles were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Results were compared with those of two conventional acaricides, benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). Methyleugenol (24 h LC50 = 0.57 µg/cm(2)) and safrole (24 h LC50 = 8...
April 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Jee Hwan Yi, Haribalan Perumalsamy, Karuppasamy Sankarapandian, Byeoung-Ryeol Choi, Young-Joon Ahn
Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1...
June 2015: Journal of Economic Entomology
Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Salleh, Farediah Ahmad, Khong Heng Yen
The essential oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. The essential oils of leaf and bark of C. grffithii were characterized by the presence of 30 components, with methyl eugenol (38.5-43.8%) as the major component. A total of 11 components were characterized in.the leaf and bark of C. macrocarpum essential oil with the most abundant component was safrole (54.5-59.5%). The bark oil of C. griffithii demonstrated significant activity on DPPH (IC50 73...
August 2015: Natural Product Communications
Suchandra Chatterjee, Sumit Gupta, S Prasad Variyar
Distribution of volatile constituents in the essential oil of nutmeg obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), high vacuum distillation (HVD) and super critical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared with reduced pressure distillation (RPD) and head space (HS) analysis. HS and RPD volatiles were characterized by a high content of sabinene, followed by α-pinene and β-pinene. Interestingly, unlike the SDE, HVD and SFE oils, distillates from HS and RPD were marked by the absence of phenolic ethers namely myristicin, elemicin and safrole...
August 2015: Natural Product Communications
Tzu-Yi Hung, Chiang-Ting Chou, Te-Kung Sun, Wei-Zhe Liang, Jin-Shiung Cheng, Yi-Chien Fang, Yih-Do Li, Pochuen Shieh, Chin-Man Ho, Chun-Chi Kuo, Jia-Rong Lin, Daih-Huang Kuo, Chung-Ren Jan
Safrole is a carcinogen found in plants. The effect of safrole on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺](i)) and viability in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells was explored. The Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca²⁺](i). Safrole at concentrations of 150-450 μM induced a [Ca²⁺](i) rise in a concentration-dependent manner. The response was reduced by 60% by removing extracellular Ca²⁺. Safrole-evoked Ca²⁺ entry was not altered by nifedipine, econazole, SKF96365, and protein kinase C activator or inhibitor...
October 31, 2015: Chinese Journal of Physiology
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