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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825341/essential-oils-in-vitro-activity-against-leishmania-amazonensis-cytotoxicity-and-chemical-composition
#1
Milene Aparecida Andrade, Clênia Dos Santos Azevedo, Flávia Nader Motta, Maria Lucília Dos Santos, Camila Lasse Silva, Jaime Martins de Santana, Izabela M D Bastos
BACKGROUND: The current chemotherapy for cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) has a series of drug limitations such as toxic side effects, long duration, high costs and drug resistance, which requires the development of new drugs or effective alternatives to the CL treatment. Essential oils (EOs) are complex mixtures of secondary metabolites from various plants. It has been shown that several EOs, or their constituents, have inhibitory activity against protozoa. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the biological activity of different essential oils (EOs) on Leishmania (L...
November 8, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771948/level-of-alkenylbenzenes-in-parsley-and-dill-based-teas-and-associated-risk-assessment-using-the-margin-of-exposure-approach
#2
Abdalmajeed M Alajlouni, Amer J Almalahmeh, Farida Nur Isnaeni, Sebastiaan Wesseling, Jacques Vervoort, Ivonne Magdalena Catharina Maria Rietjens
Risk assessment of parsley and dill based teas that contain alkenylbenzenes was performed. To this end the estimated daily intake (EDI) of alkenylbenzenes resulting from use of the teas was quantified. Since most teas appeared to contain more than one alkenylbenzene a combined risk assessment was performed based on equal potency of all alkenylbenzenes or using a so-called Toxic Equivalency (TEQ) approach through defining Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) for the different alkenylbenzenes. The EDI values resulting from consuming one cup of tea a day were 0...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765227/impact-of-blanching-sweating-and-drying-operations-on-pungency-aroma-and-color-of-piper-borbonense
#3
M Weil, A Shum Cheong Sing, J M Méot, R Boulanger, P Bohuon
Low pungency, high aromatic potential and red color, give to Piper borbonense its originality when compared to Piper nigrum. Effects of blanching, sweating and drying on these characteristics were assessed. The three operations had no impact on the concentration of piperine and essential oil but affected the composition of essential oil slightly and considerably affected the color of the pepper. The "wet process", including blanching, sweating and drying, had the largest impact on the composition of aroma, increasing para-cymene content by 89% and reducing safrole content by 33% in dried pepper compared to fresh...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574107/identification-and-characterization-of-n-tert-butoxycarbonyl-mdma-a-new-mdma-precursor
#4
Michael Collins, Christopher Donnelly, Shane Cameron, Mark Tahtouh, Helen Salouros
In September 2015, eighty litres of a viscous, light-red liquid, described as hair product, was seized by the Australian Border Force (ABF). Initial testing by ABF indicated that the liquid was the MDMA precursor chemical safrole and custody of the material was transferred to the Australian Federal Police (AFP) who coordinated all subsequent investigations. Initial gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis by AFP indicated that the material was not safrole and samples of the liquid were transferred to the National Measurement Institute Australia (NMIA) for identification...
August 30, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353523/carcinogenic-compounds-in-alcoholic-beverages-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Tabea Pflaum, Thomas Hausler, Claudia Baumung, Svenja Ackermann, Thomas Kuballa, Jürgen Rehm, Dirk W Lachenmeier
The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC...
October 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334372/physiologically-based-kinetic-modeling-of-the-bioactivation-of-myristicin
#6
Amer J Al-Malahmeh, Abdelmajeed Al-Ajlouni, Sebastiaan Wesseling, Ans E M F Soffers, Ala' Al-Subeihi, Reiko Kiwamoto, Jacques Vervoort, Ivonne M C M Rietjens
The present study describes physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models for the alkenylbenzene myristicin that were developed by extension of the PBK models for the structurally related alkenylbenzene safrole in rat and human. The newly developed myristicin models revealed that the formation of the proximate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-hydroxymyristicin in liver is at most 1.8 fold higher in rat than in human and limited for the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-sulfoxymyristicin to (2.8-4.0)-fold higher in human...
June 22, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26719370/structure-activity-relationships-for-dna-damage-by-alkenylbenzenes-in-turkey-egg-fetal-liver
#7
Tetyana Kobets, Jian-Dong Duan, Klaus D Brunnemann, Sylvain Etter, Benjamin Smith, Gary M Williams
Certain alkenylbenzenes (AB), flavoring chemicals naturally occurring in spices and herbs, are established to be cytotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. The purpose of the present study was to determine the DNA damaging potential of key representatives of this class using the Turkey Egg Genotoxicity Assay. Medium white turkey eggs with 22- to 24-day-old fetuses received three injections of nine AB with different carcinogenic potentials: safrole (1, 2 mg/egg), methyl eugenol (2, 4 mg/egg), estragole (20, 40 mg/egg), myristicin (25, 50 mg/egg), elemicin (20, 50 mg/egg), anethole (5, 10 mg/egg), methyl isoeugenol (40, 80 mg/egg), eugenol (1, 2...
April 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26712319/lethal-and-inhibitory-activities-of-plant-derived-essential-oils-against-bemisia-tabaci-gennadius-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-biotype-b-in-tomato
#8
T L M Fanela, E L L Baldin, L E R Pannuti, P L Cruz, A E M Crotti, R Takeara, M J Kato
The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most severe tomato pests in the world. The damage caused by this insect may compromise up to 100% of crop production, and management of this pest has relied on spraying of synthetic insecticides. However, due to the environmental issues associated with this practice, alternative methods such as the use of botanical pesticides are now used as a strategy of integrated pest management (IPM). We evaluated the effects of essential oils of five plant species on B...
April 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26708137/acaricidal-activity-of-asarum-heterotropoides-root-derived-compounds-and-hydrodistillate-constitutes-toward-dermanyssus-gallinae-mesostigmata-dermanyssidae
#9
Jun-Ran Kim, Haribalan Perumalsamy, Ju-Hee Lee, Young-Joon Ahn, Young Su Lee, Sang-Guie Lee
The acaricidal activity of Asarum heterotropoides root-derived principles, methyleugenol, safrole, 3-carene, α-asarone, pentadecane and A. heterotropoides root steam distillate constituents was tested against poultry red mites Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer). All active principles were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Results were compared with those of two conventional acaricides, benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). Methyleugenol (24 h LC50 = 0.57 µg/cm(2)) and safrole (24 h LC50 = 8...
April 2016: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26470247/fumigant-toxicity-of-phenylpropanoids-identified-in-asarum-sieboldii-aerial-parts-to-lycoriella-ingenua-diptera-sciaridae-and-coboldia-fuscipes-diptera-scatopsidae
#10
Jee Hwan Yi, Haribalan Perumalsamy, Karuppasamy Sankarapandian, Byeoung-Ryeol Choi, Young-Joon Ahn
Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1...
June 2015: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26434143/antioxidant-and-anticholinesterase-activities-of-essential-oils-of-cinnamomum-griffithii-and-c-macrocarpum
#11
Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Salleh, Farediah Ahmad, Khong Heng Yen
The essential oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. The essential oils of leaf and bark of C. grffithii were characterized by the presence of 30 components, with methyl eugenol (38.5-43.8%) as the major component. A total of 11 components were characterized in.the leaf and bark of C. macrocarpum essential oil with the most abundant component was safrole (54.5-59.5%). The bark oil of C. griffithii demonstrated significant activity on DPPH (IC50 73...
August 2015: Natural Product Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26434138/comparison-of-essential-oils-obtained-from-different-extraction-techniques-as-an-aid-in-identifying-aroma-significant-compounds-of-nutmeg-myristica-fragrans
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Suchandra Chatterjee, Sumit Gupta, S Prasad Variyar
Distribution of volatile constituents in the essential oil of nutmeg obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), high vacuum distillation (HVD) and super critical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared with reduced pressure distillation (RPD) and head space (HS) analysis. HS and RPD volatiles were characterized by a high content of sabinene, followed by α-pinene and β-pinene. Interestingly, unlike the SDE, HVD and SFE oils, distillates from HS and RPD were marked by the absence of phenolic ethers namely myristicin, elemicin and safrole...
August 2015: Natural Product Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26387654/the-mechanism-of-safrole-induced-ca%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C2%BA-i-rises-and-non-ca%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C2%BA-triggered-cell-death-in-scm1-human-gastric-cancer-cells
#13
Tzu-Yi Hung, Chiang-Ting Chou, Te-Kung Sun, Wei-Zhe Liang, Jin-Shiung Cheng, Yi-Chien Fang, Yih-Do Li, Pochuen Shieh, Chin-Man Ho, Chun-Chi Kuo, Jia-Rong Lin, Daih-Huang Kuo, Chung-Ren Jan
Safrole is a carcinogen found in plants. The effect of safrole on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺](i)) and viability in SCM1 human gastric cancer cells was explored. The Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca²⁺](i). Safrole at concentrations of 150-450 μM induced a [Ca²⁺](i) rise in a concentration-dependent manner. The response was reduced by 60% by removing extracellular Ca²⁺. Safrole-evoked Ca²⁺ entry was not altered by nifedipine, econazole, SKF96365, and protein kinase C activator or inhibitor...
October 31, 2015: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26253833/dual-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-determination-of-phenylpropenes-in-oils-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#14
Chia-Ju Tsai, Jih-Heng Li, Chia-Hsien Feng
A novel, simple and quick sample preparation method was developed and used for pre-concentration and extraction of six phenylpropenes, including anethole, estragole, eugenol, methyl eugenol, safrole and myristicin, from oil samples by dual dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for determination and separation of compounds. Several experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency were evaluated and optimized, including forward-extractant type and volume, surfactant type and concentration, water volume, and back-extractant type and volume...
September 4, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26015708/dna-adducts-chemical-addons
#15
REVIEW
T R Rajalakshmi, N AravindhaBabu, K T Shanmugam, K M K Masthan
DNA adduct is a piece of DNA covalently bond to a chemical (safrole, benzopyrenediol epoxide, acetaldehyde). This process could be the start of a cancerous cell. When a chemical binds to DNA, it gets damaged resulting in abnormal replication. This could be the start of a mutation and without proper DNA repair, this can lead to cancer. It is this chemical that binds with the DNA is our prime area of concern. Instead of performing the whole body analysis for diagnosing cancer, this test could be carried out for early detection of cancer...
April 2015: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25951001/chemical-characterization-and-anti-oomycete-activity-of-laureliopsis-philippianna-essential-oils-against-saprolegnia-parasitica-and-s-australis
#16
Alejandro Madrid, Patricio Godoy, Sebastián González, Luis Zaror, Alejandra Moller, Enrique Werner, Mauricio Cuellar, Joan Villena, Iván Montenegro
Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser) R. Schodde (Monimiaceae) is a native tree widespread in the forest areas in the south of Chile and Argentina, known for its medicinal properties and excellent wood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of L. philippiana leaf and bark essential oils (EOs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and to quantify its anti-oomycete activity, specifically against Saprolegnia parasitica and S. australis. Only six components were identified in leaf EO, 96...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25836404/analysis-of-the-essential-oil-of-illicium-henryi-diels-root-bark-and-its-insecticidal-activity-against-liposcelis-bostrychophila-badonnel
#17
Xin Chao Liu, Zhi Long Liu
Water-distilled essential oil from Illicium henryi (Illiciaceae) root bark was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-four compounds, accounting for 97.86% of the total oil, were identified. The main components of the essential oil of I. henryi root bark were safrole (46.12%), myristicin (20.39%), and 1,8-cineole (6.17%), followed by α-cadinol (3.784%) and linalool (3.22%). The essential oil had higher levels of phenylpropanoids (66.89%) than of monoterpenoids (14.83%) and sesquiternoids (16...
April 2015: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25617761/organic-impurity-profiling-of-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-synthesised-from-catechol
#18
Erin Heather, Ronald Shimmon, Andrew M McDonagh
This work examines the organic impurity profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that has been synthesised from catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), a common chemical reagent available in industrial quantities. The synthesis of MDMA from catechol proceeded via the common MDMA precursor safrole. Methylenation of catechol yielded 1,3-benzodioxole, which was brominated and then reacted with magnesium allyl bromide to form safrole. Eight organic impurities were identified in the synthetic safrole. Safrole was then converted to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using two synthetic methods: Wacker oxidation (Route 1) and an isomerisation/peracid oxidation/acid dehydration method (Route 2)...
March 2015: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25608855/contact-toxicity-and-repellency-of-the-essential-oil-of-liriope-muscari-decn-bailey-against-three-insect-tobacco-storage-pests
#19
Yan Wu, Wen-Juan Zhang, Ping-Juan Wang, Kai Yang, Dong-Ye Huang, Jian-Yu Wei, Zhao-Fu Tian, Jia-Feng Bai, Shu-Shan Du
In order to find and develop new botanical pesticides against tobacco storage pests, bioactivity screening was performed. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Liriope muscari was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. A total of 14 components representing 96.12% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be methyl eugenol (42.15%) and safrole (17.15%), followed by myristicin (14.18%) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.60%). After screening, the essential oil exhibit potential insecticidal activity...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25361439/in-vivo-genotoxicity-of-estragole-in-male-f344-rats
#20
Wei Ding, Dan D Levy, Michelle E Bishop, Mason G Pearce, Kelly J Davis, Alan M Jeffrey, Jian-Dong Duan, Gary M Williams, Gene A White, Lascelles E Lyn-Cook, Mugimane G Manjanatha
Estragole, a naturally occurring constituent of various herbs and spices, is a rodent liver carcinogen which requires bio-activation. To further understand the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, genotoxicity was assessed in F344 rats using the comet, micronucleus (MN), and DNA adduct assays together with histopathological analysis. Oxidative damage was measured using human 8-oxoguanine-DNA-N-glycosylase (hOGG1) and EndonucleaseIII (EndoIII)-modified comet assays. Results with estragole were compared with the structurally related genotoxic carcinogen, safrole...
May 2015: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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