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Adaptive ketosis

Fabrizio Ceciliani, Cristina Lecchi, Christiane Urh, Helga Sauerwein
The transition from late pregnancy to early lactation is a critical period in a dairy cow's life due to the rapidly increasing drain of nutrients from the maternal organism towards the foetus and into colostrum and milk. In order to cope with the challenges of parturition and lactation, comprehensive adaptive reactions comprising the endocrine and the immune system need to be accomplished. There is high variation in this coping ability and both metabolic and infectious diseases, summarized as "production diseases", such as hypocalcaemia (milk fever), fatty liver syndrome, laminitis and ketosis, may occur and impact welfare, productive lifespan and economic outcomes...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Nicholas Douris, Bhavna N Desai, Ffolliott M Fisher, Theodore Cisu, Alan J Fowler, Eleen Zarebidaki, Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Donald A Morgan, Timothy J Bartness, Kamal Rahmouni, Jeffrey S Flier, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier
OBJECTIVE: We have previously shown that the consumption of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) by mice leads to a distinct physiologic state associated with weight loss, increased metabolic rate, and improved insulin sensitivity [1]. Furthermore, we identified fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) as a necessary mediator of the changes, as mice lacking FGF21 fed KD gain rather than lose weight [2]. FGF21 activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) [3], which is a key regulator of metabolic rate...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
J H van der Kolk, J J Gross, V Gerber, R M Bruckmaier
In mammals, excess energy is stored primarily as triglycerides, which are mobilized when energy demands arise and cannot be covered by feed intake. This review mainly focuses on the role of long chain fatty acids in disturbed energy metabolism of the bovine species. Long chain fatty acids regulate energy metabolism as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. β-Oxidation is the process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the mitochondria or peroxisomes to generate acetyl-CoA. Carnitine acts as a carrier of fatty acyl groups as long-chain acyl-CoA derivatives do not penetrate the mitochondrial inner membrane...
July 17, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
Othmar Moser, Gerhard Tschakert, Alexander Mueller, Werner Groeschl, Thomas R Pieber, Gerd Koehler, Max L Eckstein, Richard M Bracken, Peter Hofmann
BACKGROUND: Therapy must be adapted for people with type 1 diabetes to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia caused by increased exercise-related glucose uptake into muscles. Therefore, to avoid hypoglycemia, the preexercise short-acting insulin dose must be reduced for safety reasons. We report a case of a man with long-lasting type 1 diabetes in whom no blood glucose decrease during different types of exercise with varying exercise intensities and modes was found, despite physiological hormone responses...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Rennan de Oliveira Caminhotto, Ayumi Cristina Medeiros Komino, Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Sandra Andreotti, Rogério Antônio Laurato Sertié, Gabriela Boltes Reis, Fabio Bessa Lima
BACKGROUND: Ketosis can be induced in humans and in animals by fasting or dietary interventions, such as ketogenic diets. However, the increasing interest on the ketogenic state has motivated the development of alternative approaches to rapidly increase ketonemia using less drastic interventions. Here, it was tested whether oral intake of a β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) mineral salt mixture could increase ketonemia in Wistar rats without any other dietary changes, thereby being a useful model to study ketones effects alone on metabolism...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
Martina Crociati, Lakamy Sylla, Claudia Floridi, Antonella Comin, Gabriele Fruganti, Maurizio Monaci, Giuseppe Stradaioli
High-yielding dairy cows are metabolically challenged during transition, when intense mobilization and hepatic oxidation of lipids is achieved, thus leading to fatty infiltration, ketosis and generalized inflammation. The condition is associated to periparturient diseases and poor fertility. The aim of this study was to assess whether serum lipoprotein concentrations in the dry period could influence the occurrence of postpartum diseases and reproductive performance in dairy cows. The study was carried out on 30 multiparous Holstein Friesian cows...
May 2017: Theriogenology
Paul Urbain, Lena Strom, Lena Morawski, Anja Wehrle, Peter Deibert, Hartmut Bertz
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and adequate-protein diet that without limiting calories induces different metabolic adaptations, eg, increased levels of circulating ketone bodies and a shift to lipid metabolism. Our objective was to assess the impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted KD in healthy adults beyond cohorts of athletes on physical performance, body composition, and blood parameters. METHODS: Our single arm, before-and-after comparison study consisted of a 6-week KD with a previous preparation period including detailed instructions during classes and individual counselling by a dietitian...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
Svenia Schnyder, Kristoffer Svensson, Bettina Cardel, Christoph Handschin
Low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LCHF) diets are increasingly popular dietary interventions for body weight control and as treatment for different pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms of action are still poorly understood, in particular, in long-term administration. Besides liver, brain, and heart, skeletal muscle is one of the major organs involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological ketosis. We assessed the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle of male wild-type control and PGC-1α muscle-specific knockout mice upon 12 wk of LCHF diet feeding...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mark Evans, Karl E Cogan, Brendan Egan
Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Philippe J M Pinckaers, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, David Bailey, Luc J C van Loon
Elite athletes and coaches are in a constant search for training methods and nutritional strategies to support training and recovery efforts that may ultimately maximize athletes' performance. Recently, there has been a re-emerging interest in the role of ketone bodies in exercise metabolism, with considerable media speculation about ketone body supplements being routinely used by professional cyclists. Ketone bodies can serve as an important energy substrate under certain conditions, such as starvation, and can modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
B Mair, M Drillich, D Klein-Jöbstl, P Kanz, S Borchardt, L Meyer, I Schwendenwein, M Iwersen
BACKGROUND: Dairy cows have a massive demand for glucose at the onset of lactation. A poor adaption to this period leads to an excessive negative energy balance with an increased risk for ketosis and impaired animal health and production. Besides the measurement of ketones, analysing the glucose concentration in blood is reported as helpful instrument for diagnosis and differentiation of ketosis. Monitoring metabolic parameters requires multiple blood sampling. In other species, new blood sampling techniques have been introduced in which small amounts of blood are rapidly analysed using electronic hand-held devices...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
N Gengler, H Soyeurt, F Dehareng, C Bastin, F Colinet, H Hammami, M-L Vanrobays, A Lainé, S Vanderick, C Grelet, A Vanlierde, E Froidmont, P Dardenne
The challenge of managing and breeding dairy cows is permanently adapting to changing production circumstances under socio-economic constraints. If managing and breeding address different timeframes of action, both need relevant phenotypes that allow for precise monitoring of the status of the cows, and their health, behavior, and well-being as well as their environmental impact and the quality of their products (i.e., milk and subsequently dairy products). Milk composition has been identified as an important source of information because it could reflect, at least partially, all these elements...
May 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Heather M White
The transition to lactation period in dairy cattle is characterized by metabolic challenges, negative energy balance, and adipose tissue mobilization. Metabolism of mobilized adipose tissue is part of the adaptive response to negative energy balance in dairy cattle; however, the capacity of the liver to completely oxidize nonesterified fatty acids may be limited and is reflective of oxaloacetate pool, the carbon carrier of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Alternative metabolic fates of acetyl-CoA from nonesterified fatty acids include esterification to triacylglycerides and ketogenesis, and when excessive, these pathways lead to fatty liver and ketosis...
2015: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
M Piechotta, W Mysegades, U Ligges, J Lilienthal, A Hoeflich, A Miyamoto, H Bollwein
A study involving a small number of cows found that the concentrations of insulin-like growth hormone 1 (IGF1) may be a useful predictor of metabolic disease. Further, IGF1 may provide also a pathophysiological link to metabolic diseases such as ketosis. The objective of the current study was to test whether the low antepartal total IGF1 or IGF1 binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations might predict ketosis under field conditions. Clinical examinations and blood sampling were performed antepartum (262-270 d after artificial insemination) on 377 pluriparous pregnant Holstein Friesian cows...
May 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Rocco C Cipriano, McKenzie L Smith, Kathleen A Vermeersch, Alistair D M Dove, Mark P Styczynski
Atlantic salmon Salmo salar undergo months-long inappetence during spawning, but it is not known whether this inappetence is a pathological state or one for which the fish are adapted. Recent work has shown that inappetent whale sharks can exhibit circulating metabolite profiles similar to ketosis known to occur in humans during starvation. In this work, metabolite profiling was used to explore differences in analyte profiles between a cohort of inappetent spawning run Atlantic salmon and captively reared animals that were fed up to and through the time of sampling...
March 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Helena Krakowczyk, Edyta Machura, Malgorzata Rusek-Zychma, Ewelina Chrobak, Katarzyna Ziora
INTRODUCTION: Ketosis in children may result from physiological adaptation to situations like fasting, fat-rich diet, straining physical activity, as well as from serious endocrine or metabolic disorders. The most frequently diagnosed cause of ketoacidosis are states of acetonemia and acetonuria with vomiting, during airways infections. GOAL: Assessment of the natural history and clinical presentation of acetonemic vomiting in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 85 children from 18 months to 12 years of age with acetonemic vomiting were incorporated in this study...
2014: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Jeff S Volek, Timothy Noakes, Stephen D Phinney
A key element contributing to deteriorating exercise capacity during physically demanding sport appears to be reduced carbohydrate availability coupled with an inability to effectively utilize alternative lipid fuel sources. Paradoxically, cognitive and physical decline associated with glycogen depletion occurs in the presence of an over-abundance of fuel stored as body fat that the athlete is apparently unable to access effectively. Current fuelling tactics that emphasize high-carbohydrate intakes before and during exercise inhibit fat utilization...
2015: European Journal of Sport Science
Alexis Chenouard, Sandrine Vuillaumier-Barrot, Nathalie Seta, Alice Kuster
GLUT-1-deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS; OMIM 606777) is a treatable metabolic disorder caused by a mutation of SLC2A1 gene. The functional deficiency of the GLUT1 protein leads to an impaired glucose transport into the brain, resulting in neurologic disorders.We report on a 6-month-old boy with preprandial malaises who was treated monthly by a sorcerer because of a permanent acetonemic odor. He subsequently developed pharmaco-resistant seizures with microcephaly and motor abnormalities. Metabolic explorations were unremarkable except for a fasting glucose test which revealed an abnormal increase of blood ketone bodies...
2015: JIMD Reports
Gözde Gökçe Isbir, Samiye Mete
PURPOSE: This qualitative study aimed to explore how Turkish women experience nausea and vomiting in pregnancy based on the Roy Adaptation Model. METHODS: To collect data, in-depth interviews were undertaken with 35 pregnant women who had nausea and vomiting. The sample of the study included pregnant women who were in their first 12 weeks of gestation, did not have medical problems and had nausea, retching and/or vomiting for at least the last 3 days. Data were collected in semi-structured interview form based on the Roy Adaptation Model and with a background data sheet...
December 2013: Asian Nursing Research
A Abuelo, J Hernández, J L Benedito, C Castillo
The number of organically managed cattle (OMC) within the European Union has increased tremendously in the last decade. However, there are still some concerns about animals under this farming system meeting their dietary requirements for milk production. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic adaptations to the onset of lactation in three different herds, one conventional and two organic ones. Twenty-two conventionally managed cattle (CMC) and 20 from each organic farm were sampled throughout the periparturient period...
September 2014: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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