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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467819/real-time-imaging-reveals-that-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenase-promotes-cellulase-activity-by-increasing-cellulose-accessibility
#1
Bo Song, Bingyao Li, Xiaoyan Wang, Wei Shen, Sungjin Park, Cynthia Collings, Anran Feng, Steve J Smith, Jonathan D Walton, Shi-You Ding
Background: The high cost of enzymes is one of the key technical barriers that must be overcome to realize the economical production of biofuels and biomaterials from biomass. Supplementation of enzyme cocktails with lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) can increase the efficiency of these cellulase mixtures for biomass conversion. The previous studies have revealed that LPMOs cleave polysaccharide chains by oxidization of the C1 and/or C4 carbons of the monomeric units. However, how LPMOs enhance enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose is still poorly understood...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461972/diet-enriched-with-fresh-coconut-decreases-blood-glucose-levels-and-body-weight-in-normal-adults
#2
Venugopal Vijayakumar, Nagashree R Shankar, Ramesh Mavathur, A Mooventhan, Sood Anju, N K Manjunath
Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459233/qualitative-and-quantitative-control-of-pediatric-syrups-using-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-and-chemometrics
#3
Elenilson G Alves Filho, Lorena Mara A Silva, Nathália V P Araújo, Elenilson G Alves, Luciano M Lião, Glaucia B Alcantara
Several flavoring and sweetening agents added to excipient of pediatric syrups are not declared in the package leaflet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a non-target, simple, and precise method for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of pediatric syrups using NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. This approach allowed the identification of several added compounds as citric acid, cyclamate, ethanol, glycerol, propylene glycol, saccharin, sorbitol, fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Among the sugared syrups, sucrose was the main carbohydrate with approximately 59...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458053/circulating-bile-acids-in-healthy-adults-respond-differently-to-a-dietary-pattern-characterized-by-whole-grains-legumes-and-fruits-and-vegetables-compared-to-a-diet-high-in-refined-grains-and-added-sugars-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-feeding-study
#4
Bigina N R Ginos, Sandi L Navarro, Yvonne Schwarz, Haiwei Gu, Dongfang Wang, Timothy W Randolph, Ali Shojaie, Meredith A J Hullar, Paul D Lampe, Mario Kratz, Marian L Neuhouser, Daniel Raftery, Johanna W Lampe
OBJECTIVE: The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18-45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18...
February 16, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457512/perceived-diet-and-exercise-behaviors-among-social-network-members-with-personal-lifestyle-habits-of-public-housing-residents
#5
Kimberly A Gudzune, Jennifer Peyton, Craig Evan Pollack, J Hunter Young, David M Levine, Carl A Latkin, Jeanne M Clark
Our objective was to characterize the relationship between public housing residents' diet/exercise habits with similar behaviors among their social network. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected households in Baltimore, Maryland, from August 2014 to August 2015. Adult heads of household completed questions on diet, exercise, and perceived habits among network members. Our dependent variables were high added sugar intake (≥39.9 teaspoons/day), high fruit/vegetable intake (≥6.1 servings/day), and being physically active (≥moderately activity)...
February 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455998/cationic-xylan-2-methacryloyloxyethyl-trimethyl-ammonium-chloride-polymer-as-a-flocculant-for-pulping-wastewater
#6
Xiaoqian Chen, Chuanling Si, Pedram Fatehi
In this work, pulp mill wastewater was treated with a novel polymer flocculant, which was synthesized through polymerizing (2-methacryloyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) and xylan. Xylan-DMC polymer removed 94.5% of turbidity, 61.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 45.0% of lignin, 65.7% of sugar and 73.5% of biological oxygen demand (BOD) from the wastewater at the polymer concentration of 500 mg/L. The flocculation mechanism was fundamentally assessed with determining hydrodynamic size and chord length of flocs in the wastewater at different dosages of xylan-DMC polymer in the system...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455757/federal-nutrition-program-revisions-impact-low-income-households-food-purchases
#7
Shu Wen Ng, Bridget A Hollingsworth, Emily A Busey, Julie L Wandell, Donna R Miles, Jennifer M Poti
INTRODUCTION: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) required major revisions to food packages in 2009; effects on nationwide low-income household purchases remain unexamined. METHODS: This study examines associations between WIC revisions and nutritional profiles of packaged food purchases from 2008 to 2014 among 4,537 low-income households with preschoolers in the U.S. (WIC participating versus nonparticipating) utilizing Nielsen Homescan Consumer Panel data...
March 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445382/innovative-approaches-to-evaluate-sugar-beet-responses-to-changes-in-sulfate-availability
#8
Piergiorgio Stevanato, Chiara Broccanello, Vita M C Moliterni, Giuseppe Mandolino, Valeria Barone, Luigi Lucini, Giovanni Bertoldo, Marco Bertaggia, Massimo Cagnin, Diego Pizzeghello, Andrea Baglieri, Andrea Squartini, Giuseppe Concheri, Serenella Nardi
In this study, a system based on omics profiling was set-up for sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris ) evaluation after changes in sulfate availability. Seedlings were grown on sulfate-deprived Hoagland solution. Six days after germination, 100 μM MgSO 4 was added to the solution. Root samples were collected 36 h after treatments. WinRHIZO root-scanning approach was used for the automated image analysis of plant root morphology. Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF) were used for ionomic and metabolic analysis, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442652/catalytic-conversion-of-glycerol-to-lactic-acid-over-hydroxyapatite-supported-metallic-ni-0-nanoparticles
#9
Lang Qiu, Haixu Yin, Hengbo Yin, Aili Wang
Catalytic conversion of low-priced biomass glycerol to value-added lactic acid is an alternative route to the conventional fermentation process using sugar as the starting material. Nanosized hydroxyapatite-supported metallic Ni0 nanoparticles (Nix/HAP) prepared by the wetness chemical reduction method effectively catalyzed the conversion of high-concentrated glycerol (1.5-3 mol L-1) to lactic acid in a NaOH aqueous solution. The Nix/HAP catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity for glycerol conversion to lactic acid than the sole metallic Ni0 nanoparticles...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439472/snacking-patterns-in-children-a-comparison-between-australia-china-mexico-and-the-us
#10
Dantong Wang, Klazine van der Horst, Emma F Jacquier, Myriam C Afeiche, Alison L Eldridge
Snacking is common in children and influenced by many factors. The aim of this study is to provide insight of both common and country-specific characteristics of snacking among 4-13 year old children. We analyzed snacking prevalence, energy and nutrient contributions from snacking across diverse cultures and regions, represented by Australia, China, Mexico, and the US using data from respective national surveys. We found that the highest prevalence of snacking was in Australia and the US (over 95%) where snacking provided one-third and one-quarter of total energy intake (TEI), respectively, followed by Mexico (76%, provided 15% TEI) and China (65%, provided 10% TEI)...
February 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438850/secreted-protein-extract-analyses-present-the-plant-pathogen-alternaria-alternata-as-a-suitable-industrial-enzyme-toolbox
#11
L García-Calvo, R V Ullán, M Fernández-Aguado, A M García-Lino, R Balaña-Fouce, C Barreiro
Lignocellulosic plant biomass is the most abundant carbon source in the planet, which makes it a potential substrate for biorefinery. It consists of polysaccharides and other molecules with applications in pharmaceutical, food and feed, cosmetics, paper and textile industries. The exploitation of these resources requires the hydrolysis of the plant cell wall, which is a complex process. Aiming to discover novel fungal natural isolates with lignocellulolytic capacities, a screening for feruloyl esterase activity was performed in samples taken from different metal surfaces...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433787/fruits-and-vegetables-as-a-source-of-nutritional-compounds-and-phytochemicals-changes-in-bioactive-compounds-during-lactic-fermentation
#12
Axelle Septembre-Malaterre, Fabienne Remize, Patrick Poucheret
Nutritional recommendations emphasize fruit and vegetable consumption. This is related to health-benefits associated with bioactive nutritive molecules (nutrients, vitamins, minerals, fibers, …) as well as non-nutritive phytochemicals (phenolic compounds, flavonoids, bioactive peptides, …) content of these types of foods. Fermented fruit or vegetable products are part of various diets worldwide. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is common among the various fermentation processes used. It produces changes in both profile and types of bioactive compounds...
February 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433622/effect-of-nitrogen-sources-on-gene-expression-of-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni-under-in-vitro-conditions
#13
Fariba Akbari, Ali Arminian, Danial Kahrizi, Arash Fazeli, Matin Ghaheri
Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is a non-caloric sweetener belonging to Asteraceae family. Stevia compounds such as steviol glycosides (SGs) are 200 times sweeter than sugar. Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the two major steviol glycosides. Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development. In this study the effects of nitrogen influenced by different concentrations of NH4NO3 (0, 825 and 1650 mg/l) and KNO3 (0, 950 and 1900 mg/l) is examined in MS medium. To analysis the UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 genes expression, involved in the synthesis of SGs, RT-qPCR technique was performed...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433574/association-between-diet-quality-dietary-patterns-and-cardiometabolic-health-in-australian-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Katherine M Livingstone, Sarah A McNaughton
BACKGROUND: Diet quality indices score dietary intakes against recommendations, whereas dietary patterns consider the pattern and combination of dietary intakes. Studies evaluating both methodologies in relation to cardiometabolic health in a nationally representative sample are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between diet quality, dietary patterns and markers of cardiometabolic health in Australian adults. METHODS: Dietary data, using two 24-h dietary recalls, were collected from adults in the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011-2013 (n = 2121; 46...
February 12, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428757/short-communication-development-of-a-rapid-laboratory-method-to-polymerize-lactose-to-nondigestible-carbohydrates
#15
A F Kuechel, T C Schoenfuss
Nondigestible carbohydrates with a degree of polymerization between 3 and 10 (oligosaccharides) are commonly used as dietary fiber ingredients in the food industry, once they have been confirmed to have positive effects on human health by regulatory authorities. These carbohydrates are produced through chemical or enzymatic synthesis. Polylactose, a polymerization product of lactose and glucose, has been produced by reactive extrusion using a twin-screw extruder, with citric acid as the catalyst. Trials using powdered cheese whey permeate as the lactose source for this reaction were unsuccessful...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427692/eating-with-eyes-comparing-eye-movements-and-food-choices-between-overweight-and-lean-individuals-in-a-real-life-buffet-setting
#16
Eunice Wang, Yusuf O Cakmak, Mei Peng
Researchers have long sought to pinpoint factors underpinning individual differences in eating behaviour. Emerging data from eye-tracking studies have suggested that attentional biases to food exist among individuals and food types. However, such studies have thus far focussed primarily on food images and computerised tasks, limiting real-world implications. The present study tested 32 healthy male participants (16 being overweight) for attentional biases in an ad libitum buffet setting, using wearable eye-trackers...
February 7, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424386/the-effect-of-agaricus-brasiliensis-extract-supplementation-on-honey-bee-colonies
#17
Jevrosima Stevanovic, Zoran Stanimirovic, Predrag Simeunovic, Nada Lakic, Ivica Radovic, Marina Sokovic, Leo J L D VAN Griensven
This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day) irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy). Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day) added to syrup...
February 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416545/disentangling-the-effects-of-water-stress-on-carbon-acquisition-vegetative-growth-and-fruit-quality-of-peach-trees-by-means-of-the-qualitree-model
#18
Mitra Rahmati, José M Mirás-Avalos, Pierre Valsesia, Françoise Lescourret, Michel Génard, Gholam H Davarynejad, Mohammad Bannayan, Majid Azizi, Gilles Vercambre
Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415484/effects-of-interactions-between-zno-nanoparticles-and-saccharides-on-biological-responses
#19
Mi-Ran Go, Jin Yu, Song-Hwa Bae, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Soo-Jin Choi
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used as a Zn supplement, because Zn plays a role in many cellular and immune functions but public concern about their potentially undesirable effects on the human body is growing. When NPs are added in food matrices, interactions between NPs and food components occur, which can affect biological systems. In this study, interactions between ZnO NPs and saccharides were investigated by measuring changes in hydrodynamic radius, zeta potential and solubility and by quantifying amounts of adsorbed saccharides on NPs; acacia honey, sugar mixtures (containing equivalent amounts of fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose) and monosaccharide solutions were used as model compounds...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414174/valorisation-of-food-and-beverage-waste-via-saccharification-for-sugars-recovery
#20
Tsz Him Kwan, Khai Lun Ong, Md Ariful Haque, Wing Hei Kwan, Sandeep Kulkarni, Carol Sze Ki Lin
Valorisation of mixed food and beverage (F&B) waste was studied for the recovery of sugars via saccharification. Glucoamylase and sucrase were employed to hydrolyse the starch and sucrose present in the mixed F&B waste because of the high cost-effectiveness for such recovery. The Michaelis-Menten kinetics model suggests that preservatives and additives in beverages did not inhibit glucoamylase and sucrase during saccharification. High levels of glucose (228.1 g L-1) and fructose (55.7 g L-1) were efficiently produced within 12 h at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 37...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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