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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222904/dietary-patterns-change-over-two-years-in-early-adolescent-girls-in-hawai-i
#1
Michelle Ann Mosley, Jinan C Banna, Eunjung Lim, Marie Kainoa Fialkowski, Rachel Novotny
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In investigating diet-disease relationships, examination of dietary patterns allows for conclusions to be drawn based on overall intake. This study characterized dietary patterns of early adolescent girls over a two-year period and examined the relationship between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using longitudinal data from food records of early adolescent girls (n=148) 9 to 14 years in Hawai'i from the Female Adolescent Maturation (FAM) study...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222880/consumption-and-sources-of-added-sugar-in-indonesia-a-review
#2
Atmarita, Nelis Imanningsih, Abas B Jahari, Ir Dewi Permaesih, Pauline Chan, Maria Sofia Amarra
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present report summarized the best available evidence regarding consumption level and sources of free or added sugars in Indonesia. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys, published studies, unpublished theses/ dissertations, and government reports. RESULTS: A total of 18 references were obtained, showing varying results. Indonesia's national surveys suggested intakes of sugar below 50 grams per day or below 10% of energy intake...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215310/apolipoprotein-e4-mediates-insulin-resistance-associated-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-and-the-post-prandial-response
#3
Lance A Johnson, Eileen Ruth Torres, Sydney Weber Boutros, Esha Patel, Tunde Akinyeke, Nabil J Alkayed, Jacob Raber
Metabolic dysfunction, commonly a result of diets high in saturated fats and sugar, is associated with impaired cognitive function and an increased risk of age-related cognitive decline (ACD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compared to the E3 isoform of apolipoprotein (apoE), the E4 isoform is a major genetic risk factor for ACD, AD, and for developing cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges, including dietary challenges such as a high-fat diet (HFD). Both insulin resistance (IR) and E4 are associated with metabolic and vascular impairments...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212827/diet-quality-is-associated-with-disability-and-symptom-severity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Kathryn C Fitzgerald, Tuula Tyry, Amber Salter, Stacey S Cofield, Gary Cutter, Robert Fox, Ruth Ann Marrie
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between diet quality and intake of specific foods with disability and symptom severity in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In 2015, participants in the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) Registry completed a dietary screener questionnaire that estimates intake of fruits, vegetables and legumes, whole grains, added sugars, and red/processed meats. We constructed an overall diet quality score for each individual based on these food groups; higher scores denoted a healthier diet...
December 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210609/dietary-intakes-of-six-intense-sweeteners-by-irish-adults
#5
Maria Buffini, Séverine Goscinny, Ir Joris Van Loco, Anne P Nugent, Janette Walton, Albert Flynn, Michael J Gibney, Breige A McNulty
This research investigated the intakes of six intense sweeteners; acesulfame-K (E950), aspartame (E951), cyclamate (E952), saccharin (E954), sucralose (E955) and steviol glycosides (E960) in the diets of Irish adults, using data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). A food label survey which included products currently available on the Irish market supplemented the analysis. Sweetener intakes were investigated using three different exposure scenarios; beginning with a crude assessment which assumed that all foods permitted to contain the additives of interest always did contain them, and at their maximum permitted level (Tier 1)...
December 6, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210453/a-combined-approach-of-infrared-spectroscopy-and-multivariate-analysis-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-sugars-and-fructans-in-strawberry-juices-during-storage
#6
Lucía Cassani, Mauricio Santos, Esteban Gerbino, María Del Rosario Moreira, Andrea Gómez-Zavaglia
In this work, a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based method was developed for simultaneously quantifying simple sugars and exogenously added fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in strawberry juices preserved for up to 14 d using nonthermal techniques (geraniol and vanillin+ultrasound). The main spectral differences were observed in the 1200 to 900 cm-1 region. The presence of FOS was identified by the typical bands at 1134, 1034, and 935 cm-1 . During storage, a significant decrease of sucrose was concomitant to an increase of glucose and fructose in juices stored without any previous preservation treatment, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197181/investigating-the-strategies-for-microbial-production-of-trehalose-from-lignocellulosic-sugars
#7
Yifei Wu, Jian Wang, Xiaolin Shen, Jia Wang, Zhenya Chen, Xinxiao Sun, Qipeng Yuan, Yajun Yan
Trehalose, a multi-functional and value-added disaccharide, can be efficiently biosynthesized from glucose by using a synergetic carbon utilization mechanism (SynCar) which coupled phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) generation from the second carbon source with PEP-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) to promote non-catabolic use of glucose. Considering glucose and xylose present in large amounts in lignocellulosic sugars, we explored new strategies for conversion of both sugars into trehalose. Herein, we first attempted trehalose production from xylose directly, based on which, synergetic utilization of glucose and xylose prompted by SynCar was implemented in engineered E...
December 2, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194440/attacking-the-mosquito-on-multiple-fronts-insights-from-the-vector-control-optimization-model-vcom-for-malaria-elimination
#8
Samson S Kiware, Nakul Chitnis, Allison Tatarsky, Sean Wu, Héctor Manuel Sánchez Castellanos, Roly Gosling, David Smith, John M Marshall
BACKGROUND: Despite great achievements by insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in reducing malaria transmission, it is unlikely these tools will be sufficient to eliminate malaria transmission on their own in many settings today. Fortunately, field experiments indicate that there are many promising vector control interventions that can be used to complement ITNs and/or IRS by targeting a wide range of biological and environmental mosquito resources. The majority of these experiments were performed to test a single vector control intervention in isolation; however, there is growing evidence and consensus that effective vector control with the goal of malaria elimination will require a combination of interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194425/contribution-of-discretionary-foods-and-drinks-to-australian-children-s-intake-of-energy-saturated-fat-added-sugars-and-salt
#9
Brittany J Johnson, Lucinda K Bell, Dorota Zarnowiecki, Anna M Rangan, Rebecca K Golley
Interventions are required to reduce children's consumption of discretionary foods and drinks. To intervene we need to identify appropriate discretionary choice targets. This study aimed to determine the main discretionary choice contributors to energy and key nutrient intakes in children aged 2-18 years. Secondary analyses were performed with population weighted, single 24 h dietary recall data from the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Cakes, muffins, and slices; sweet biscuits; potato crisps and similar snacks; and, processed meats and sugar-sweetened drinks were relatively commonly consumed and were within the top three to five contributors to per capita energy, saturated fat, sodium, and/or added sugars...
December 1, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191195/maternal-dietary-free-or-bound-fructose-diversely-influence-developmental-programming-of-lipogenesis
#10
Armagan Aytug Yuruk, Reyhan Nergiz-Unal
BACKGROUND: Maternal dietary choices throughout preconception, pregnancy, and lactation irreversibly affect the development of fetal tissues and organs, known as fetal programming. Recommendations tend to emphasize reducing added sugars. However, the impact of maternal dietary free or bound fructose in added sugars on developmental programming of lipogenesis is unknown. METHODS: Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats were given feed and plain water (control) or water containing maltodextrin (vehicle), fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) containing 55% fructose, sucrose (20% w/v) for 12 weeks before mating and throughout the pregnancy and lactation periods...
December 1, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188817/dietary-sugar-intake-was-associated-with-increased-body-fatness-but-decreased-cardiovascular-mortality-in-chinese-elderly-an-11-year-prospective-study-of-mr-and-ms-os-hong-kong
#11
Z-M Liu, S L A Tse, D Chan, C Wong, Sy-S Wong
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies suggest that sugar intake contributes to weight gain and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, this association is largely undefined in the elderly population. Our aim was to investigate the effect of sugar consumption on the subsequent changes in body fatness and CVD mortality in Chinese elderly. METHODS: A total of 2000 men and 2000 women aged ⩾65 years were recruited from 2001 to 2003. Dietary sugar intake was estimated based on a validated 329-item food frequency questionnaire and a local sugar database...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186927/estimating-free-and-added-sugar-intakes-in-new-zealand
#12
Rachael Kibblewhite, Alice Nettleton, Rachael McLean, Jillian Haszard, Elizabeth Fleming, Devonia Kruimer, Lisa Te Morenga
The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars...
November 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186059/effect-of-gamma-oryzanol-as-therapeutic-agent-to-prevent-cardiorenal-metabolic-syndrome-in-animals-submitted-to-high-sugar-fat-diet
#13
Fabiane Valentini Francisqueti, Igor Otávio Minatel, Artur Junio Togneri Ferron, Silméia Garcia Zanati Bazan, Vanessa Dos Santos Silva, Jéssica Leite Garcia, Dijon Henrique Salomé de Campos, Ana Lúcia Ferreira, Fernando Moreto, Antonio Carlos Cicogna, Camila Renata Corrêa
BACKGROUND: The high consumption of fat and sugar contributes to the development of obesity and co-morbidities, such as diabetes, and cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Different strategies have been used to prevent these diseases associated with obesity, such as changes in eating habits and/or the addition of dietary components with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, such as gamma-oryzanol (γOz) present mainly in bran layers and rice germ. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into four experimental groups and fed ad libitum for 20 weeks with control diet (C, n = 8), control diet + γOz (C + γOz, n = 8), high-sugar and high-fat diet (HSF, n = 8), and high-sugar and high-fat diet + γOz (HSF + γOz, n = 8)...
November 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183414/effects-of-soluble-fiber-inclusion-in-gestation-diets-with-varying-fermentation-characteristics-on-lactational-feed-intake-of-sows-over-two-successive-parities
#14
C Q Tan, H Q Sun, H K Wei, J J Tan, G Long, S W Jiang, J Peng
The effects of soluble fiber inclusion in gestation diets with varying fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)-profile) on lactational feed intake of sows and their piglet growth over two parities were investigated using an in vitro-in vivo methodology. After breeding, 90 multiparous Landrace sows were randomized to one of three experimental diets: the control (CON) diet, konjac flour (KF) diet or sugar beet pulp (SBP) diet. All diets had similar levels of net energy, CP, insoluble fiber and NDF, but KF and SBP diets had higher soluble fiber levels than the CON diet...
November 29, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181456/a-review-of-excessive-sugar-metabolism-on-oral-and-general-health
#15
Kai Foo Chow
Stomatologists and dental practitioners, as they are called in different parts of the world according to tradition and history, are basically physicians who specialise in the study and treatment of diseases of the mouth and surrounding structures. They have always been outstanding in advocating the reduction of sugar consumption, mainly due to its direct connection to the pathogenesis of dental caries. Increasingly, it has come to the attention of researchers, epidemiologists and many healthcare workers and professionals that excessive consumption of sugar is also closely tied to the increase in tandem of our current major health issues like obesity, diabetes, heart, liver and kidney disease, and a host of other associated ailments...
2017: Chinese Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178399/cascade-production-of-lactic-acid-from-universal-types-of-sugars-catalyzed-by-lanthanum-triflate
#16
Dajiang Liu, Kwang Ho Kim, Jian Sun, Blake Simmons, Seema Singh
Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to value-added platform chemicals in the non-toxic, water-tolerant Lewis acid, and water solutions bears the hallmark of green chemistry. Lactic acid derived from biomass is an important chemical building block for biodegradable polymers such as polylactide. Herein, a universal method of converting lignocellulosic sugars to lactic acid using catalytic amount of water-stable Lewis acid La(OTf)3 is demonstrated. The lignocellulosic sugars studied in this work include 1) pyrolytic sugars from pyrolysis oil, and 2) sugars derived from ionic liquid (IL)-pretreated biomass...
November 27, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175660/chemo-enzymatic-synthesis-of-the-glucagon-containing-n-linked-oligosaccharide-and-its-characterization
#17
Takayuki Higashiyama, Midori Umekawa, Masaya Nagao, Toshihiko Katoh, Hisashi Ashida, Kenji Yamamoto
The chemo-enzymatic synthesis of an artificially N-glycosylated derivative of glucagon, a peptide hormone that regulates the blood sugar level, is described. We synthesized the glycosylated glucagon by chemical synthesis of an N-acetylglucosaminyl peptide and enzymatic transfer of an oligosaccharide using the transglycosylation activity of the glycosynthase-like mutant of Mucor hiemalis endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Endo-M) and sialo-oligosaccharide oxazoline as a donor substrate. The sialo-oligosaccharide-attached glucagon synthesized showed high resistance against protease degradation and stimulated the release of glucose from mouse hepatocytes when added to cells...
November 13, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174897/improving-the-methane-yield-of-maize-straw-focus-on-the-effects-of-pretreatment-with-fungi-and-their-secreted-enzymes-combined-with-sodium-hydroxide
#18
Xiaoling Zhao, Kai Luo, Yue Zhang, Zehui Zheng, Yafan Cai, Boting Wen, Zongjun Cui, Xiaofen Wang
In order to improve the methane yield, the alkaline and biological pretreatments on anaerobic digestion (AD) were investigated. Three treatments were tested: NaOH, biological (enzyme and fungi), and combined NaOH with biological. The maximum reducing sugar concentrations were obtained using Enzyme T (2.20 mg/mL) on the 6th day. The methane yield of NaOH + Enzyme A was 300.85 mL/g TS, 20.24% higher than the control. Methane yield obtained from Enzyme (T + A) and Enzyme T pretreatments were 277...
October 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173348/use-of-added-sugars-instead-of-total-sugars-may-improve-the-capacity-of-the-health-star-rating-system-to-discriminate-between-core-and-discretionary-foods
#19
Hannah Menday, Bruce Neal, Jason H Y Wu, Michelle Crino, Surinder Baines, Kristina S Petersen
BACKGROUND: The Australian Government has introduced a voluntary front-of-package labeling system that includes total sugar in the calculation. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the effect of substituting added sugars for total sugars when calculating Health Star Ratings (HSR) and identify whether use of added sugars improves the capacity to distinguish between core and discretionary food products. DESIGN: This study included packaged food and beverage products available in Australian supermarkets (n=3,610)...
December 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169860/maize-cob-waste-pre-treatments-to-enhance-biogas-production-through-co-anaerobic-digestion-with-ofmsw
#20
Elena Surra, Maria Bernardo, Nuno Lapa, Isabel Esteves, Isabel Fonseca, José Paulo Mota
In the present work, the enhancement of biogas and methane yields through anaerobic co-digestion of the pre-hydrolised Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes (hOFMSW) and Maize Cob Wastes (MCW) in a lab-scale thermophilic anaerobic reactor was tested. In order to increase its biodegradability, MCW were submitted to an initial pre-treatment screening phase as follows: (i) microwave (MW) irradiation catalysed by NaOH, (ii) MW catalysed by glycerol in water and alkaline water solutions, (iii) MW catalysed by H2O2 with pH of 9...
November 20, 2017: Waste Management
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