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Graham Brookes, Farzad Taheripour, Wallace E Tyner
This study assesses the potential economic and environmental impacts that would arise if restrictions on glyphosate use resulted in the world no longer planting genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GM HT) crops. 'First round' impacts are the loss of farm level and aggregate impacts associated with the widespread use of GM HT crops (tolerant to glyphosate). There would be an annual loss of global farm income gains of $6.76 billion and lower levels of global soybean, corn and canola production equal to 18...
October 16, 2017: GM Crops & Food
E Panousi, D Mamais, C Noutsopoulos, K Mpertoli, C Kantzavelou, E Nyktari, I Kavallari, M Nasioka, A Kaldis
The objective of this work is to evaluate biological groundwater treatment systems that will achieve hexavalent chromium removal from groundwater at hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) groundwater concentrations in the 0 - 200 μg/L range under anoxic conditions. The effect of type of organic substrate added as feed to the groundwater treatment system (milk, sugar, cheese whey), the effect of different concentrations of COD added in the feed (100, 150, 200 mg/L) and the effect of different hydraulic residence time (1...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Technology
Alissa M Pries, Sandra L Huffman, Mary Champeny, Indu Adhikary, Margaret Benjamin, Aminata Ndeye Coly, El Hadji Issakha Diop, Khin Mengkheang, Ndèye Yaga Sy, Shrid Dhungel, Alison Feeley, Bineti Vitta, Elizabeth Zehner
The availability and consumption of commercially produced foods and beverages have increased across low-income and middle-income countries. This cross-sectional survey assessed consumption of commercially produced foods and beverages among children 6-23 months of age, and mothers' exposure to promotions for these products. Health facility-based interviews were conducted among 218 randomly sampled mothers utilizing child health services in Dakar, Senegal; 229 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 228 in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; and 222 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Joshua C Pol, Sebastian Ibarra Jimenez, Gerhard Gries
German cockroaches (GCRs), Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), are attracted to those beer semiochemicals (e.g., ethanol) that formerly living and active yeasts have produced or otherwise formed in the brewing process. We predicted that an earlier step in the production of beer, where yeasts actively metabolize the sugar in malted barley powder (dry malt extract [DME]), is very attractive to GCRs. In laboratory experiments, a 3-component composition (3CC) comprising DME, water, and Brewer's yeast strongly attracted GCR nymphs, females, and males...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Hannah M Eggink, Johanneke E Oosterman, Paul de Goede, Emmely M de Vries, Ewout Foppen, Martijn Koehorst, Albert K Groen, Anita Boelen, Johannes A Romijn, Susanne E la Fleur, Maarten R Soeters, Andries Kalsbeek
Desynchronization between the master clock in the brain, which is entrained by (day) light, and peripheral organ clocks, which are mainly entrained by food intake, may have negative effects on energy metabolism. Bile acid metabolism follows a clear day/night rhythm. We investigated whether in rats on a normal chow diet the daily rhythm of plasma bile acids and hepatic expression of bile acid metabolic genes is controlled by the light/dark cycle or the feeding/fasting rhythm. In addition, we investigated the effects of high caloric diets and time-restricted feeding on daily rhythms of plasma bile acids and hepatic genes involved in bile acid synthesis...
October 13, 2017: Chronobiology International
Zia-Ul Islam, Mathias Klein, Maximilian R Aßkamp, Anders S R Ødum, Elke Nevoigt
Compared to sugars, a major advantage of using glycerol as a feedstock for industrial bioprocesses is the fact that this molecule is more reduced than sugars. A compound whose biotechnological production might greatly profit from the substrate's higher reducing power is 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO). Here we present a novel metabolic engineering approach to produce 1,2-PDO from glycerol in S. cerevisiae. Apart from implementing the heterologous methylglyoxal (MG) pathway for 1,2-PDO formation from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and expressing a heterologous glycerol facilitator, the employed genetic modifications included the replacement of the native FAD-dependent glycerol catabolic pathway by the `DHA pathway´ for delivery of cytosolic NADH and the reduction of triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity for increased precursor (DHAP) supply...
October 9, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Maria Wichmann Mortensen, Camilla Spagner, Cătălina Cuparencu, Arne Astrup, Anne Raben, Lars Ove Dragsted
PURPOSE: Berries and mixed berry products exert acute effects on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia, but very few berries have been studied, and primarily in normal weight subjects. Sea buckthorn and strawberry are compositionally widely different berries and may likely produce different responses. The effects of strawberry and sea buckthorn on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia were examined in overweight or obese male subjects. Subjective appetite sensations and ad libitum intake were also examined...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
Peter Mirtschink, Cholsoon Jang, Zoltan Arany, Wilhelm Krek
Despite strong indications that increased consumption of added sugars correlates with greater risks of developing cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of the caloric intake, the worldwide sugar consumption remains high. In considering the negative health impact of overconsumption of dietary sugars, increased attention is recently being given to the role of the fructose component of high-sugar foods in driving CMS. The primary organs capable of metabolizing fructose include liver, small intestine, and kidneys...
September 7, 2017: European Heart Journal
Luana Silva Monteiro, Bruna Kulik Hassan, Camilla Chermont Prochnik Estima, Amanda de Moura Souza, Eliseu Verly, Rosely Sichieri, Rosangela Alves Pereira
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the variations in energy, nutrients, and food groups intake between days of the week and weekend days in the Brazilian population. METHODS: We used data from the first National Food Survey (2008-2009) of a one-day food log of a representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or older (n = 34,003). For the analyses, we considered the sample weights and the effect of the study design. The mean (and standard deviations) and frequencies (%) of energy, nutrients, and food groups consumption were estimated for weekdays (Monday to Friday) and weekend (Saturday and Sunday), we then estimated the differences according to the days of the week for the population strata analyzed...
October 5, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
Sun Hee Hong, Mijeong Kim, Minji Woo, Yeong Ok Song
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik, was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies...
October 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
Shogo Oki, Kazuki Iwashita, Masahiro Kimura, Hideaki Kano, Kentaro Shiraki
Co-aggregation plays an important role in processing protein-rich food materials under heterogeneous conditions. The main cause of co-aggregation is an electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged molecules. This study investigated thermal aggregation of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) (pI=5.1) and lysozyme (LYZ) (pI=10.7) as a model for the heterogeneous conditions of a protein solution. BLG and LYZ were more aggregated in the mixture than in the single solutions. Co-aggregation of the BLG-LYZ mixture was not observed below 60°C at which temperature BLG and LYZ retained their native structures...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Katherine Anundson, Susan B Sisson, Michael Anderson, Diane Horm, Jill Soto, Leah Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Young children should consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods to support growth, while limiting added fat and sugar. A majority of children between the ages of 3 and 5 years attend child care in the United States, which makes this environment and the child-care staff influential at meals. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the association between best-practice food-related behaviors and young children's tastes of fruit, vegetable, low-fat dairy, and high-fat/high-sugar foods at child care...
October 4, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Nicoletta A Miele, Erliza K Cabisidan, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Serena Leone, Paolo Masi, Rossella Di Monaco, Silvana Cavella
Sweeteners and flavors are generally added to yogurt to make them more palatable. However, the addition of these ingredients may affect the fermentation process of yogurt as well as its physical and sensory characteristics. Consumers prioritize yogurt products that are "natural." A modified single-chain form of the natural sweet protein monellin extracted from the fruit of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii, called MNEI, could be a useful alternative to artificial sweeteners. The aim of the present work was to evaluate new rapid sensory methods in combination with rheology to assess the viability of using MNEI to develop sweetened yogurts without the calories of sugar...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Michael W Beets, Keith Brazendale, R Glenn Weaver, Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy, Jennifer Huberty, Justin B Moore, M Mahmud Khan, Dianne S Ward
Limited information is available on the cost-effectiveness of interventions to achieve healthy eating and physical activity policies in afterschool programs (ASPs). The objective of this study is to present the costs associated with a comprehensive intervention in ASPs. Intervention delivery inputs (IDIs) associated with a group randomized delayed treatment controlled trial involving 20 ASPs serving >1700 children (5-12yrs) were catalogued prospectively across 2-years (2014-2015). IDIs, analyzed 2015, were expressed as increases in per-child per-week enrollment fees based on a 34-week school year in US$...
October 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
Ronit Machtinger, Audrey J Gaskins, Abdallah Mansur, Michal Adir, Catherine Racowsky, Andrea A Baccarelli, Russ Hauser, Jorge E Chavarro
OBJECTIVE: To study whether maternal intake of beverage type affects IVF outcomes. DESIGN: A prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary, university-affiliated center. PATIENT(S): Three hundred forty women undergoing IVF from 2014 through 2016 for infertility as well as for pregenetic diagnosis for autosomal recessive diseases were enrolled during ovarian stimulation and completed a questionnaire describing their usual beverage consumption...
October 3, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
Larissa Socrier, Marie Rosselin, Fanny Choteau, Grégory Durand, Sandrine Morandat
Free radical scavengers such as α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) have been widely used as protective agents in several biological models. We recently designed two PBN derivatives by adding a cholesterol moiety to the parent nitrone to increase its lipophilicity. In addition to the cholesterol, a sugar group was also grafted to enhance the hydrophilic properties at the same time. In the present work we report on the synthesis of a third derivative bearing only a cholesterol moiety and the physical chemical and antioxidant characterization of these three derivatives...
October 2, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Michele Michelin, Héctor A Ruiz, Maria de Lourdes T M Polizeli, José A Teixeira
This work presents an integrated and multi-step approach for the recovery and/or application of the lignocellulosic fractions from corncob in the production of high value added compounds as xylo-oligosaccharides, enzymes, fermentable sugars, and lignin in terms of biorefinery concept. For that, liquid hot water followed by enzymatic hydrolysis were used. Liquid hot water was performed using different residence times (10-50min) and holding temperature (180-200°C), corresponding to severities (log(R0)) of 3...
September 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Robert S Kern, Roberto Zarate, Shirley M Glynn, Luana R Turner, Kellie M Smith, Sharon S Mitchell, Catherine A Sugar, Morris D Bell, Robert P Liberman, Alex Kopelowicz, Michael F Green
Background: Heterogeneity in work outcomes is common among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). Objective: In 2 studies, we sought to examine the efficacy of adding errorless learning, a behavioral training intervention, to evidence-based supported employment to improve SMI work outcomes. Work behavior problems were targeted for intervention. We also explored associations between early work behavior and job tenure. Methods: For both studies (VA: n = 71; community mental health center: n = 91), randomization occurred at the time of job obtainment with participants randomized (1:1) to either errorless learning plus ongoing supported employment or ongoing supported employment alone and then followed for 12 months...
July 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Eleanor T Shonkoff, Genevieve F Dunton, Chih-Ping Chou, Adam M Leventhal, Ricky Bluthenthal, Mary Ann Pentz
OBJECTIVE: Research indicates that children are at higher risk for obesity if their parents have been exposed to a larger number of stressors, yet little is known about effects of parents' subjective, perceived experience of stress on children's eating behaviours and adiposity and whether weight-related parenting practices (i.e. parent rules and positive family meal practices) mediate this relationship. The present study evaluated the direct and mediated relationship between parent perceived stress and child waist circumference and parent stress and child consumption of added sugars one year later...
October 5, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Erica C Jansen, Alison L Miller, Julie C Lumeng, Niko Kaciroti, Holly E Brophy Herb, Mildred A Horodynski, Dawn Contreras, Karen E Peterson
BACKGROUND: High intake of added sugar and sodium is a public health concern for preschool-aged children living in the US. Externalizing behavior may predict higher consumption of added sugar and/or sodium; however, previous studies have mostly been cross-sectional. The aim was to evaluate whether externalizing behavior is prospectively related to added sugar and intake in a sex-specific manner among preschoolers. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of 524 preschool children (48% male) from Michigan who participated in an obesity prevention trial that occurred during one school year from 2011 to 2015...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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