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October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
Cheng K Fred Wen, Stephanie Hsieh, Jimi Huh, Lauren Cook Martinez, Jamie N Davis, Marc Weigensberg, Donna Spruijt-Metz
BACKGROUND: Dietary fiber and sugar intake have been shown to affect metabolic health in overweight Hispanic youth. Evidence on the influence of culture on fiber and sugar intake in Hispanic youth is limited. METHODS: The associations among score for levels of assimilation, neighborhood ethnic characteristics, and daily total and added dietary sugar and dietary fiber intake were assessed using regression analyses. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-four Hispanic youth (age = 13...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Christian Hernández, Anne-Marie Farnet Da Silva, Fabio Ziarelli, Isabelle Perraud-Gaime, Beatriz Gutiérrez-Rivera, José Antonio García-Pérez, Enrique Alarcón
The use of synthetic dyes for laccase induction in vivo has been scarcely explored. We characterized the effect of adding different synthetic dyes to liquid cultures of Pycnoporus sanguineus on laccase production. We found that carminic acid (CA) can induce 722 % and alizarin yellow 317 % more laccase than control does, and they promoted better fungal biomass development in liquid cultures. Aniline blue and crystal violet did not show such positive effect. CA and alizarin yellow were degraded up to 95 % during P...
October 14, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Giacomo M Lari, Olivier G Gröninger, Qiang Li, Cecilia Mondelli, Núria López, Javier Pérez-Ramírez
Sugar alcohols are applied in the food, pharmaceutical, polymer, and fuel industries and are commonly obtained by reduction of the corresponding saccharides. In view of the rarity of some sugar substrates, epimerization of a readily available monosaccharide has been proposed as a solution, but an efficient catalytic system has not yet been identified. Herein, a molybdenum heteropolyacid-based catalyst is developed to transform glucose, arabinose, and xylose into less-abundant mannose, ribose, and lyxose, respectively...
October 14, 2016: ChemSusChem
Smita S Kale, Krishnacharya G Akamanchi
Protein aggregation is a major problem of therapeutic proteins because aggregation decreases their therapeutic activity, shelf life and induces immunogenicity. Stabilization against aggregation is commonly attained by addition of different excipients like sugars, surfactants, buffers, salts, amino acids, polymers etc. Generally these excipients are required in combination for stabilization. Sugars are required at a higher concentration and commonly used surfactants like polysorbates have shortcomings due to oxidative degradation...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
H Moshtaghian, J C Y Louie, K E Charlton, Y C Probst, B Gopinath, P Mitchell, V M Flood
BACKGROUND: The trend of added sugar (AS) intake has not been investigated in the Australian population, including in older adults. The present study aimed to assess trends and food sources of AS intake among a cohort of older Australians during 15 years of follow-up. METHODS: Dietary data from participants of the Blue Mountains Eye Study (1264 men and 1614 women), aged ≥49 years at baseline, were collected. Dietary intakes were assessed at 5-yearly intervals (1992-94 to 2007-09) using a 145-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Michio Kimura
 The present study was conducted to establish pharmaceutical intervention guidelines to enable hospital pharmacists to provide optimal pharmacotherapy to cancer patients. Many patients who use oral anticancer agents showed favorable drug compliance but insufficient drug adherence. It was demonstrated that in order to improve drug adherence, it is important to conduct interventions tailored to the patients' conditions so as to encourage interest in their medications, as well as to gain their understanding on the necessity and the side effects of their medications...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Joseph L Baker, Heba Jafri
F4 fimbriae are protein filaments found in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli cells and are implicated in the process of bacterial infection due to their function as bacterial adhesins. These filaments are comprised from several proteins, but the bacterial adhesin FaeG, which is a lactose-binding protein, is the major subunit comprising F4 fimbriae. Crystal structures for three variants of the FaeG protein were recently solved, including the ad variant of FaeG that was crystallized in complex with lactose. However, the dynamics of the FaeG protein bound to lactose have not been explored previously using molecular dynamics simulations...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
P Marsik, M Sisa, O Lacina, K Motkova, L Langhansova, J Rezek, T Vanek
The uptake and metabolism of ibuprofen (IBU) by plants at the cellular level was investigated using a suspension culture of A. thaliana. Almost all IBU added to the medium (200 μM) was metabolized or bound to insoluble structures in 5 days. More than 300 metabolites were determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis, and most of these are first reported for plants here. Although hydroxylated derivatives formed by oxidation on the isobutyl side chain were the main first-step products of IBU degradation, conjugates of these products with sugar, methyl and amino acid groups were the dominant metabolites in the culture...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Maryam Noori, Bahar Jafari, Azita Hekmatdoost
BACKGROUND: The effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) on the risk factors of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) have been shown previously; however, its effects on NAFLD and its prevention has not yet been elucidated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PJ consumption on prevention of NAFLD/NASH development. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either high-fat, high sugar diet (model group), or high-fat, high sugar diet plus PJ (model+PJ), or chow diet ad libitum for seven weeks...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Michael E J Lean, Lisa Te Morenga
BACKGROUND: Consumption of sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, has been widely held responsible by the media for the global rise in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). SOURCES OF DATA: Systematic reviews and dietary guidelines relating dietary sugars to T2DM. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Weight gain and T2DM incidence are associated with diet and lifestyle patterns characterized by high consumptions of any sweetened beverages. High sugar intakes impair risk factors for macrovascular complications of T2DM...
October 5, 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Gabriel Masset, Kevin C Mathias, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Famke Mölenberg, Undine Lehmann, Mike Gibney, Adam Drewnowski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Approximately 20% of US children and adolescents consume pizza on any given day; and pizza intake is associated with higher intakes of energy, sodium, and saturated fat. The reformulation of pizza products has yet to be evaluated as a viable option to improve diets of the US youth. This study modeled the effect on nutrient intakes of two potential pizza reformulation strategies based on the standards established by the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS)...
2016: PloS One
Nayera E Hassan, Saneya Wahba, Inas R El-Alameey, Sahar A El-Masry, Mones M AbuShady, Enas R Abdel Hameed, Tarek S Ibrahim, Samia Boseila
BACKGROUND: Obesity and related morbidity increase in Egyptian women and their children. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns is needed to reduce obesity prevalence. AIM: The present study aimed to assess dietary patterns and physical activity in Egyptian overweight and obese mothers and to explore its relationships with their children's body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive case-control study was conducted at the National Research Center...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Carmen Piernas, Dantong Wang, Shufa Du, Bing Zhang, Zhihong Wang, Chang Su, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: China's nutrition transition is characterized by dramatic increases in overweight and cardiometabolic (CM) risk. The burden of obesity, CM risk factors and dietary intake among Chinese children were explored. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Children 7-12 y old from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey with available dietary intake data, anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were included (n=663). CM risk prevalence was calculated; logistic regression was used to investigate the association of nutrient intakes with CM risk, adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, area of residence and income...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yoshimasa Sagane, Minoru Ito, Keita Miyata, Tomonori Suzuki, Koichi Niwa, Suguru Oguri, Toshihiro Watanabe
Serotype C and D of Clostridium botulinum produce botulinum toxin complex (TC), which is comprised of botulinum neurotoxin, nontoxic nonhemagglutinin, and hemagglutinins (HAs). The TC is capable of aggregating equine erythrocytes via interaction between one of the HAs, namely HA-33, and sugar chains on the cell surface. This hemagglutination is inhibited by specific sugars. In this data article, we used four TCs from serotype C and D strains. The hemagglutination-inhibiting effects of 18 sugars and 8 glycoproteins were studied...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Kyungho Ha, Sangwon Chung, Hyojee Joung, YoonJu Song
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dietary sugar intake, particularly added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, has received worldwide attention recently. Investigation of dietary behaviors may facilitate understanding of dietary sugar intakes of children and adolescents. However, the relationship between dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in the Korean population has not been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to estimate dietary sugar intake and food sources according to sex as well as examine the relationship of dietary sugar intake with frequent snacking and dietary patterns among Korean children and adolescents...
October 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
Wenqin Bai, Yi-Shu Tai, Jingyu Wang, Jilong Wang, Pooja Jambunathan, Kevin J Fox, Kechun Zhang
Dicarboxylic acids are attractive biosynthetic targets due to their broad applications and their challenging manufacturing process from fossil fuel feedstock. Mesaconate is a branched, unsaturated dicarboxylic acid that can be used as a co-monomer to produce hydrogels and fire-retardant materials. In this study, we engineered nonphosphorylative metabolism to produce mesaconate from d-xylose and l-arabinose. This nonphosphorylative metabolism is orthogonal to the intrinsic pentose metabolism in Escherichia coli and has fewer enzymatic steps and a higher theoretical yield to TCA cycle intermediates than the pentose phosphate pathway...
September 30, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Woo Kyoung Kim, Dayeon Shin, Won O Song
Nutrition is one of the most important modifiable determinants for and consequences of both mental and physical heath. Depression has become an increasingly important public health issue. We tested whether dietary patterns derived from food group intake are associated with depression in U.S. adults in a cross-sectional study with national population. This study included 4180 men and 4196 women aged 20-79 years in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), with complete data of one 24-h dietary recall, sociodemographics, lifestyles, and Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ-9) for screening depression...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Kornsulee Ratanapariyanuch, Youn Young Shim, Martin J T Reaney
A consortium of organisms endemic in wheat-based thin stillage (W-TS) obtained from a commercial ethanol production converts glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) and lactic acid to acetic acid. We sought to improve conditions for 1,3-PD and acetic acid production to be used in future studies of industrial isolation of these compounds from two-stage fermentation. Occasionally stillage fermentation proceeded slowly but an inoculum of Lactobacillus panis PM1B augmented both fermentation rate and extent. Fermentation rate and product yield were enhanced by adjusting pH to 5 daily, adding glucose and glycerol (molar ratio 0...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
C Sambusiti, F Monlau, N Antoniou, A Zabaniotou, A Barakat
Pyrolysis is a sustainable pathway to transform renewable biomasses into both biofuels and advanced carbonaceous materials (i.e. pyrochar) which can be used as adsorbent of furan compounds. In particular, the aim of this study was to: i) evaluate the effect of vibro-ball milling on physical characteristics of pyrochar and its consequent performance on solely detoxification of a synthetic medium, containing furans and soluble sugars; ii) study the simultaneous detoxification and bioethanol fermentation, by adding activated pyrochar into fermentation medium...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
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