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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434166/antibody-uptake-assay-in-the-embryonic-zebrafish-forebrain-to-study-notch-signaling-dynamics-in-neural-progenitor-cells-in-vivo
#1
Kai Tong, Mahendra Wagle, Su Guo
Stem cells can generate cell fate heterogeneity through asymmetric cell division (ACD). ACD derives from the asymmetric segregation of fate-determining molecules and/or organelles in the dividing cell. Radial glia in the embryonic zebrafish forebrain are an excellent model for studying the molecular mechanisms regulating ACD of stem cells in vertebrates, especially for live imaging concerning in vivo molecular and cellular dynamics. Due to the current difficulty in expressing fluorescent reporter-tagged proteins at physiological levels in zebrafish for live imaging, we have developed an antibody uptake assay to label proteins in live embryonic zebrafish forebrain with high specificity...
April 23, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434074/adipose-derived-stem-cells-ameliorate-experimental-murine-colitis-via-tsp-1-dependent-activation-of-latent-tgf-%C3%AE
#2
Hiroshi Takeyama, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Mamoru Uemura, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Junichi Nishimura, Taishi Hata, Chu Matsuda, Ichiro Takemasa, Masakazu Ikenaga, Kohei Murata, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been investigated as therapeutic tools for a variety of autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of ASCs are not well understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism of regulatory T cell (Treg) induction in ASC therapy in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Acute colitis was induced in mice using dextran sulfate sodium and ASCs administered intraperitoneally...
April 22, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434038/emerging-potential-of-gene-silencing-approaches-targeting-anti-chondrogenic-factors-for-cell-based-cartilage-repair
#3
REVIEW
Andrea Lolli, Letizia Penolazzi, Roberto Narcisi, Gerjo J V M van Osch, Roberta Piva
The field of cartilage repair has exponentially been growing over the past decade. Here, we discuss the possibility to achieve satisfactory regeneration of articular cartilage by means of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) depleted of anti-chondrogenic factors and implanted in the site of injury. Different types of molecules including transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators, secreted proteins, and microRNAs have recently been identified as negative modulators of chondroprogenitor differentiation and chondrocyte function...
April 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434032/diabetes-bone-and-glucose-lowering-agents-basic-biology
#4
REVIEW
Beata Lecka-Czernik
Skeletal fragility often accompanies diabetes and does not appear to correlate with low bone mass or trauma severity in individuals with diabetes. Instead (and in contrast to those with osteoporotic bone disease), bone remodelling and bone turnover are compromised in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, contributing to defective bone material quality. This review is one of a pair discussing the relationship between diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents; an accompanying review is provided in this issue of Diabetologia by Ann Schwartz (DOI: 10...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434009/hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-neonates
#5
Wei Ling Amelia Lee, Adina T Michael-Titus, Divyen K Shah
This review aims to highlight a possible relationship between hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inflammatory reactions perpetuate a large proportion of cerebral injury. The extent of injury noted in HIE is not only determined by the biochemical cascades that trigger the apoptosis-necrosis continuum of cell death in the brain parenchyma, but also by the breaching of the BBB by pro-inflammatory factors. We examine the changes that contribute to the breakdown of the BBB that occur during HIE at a macroscopic, cellular, and molecular level...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433939/enhanced-proangiogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-stimulated-by-a-nitric-oxide-releasing-polymer
#6
Wei Du, Kaiyue Zhang, Shuaiqiang Zhang, Ran Wang, Yan Nie, Hongyan Tao, Zhibo Han, Lu Liang, Di Wang, Jianfeng Liu, Na Liu, Zhongchao Han, Deling Kong, Qiang Zhao, Zongjin Li
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes have been recognized as new candidates for the treatment of degenerative diseases or injury and may provide an alternative to cell-based therapy. However, the compositions in MSC-derived exosomes are highly influenced by the microenvironment in which their original cells reside. Here, we hypothesized that a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing polymer can boost the proangiogenic compositions of exosomes and enhance their proangiogenic capacity. Our results demonstrated that exosomes, released from human placenta-derived MSCs (hP-MSCs) by NO stimulation, augment the angiogenic effects of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro...
April 17, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433882/hypothyroidism-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#7
Michael Medinger, Deborah Zeiter, Dominik Heim, Jörg Halter, Sabine Gerull, André Tichelli, Jakob Passweg, Nicole Nigro
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism may complicate allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT); we therefore analyzed risk factors in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 229 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent an allo-HSCT between 2003 and 2013 with different conditioning regimens (myeloablative, reduced-intensity, chemotherapy-based, or total body irradiation-based). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine levels (fT4) were available in 104 patients before and after allo-HSCT...
April 13, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433822/programming-experience-promotes-higher-stem-motivation-among-first-grade-girls
#8
Allison Master, Sapna Cheryan, Adriana Moscatelli, Andrew N Meltzoff
The gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement is large and persistent. This gap is significantly larger in technological fields such as computer science and engineering than in math and science. Gender gaps begin early; young girls report less interest and self-efficacy in technology compared with boys in elementary school. In the current study (N=96), we assessed 6-year-old children's stereotypes about STEM fields and tested an intervention to develop girls' STEM motivation despite these stereotypes...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433789/macromolecular-crowding-for-tailoring-tissue-derived-fibrillated-matrices
#9
Valentina Magno, Jens Friedrichs, Heather M Weber, Marina C Prewitz, Mikhail V Tsurkan, Carsten Werner
Tissue-derived fibrillated matrices can be instrumental for the in vitro reconstitution of multiphasic extracellular microenvironments. However, despite of several advantages, the obtained scaffolds so far offer a rather narrow range of materials characteristics only. In this work, we demonstrate how macromolecular crowding (MMC) - the supplementation of matrix reconstitution media with synthetic or natural macromolecules in ways to create excluded volume effects (EVE) - can be employed for tailoring important structural and biophysical characteristics of kidney-derived fibrillated matrices...
April 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433772/mesenchymal-stem-cells-induce-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-colon-cancer-cells-through-direct-cell-to-cell-contact
#10
Hidehiko Takigawa, Yasuhiko Kitadai, Kei Shinagawa, Ryo Yuge, Yukihito Higashi, Shinji Tanaka, Wataru Yasui, Kazuaki Chayama
We previously reported that in an orthotopic nude mouse model of human colon cancer, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrated to the tumor stroma and promoted tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we evaluated the proliferation and migration ability of cancer cells cocultured with MSCs to elucidate the mechanism of interaction between cancer cells and MSCs. Proliferation and migration of cancer cells increased following direct coculture with MSCs but not following indirect coculture. Thus, we hypothesized that direct contact between cancer cells and MSCs was important...
April 20, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433739/dual-functional-drug-liposomes-in-treatment-of-resistant-cancers
#11
REVIEW
Li-Min Mu, Rui-Jun Ju, Rui Liu, Ying-Zi Bu, Jing-Ying Zhang, Xue-Qi Li, Fan Zeng, Wan-Liang Lu
Efficacy of regular chemotherapy is significantly hampered by multidrug resistance (MDR) and severe systemic toxicity. The reduced toxicity has been evidenced after administration of drug liposomes, consisting of the first generation of regular drug liposomes, the second generation of long-circulation drug liposomes, and the third generation of targeting drug liposomes. However, MDR of cancers remains as an unsolved issue. The objectives of this article are to review the dual-functional drug liposomes, which demonstrate the potential in overcoming MDR...
April 19, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433655/targeting-sarcoma-tumor-initiating-cells-through-differentiation-therapy
#12
Dan Han, Veronica Rodriguez-Bravo, Elizabeth Charytonowicz, Elizabeth Demicco, Josep Domingo-Domenech, Robert G Maki, Carlos Cordon-Cardo
Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) down-regulation has been reported in many human cancers to be associated with poor clinical outcome. However, its connection to tumor-initiating cells (TICs) remains unknown. In this study, we report that HLA-I is down-regulated in a subpopulation of cells that have high tumor initiating capacity in different types of human sarcomas. Detailed characterization revealed their distinct molecular profiles regarding proliferation, apoptosis and stemness programs. Notably, these TICs can be induced to differentiate along distinct mesenchymal lineages, including the osteogenic pathway...
April 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433654/high-molecular-weight-fgf2-isoforms-demonstrate-canonical-receptor-mediated-activity-and-support-human-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#13
Denis Kole, Alexandra Grella, David Dolivo, Lucia Shumaker, William Hermans, Tanja Dominko
Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006), and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011). A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18kDa low molecular weight (LMW) isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms (Arese et al...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433627/docosahexaenoic-acid-promotes-differentiation-of-photoreceptor-cells-in-three-dimensional-neural-retinas
#14
Eisuke Arai, Vipul M Parmar, Bhubanananda Sahu, Lindsay Perusek, Tanu Parmar, Akiko Maeda
Retinal tissues generated from human pluripotent stem cells can be an excellent tool for investigating pathogenesis of retinal diseases and developing new pharmacologic therapies. Moreover, patient derived retinal tissues could allow for retinal transplantation therapy for degenerative retinal diseases. However, obtaining retinal tissues with matured photoreceptor outer segments, which are essential for photoreceptor functions, is currently challenging. Here we investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for maturation of photoreceptor outer segments at the late stage and visual chromophore analog, 9-cis-retinal for the early stage of differentiation to three-dimensional (3D)-retinal tissues from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), respectively...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433559/the-kcnh2-ivs9-28a-g-mutation-causes-aberrant-isoform-expression-and-herg-trafficking-defect-in-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-patients-affected-by-long-qt-syndrome-type-2
#15
Manuela Mura, Ashish Mehta, Chrishan J Ramachandra, Rita Zappatore, Federica Pisano, Maria Chiara Ciuffreda, Vincenzo Barbaccia, Lia Crotti, Peter J Schwartz, Winston Shim, Massimiliano Gnecchi
BACKGROUND: Long QT Syndrome type 2 (LQT2) is caused by mutations in the KCNH2 gene that encodes for the α-subunit (hERG) of the ion channel conducting the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr). We have previously identified a disease causing mutation (IVS9-28A/G) in the branch point of the splicing of KCNH2 intron 9. However, the mechanism through which this mutation causes the disease is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from fibroblasts of two IVS9-28A/G mutation carriers...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433514/cox-2-inhibition-potentiates-mouse-bone-marrow-stem-cell-engraftment-and-differentiation-mediated-wound-repair
#16
Ramasatyaveni Geesala, Neha R Dhoke, Amitava Das
BACKGROUND: Engraftment of transplanted stem cells is often limited by cytokine and noncytokine proinflammatory mediators at the injury site. We examined the role of Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2)-induced cytokine-mediated inflammation on engraftment of transplanted bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) at the wound site. METHODS: BMSCs isolated from male C57/BL6J mice were transplanted onto excisional splinting wounds in syngenic females in presence or absence of celecoxib, Cox-2 specific inhibitor (50 mg/kg, body weight [b wt]), to evaluate engraftment and wound closure...
April 19, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433510/biomaterial-stiffness-determines-stem-cell-fate
#17
REVIEW
Hong Wei Lv, Heping Wang, Zhijun Zhang, Wang Yang, Wenbin Liu, Yulin Li, Lisha Li
Stem cells have potential to develop into numerous cell types, thus they are good cell source for tissue engineering. As an external physical signal, material stiffness is capable of regulating stem cell fate. Biomaterial stiffness is an important parameter in tissue engineering. We summarize main measurements of material stiffness under different condition, then list and compare three main methods of controlling stiffness (material amount, crosslinking density and photopolymeriztion time) which interplay with one another and correlate with stiffness positively, and current advances in effects of biomaterial stiffness on stem cell fate...
April 19, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433419/disconnect-between-alcohol-induced-alterations-in-chromatin-structure-and-gene-transcription-in-a-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-model-of-exposure
#18
Kylee J Veazey, Haiqing Wang, Yudhishtar S Bedi, William M Skiles, Richard Cheng-An Chang, Michael C Golding
Alterations to chromatin structure induced by environmental insults have become an attractive explanation for the persistence of exposure effects into subsequent life stages. However, a growing body of work examining the epigenetic impact that alcohol and other drugs of abuse exert consistently notes a disconnection between induced changes in chromatin structure and patterns of gene transcription. Thus, an important question is whether perturbations in the 'histone code' induced by prenatal exposures to alcohol implicitly subvert gene expression, or whether the hierarchy of cellular signaling networks driving development is such that they retain control over the transcriptional program...
January 11, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433374/peritoneal-fluid-cytokines-related-to-endometriosis-in-patients-evaluated-for-infertility
#19
Hilde Jørgensen, Abby S Hill, Michael T Beste, Manu P Kumar, Evan Chiswick, Peter Fedorcsak, Keith B Isaacson, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Linda G Griffith, Erik Qvigstad
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize peritoneal cytokine profiles in patients with infertility, with and without endometriosis, to illuminate potential differences in immune profiles that may reflect mechanistic differences between these two patient populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital and research center. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing laparoscopy for infertility investigation (n = 107)...
April 19, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433145/influence-of-the-radial-stem-composition-on-the-thermal-behaviour-of-miscanthus-and-sorghum-genotypes
#20
Lucie Chupin, Dieter de Ridder, Anne Clément-Vidal, Armelle Soutiras, Emilie Gineau, Grégory Mouille, Stéphanie Arnoult, Maryse Brancourt-Hulmel, Catherine Lapierre, David Pot, Luc Vincent, Alice Mija, Patrick Navard
The hypothesis made is that thermal resistance of sorghum and miscanthus stem pieces taken at well-defined positions of the stem is simply related to their biochemical composition. For miscanthus, two different genotypes and two internode levels were selected. For each region, the stem was divided into three radial layers. For sorghum, two different genotypes were selected and the stem was divided into the same three radial layers. The results show that the thermal analysis is only sensitive to very large variations of compositions...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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