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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151265/cnn3-regulates-neural-tube-morphogenesis-and-neuronal-stem-cell-properties
#1
Dirk Junghans, Sebastian Herzog
Calponin 3 (Cnn3) is a member of the calponin family of actin binding molecules that is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has been shown to control dendritic spine morphology, density and plasticity by regulating actin cytoskeletal reorganization and dynamics. However, little is known about the role of Cnn3 during embryonic development. In this study we analyzed mutant animals deficient in Cnn3 to gain a better understanding of its role in brain morphogenesis. Embryos lacking Cnn3 exhibited massive malformation of the developing brain including exoencephaly, closure defects at the rostral neural tube and strong enlargement of brain tissue...
November 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151233/clinical-results-of-hemiarthroplasty-using-new-bipolar-cups-for-stage-3-or-lower-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-a-retrospective-study
#2
T Abe, N Kaku, T Tabata, H Tagomori, H Tsumura
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiographic findings of stage 3 or lower osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) with intact acetabular cartilage in patients treated with bipolar hemiarthroplasty (BHA). METHODS: A total of 79 hips that underwent BHA for ONFH were included in this study. The average observation period was 7.6 years. Clinical results were evaluated using the Harris hip score. We performed radiographic analysis to assess the migration of the outer cup, the permanent image around the outer cup, and loosening of the stem...
November 18, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151204/afterglow-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#3
Gili Abramov, Nathaniel J Traaseth
Biomolecular solid-state NMR experiments have traditionally been collected through detection of (13)C or (15)N nuclei. Since these nuclei have relatively low sensitivity stemming from their smaller gyromagnetic ratios relative to (1)H, the time required to collect multi-dimensional datasets serves as a limitation to resonance assignment and structure determination. One improvement in the field has been to employ simultaneous or parallel acquisition techniques with the goal of acquiring more than one dataset at a time and therefore speeding up the overall data collection process...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151157/potent-apoptosis-inducing-activity-of-erypoegin-k-an-isoflavone-isolated-from-erythrina-poeppigiana-against-human-leukemia-hl-60-cells
#4
Kiyomi Hikita, Natsuki Hattori, Aya Takeda, Yuko Yamakage, Rina Shibata, Saori Yamada, Kuniki Kato, Tomiyasu Murata, Hitoshi Tanaka, Norio Kaneda
Erypoegin K is an isoflavone isolated from the stem bark of Erythrina poeppigiana. It contains a furan group at the A-ring of the core isoflavone structure and can inhibit the activity of glyoxalase I, an enzyme that catalyzes the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG), a by-product of glycolysis. In the present study, we found that erypoegin K has a potent cytotoxic effect on human leukemia HL-60 cells. Its cytotoxic effect was much stronger than that of a known glyoxalase I inhibitor S-p-bromobenzylglutathione cyclopentyl diester...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151149/impact-of-xist-rna-on-chromatin-modifications-and-transcriptional-silencing-maintenance-at-different-stages-of-imprinted-x-chromosome-inactivation-in-vole-microtus-levis
#5
Alexander I Shevchenko, Elena V Grigor'eva, Sergey P Medvedev, Irina S Zakharova, Elena V Dementyeva, Eugeny A Elisaphenko, Anastasia A Malakhova, Sophia V Pavlova, Suren M Zakian
In vole Microtus levis, cells of preimplantation embryo and extraembryonic tissues undergo imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) which is triggered by a long non-coding nuclear RNA, Xist. At early stages of iXCI, chromatin of vole inactive X chromosome is enriched with the HP1 heterochromatin-specific protein, trimethylated H3K9 and H4K20 attributable to constitutive heterochromatin. In the study, using vole trophoblast stem (TS) cells as a model of iXCI, we further investigated chromatin of the inactive X chromosome of M...
November 18, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151133/treatment-of-relapsed-aml-and-mds-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-decitabine-and-dli-a-retrospective-multicenter-analysis-on-behalf-of-the-german-cooperative-transplant-study-group
#6
Thomas Schroeder, Christina Rautenberg, William Krüger, Uwe Platzbecker, Gesine Bug, Juliane Steinmann, Stefan Klein, Olaf Hopfer, Kathrin Nachtkamp, Mustafa Kondakci, Stefanie Geyh, Rainer Haas, Ulrich Germing, Martin Bornhäuser, Guido Kobbe
In contrast to the evidence regarding azacitidine (Aza), there is limited knowledge about the combination of decitabine (DAC) and donor lymphocyte infusions as salvage therapy for relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) so far. We retrospectively analyzed data of 36 patients with hematological (n = 35) or molecular relapse (n = 1) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n = 29) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, n = 7) collected from 6 German transplant centers. Patients were treated with a median of 2 cycles DAC (range, 1 to 11)...
November 18, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151064/the-oral-cavity-potential-source-of-stem-cells
#7
Rafał Brożek, Maciej Kurpisz, Ryszard Koczorowski
The purpose of this review is to present the current knowledge regarding the hierarchy of stem cells originating from the oral cavity, which could have a potential value when applied to regenerative stomatology. It must be particularly emphasized that the heterogenous nature of its biology and function within oral compartment may predispose them to different types of applications. Stem cells can be perceived as immature, primitive and unspecialized types of cells with the ability to proliferate, self-renew and differentiate into specialized progeny according to the compartmental signaling...
October 19, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150960/epithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-fragments-and-signaling-in-primary-human-liver-cells
#8
Jörg C Gerlach, Hubert G Foka, Robert L Thompson, Bruno Gridelli, Eva Schmelzer
Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM), or CD326, is a trans-membrane glycoprotein expressed by multiple normal epithelia as well as carcinoma. Human hepatic stem cells and bile duct epithelium of the liver are EpCAM positive. In tumor cell lines, its intracellular domain can be released after cleavage of the extracellular domain. Within the cell nucleus it induces cell proliferation, but cleavage depends on cell contact. Fragments of various lengths have been described in tumor cells. Despite of its described important role in proliferation in tumor cells, there is not much known about the expression and role of EpCAM fragments in primary human liver cells...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150954/physiological-role-of-urothelial-cancer-associated-1-long-noncoding-rna-in-human-skeletogenic-cell-differentiation
#9
Takanori Ishikawa, Takashi Nishida, Mitsuaki Ono, Takeshi Takarada, Nguyen Ha, Shinnosuke Kurihara, Takayuki Furumatsu, Yurika Murase, Masaharu Takigawa, Toshitaka Oohashi, Hiroshi Kamioka, Satoshi Kubota
A vast number of long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are found expressed in human cells, which RNAs have been developed along with human evolution. However, the physiological functions of these lncRNAs remain mostly unknown. In the present study, we for the first time uncovered the fact that one of such lncRNAs plays a significant role in the differentiation of chondrocytes and, possibly, of osteoblasts differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells, which cells eventually construct the human skeleton. The urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) lncRNA is known to be associated with several human malignancies...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150943/muscle-regeneration-potential-and-satellite-cell-activation-profile-during-recovery-following-hindlimb-immobilization-in-mice
#10
Maria Guitart, Josep Lloreta, Laura Mañas-Garcia, Esther Barreiro
Reduced muscle activity leads to muscle atrophy and function loss in patients and animal models. Satellite cells (SCs) are postnatal muscle stem cells that play a pivotal role in skeletal muscle regeneration following injury. The regenerative potential, satellite cell numbers, and markers during recovery following immobilization of the hindlimb for seven days were explored. In mice exposed to seven days of hindlimb immobilization, in those exposed to recovery (seven days, splint removal), and in contralateral control muscles, muscle precursor cells were isolated from all hindlimb muscles (fluorescence-activated cell sorting, FACS), and SCs and muscle regeneration were identified using immunofluorescence (gastrocnemius and soleus) and electron microscopy (EM, gastrocnemius)...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150936/the-roles-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-tissue-development-and-regenerative-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Maryam Majidinia, Javad Aghazadeh, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlani, Bahman Yousefi
Regenerative medicine is a translational field which combines tissue engineering and molecular biology to construct spare organs or help injured or defective tissues to regenerate or restore their normal functions. This is particularly important with specific organs such as heart, central nervous system, retina or limbs which possess very limited regenerative capacity. As such, regenerative medicine has received peculiar attention in the last decade. In this regard, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been subject to intensive research, since it plays many essential roles in the regulation of the progenitor cell fate, developmental decisions, proliferation during embryonic development, and adult tissue homeostasis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150935/generation-of-insulin-producing-cells-from-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-pva-scaffold-by-optimized-differentiation-protocol
#12
Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Masoud Soleimani, Yousef Mortazavi, Samad Nadri, Ali Salimi
The studies have been done on patient-specific human adipose-derived from mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) like a series of autologous growth factors and nanofibrous scaffolds (3D culture) will probably have many benefits for regenerative medicine in type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM) patients in the future. For this purpose, we established a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffold and a differentiation protocol by adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP) that induces the hADSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). The Characteristics of the derived IPCs in 3D culture were compared with conventional culture (2D) groups evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150917/regulation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-by-transforming-growth-factor-beta-superfamily
#13
Jelena Krstic, Drenka Trivanovic, Hristina Obradovic, Tamara Kukolj, Diana Bugarski, Juan F Santibanez
The ability to differentiate into cells of different lineage, such as muscle, bone, cartilage and fat, is the chief value of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which can be used with the final aim to regenerate damaged tissue. Due to potential use, as well as importance in tissue development, a number of questions have been raised regarding the molecular mechanisms of MSC differentiation. As one of the crucial mediators in organism development, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily directs MSCs commitment in the selection of differentiation pathways...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150876/toxicological-characterization-of-zno-nanoparticles-in-malignant-and-non-malignant-cells
#14
Helena Moratin, Agmal Scherzad, Thomas Gehrke, Pascal Ickrath, Katrin Radeloff, Norbert Kleinsasser, Stephan Hackenberg
The increasing usage of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in industrial applications as well as in consumer products raises concern regarding their potential adverse effects to a greater extend. Numerous studies have demonstrated toxic properties of NPs, however there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the underlying mechanisms. This study was designed to systematically investigate cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle alterations, and genotoxicity induced by ZnO-NP. Moreover, it was an aim of the investigations to specify the diverse effects of nanoparticle exposure in malignant in comparison with non-malignant cells...
November 18, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150846/cancer-stem-cells-as-targets-for-immunotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Amy S Codd, Takayuki Kanaseki, Toshihiko Torigo, Zsuzsanna Tabi
Current cancer therapies target the bulk of the tumour, while a population of highly resistant tumour cells may be able to repopulate the tumour and metastasise to new sites. Cancer cells with such stem cell-like characteristics can be identified based on their phenotypic and/or functional features which may open up ways for their targeted elimination. In this review we discuss potential off-target effects of inhibiting cancer stem-cell self-renewal pathways on immune cells, and summarise some recent immunological studies specifically targeting cancer stem cells based on their unique antigen expression...
November 18, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150821/cd271-mediates-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-epidermal-stem-cells-to-support-cutaneous-burn-wound-healing
#16
Min Zhang, Yongqian Cao, Xiaohong Li, Lizhi Hu, Sahbi Khaled Taieb, Xiaolong Zhu, Jing Zhang, Yongqiang Feng, Ran Zhao, Mingqing Wang, Wenjun Xue, Zhanjie Yang, Yibing Wang
Burn wounds can significantly reduce the quality of life of patients with respect to their physiology and psychology and can even threaten their lives. Many treatments have been proposed, including stem cell therapy but no effective method can as yet cure such damage. Our study highlights the role of Cd271 in epidermal stem cells (eSC) during the healing of burn wounds. The expression of Cd271 increases together with burn wound healing. Injection of Cd271-over-expressing eSC into wounds promotes the healing rate in a mouse burn model...
November 18, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150812/factors-influencing-platelet-transfusion-refractoriness-in-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#17
Pilar Solves, Jaime Sanz, Carmen Freiria, Marta Santiago, Ana Villalba, Inés Gómez, Pau Montesinos, Juan Montoro, Jose Luis Piñana, José Ignacio Lorenzo, Nieves Puig, Guillermo F Sanz, Miguel Ángel Sanz, Nelly Carpio
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been considered a risk factor for development of platelet transfusion refractoriness. The objective of this study was to assess the platelet transfusion refractoriness rate in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from different sources. We retrospectively reviewed the charts and transfusion records of patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation at our institution between 2013 and 2015. The evaluation of post-transfusion platelet count was assessed for each transfusion given, from day of progenitor infusion to day 30 after transplantation...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150810/liver-fibrosis-alleviation-after-co-transplantation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-patients-with-thalassemia-major
#18
Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh, Masoud Sotoudeh, Amir Pejman Hashemi Taheri, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Hossein Pashaiefar, Mahdi Jalili, Farhad Shahi, Mohammad Jahani, Marjan Yaghmaie
The aims of this study are to determine the replacement rate of damaged hepatocytes by donor-derived cells in sex-mismatched recipient patients with thalassemia major and to determine whether co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can alleviate liver fibrosis. Ten sex-mismatched donor-recipient pairs who received co-transplantation of HSCs with mesenchymal stem cells were included in our study. Liver biopsy was performed before transplantation. Two other liver biopsies were performed between 2 and 5 years after transplantation...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150739/cell-therapy-in-stroke-cautious-steps-towards-a-clinical-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Olivier Detante, Keith Muir, Jukka Jolkkonen
In the future, stroke patients may receive stem cell therapy as this has the potential to restore lost functions. However, the development of clinically deliverable therapy has been slower and more challenging than expected. Despite recommendations by STAIR and STEPS consortiums, there remain flaws in experimental studies such as lack of animals with comorbidities, inconsistent approaches to experimental design, and concurrent rehabilitation that might lead to a bias towards positive results. Clinical studies have typically been small, lacking control groups as well as often without clear biological hypotheses to guide patient selection...
November 17, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150735/glycomics-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
REVIEW
Jun-Ichi Furukawa, Kazue Okada, Yasuro Shinohara
Most cells are coated by a dense glycocalyx composed of glycoconjugates such as glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans. The overall glycomic profile is believed to be crucial for the diverse roles of glycans, which are mediated by specific interactions that regulate cell-cell adhesion, the immune response, microbial pathogenesis, and other cellular events. Many cell surface markers were discovered and identified as glycoconjugates such as stage-specific embryonic antigen, Tra-1-60/81 and various other cell surface molecules (e...
November 18, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
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