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Blood flow restriction

Naoaki Rikihisa, Mai Tominaga, Shoji Watanabe, Nobuyuki Mitsukawa, Yoshiaki Saito, Hiromi Sakai
Our previous study proposed using artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment for port-wine stains (PWSs). Dye laser photons are absorbed by red blood cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) mixture, which potentially produce more heat and photocoagulation and effectively destroy endothelial cells. Hb-Vs combination therapy will improve clinical outcomes of dye laser treatment for PWSs because very small vessels do not contain sufficient RBCs and they are poor absorbers/heaters of lasers...
March 15, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Shu Meng, Qilin Gu, Xiaojie Yang, Jie Lv, Iris Owusu, Gianfranco Matrone, Kaifu Chen, John P Cooke, Longhou Fang
Background -Angiogenesis is integral for embryogenesis, and targeting angiogenesis improves the outcome of many pathological conditions in patients. TBX20 is a crucial transcription factor for embryonic development, and its deficiency is associated with congenital heart disease. However, the role of TBX20 in angiogenesis has not been described. Methods -Loss- and gain-of-function approaches were used to explore the role of TBX20 in angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo Angiogenesis gene array was used to identify key downstream targets of TBX20...
March 15, 2018: Circulation
Summer B Cook, Brendan R Scott, Katherine L Hayes, Bethany G Murphy
Low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) resistance exercise has been suggested to be as effective as moderate and high-load resistance training for increasing muscle size and strength. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of HL or low-load BFR resistance training on neuromuscular function, strength, and hypertrophy of the knee extensors. Eighteen participants aged 18-22 years old were randomized to one of three training groups: moderate load (ML: 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1-RM]); BFR (20% 1-RM with a vascular restriction set to ~180 mmHg); and a control group (CON) that did not exercise...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Silvia G V Alvarez, Angela McBrien
The ductus arteriosus (DA) is a crucial part of the fetal circulation, both in the normal fetus and in critical congenital heart disease (CHD). It allows shunting between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. In physiological prenatal conditions, the DA lets the majority of right ventricular output bypass the fluid-filled, high-resistance lungs. The DA can cause hemodynamic compromise in the fetus and neonate when constricted or absent (in isolation or in patients with CHD) and may lead to pre- or postnatal sequelae within other systems when forming part of a vascular ring...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
V Jakoubek, V Hampl
Alcohol abuse during pregnancy is a well-known factor in fetal morbidity, including smaller fetal size. We have shown that chronic hypoxia, considered the main pathogenetic factor in intrauterine growth restriction, elevates fetoplacental vascular resistance (and vasoconstrictor reactivity) and thus, presumably, reduces placental blood flow. We thus hypothesized that alcohol may affect the fetus - in addition to other mechanisms - by altering fetoplacental vascular resistance and/or reactivity. Using isolated, double-perfused rat placenta model, we found that maternal alcohol intake in the last third of gestation doubled the vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II but did not affect resting vascular resistance...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Rachel Nicoll, Michael Y Henein
Essential hypertension, fast heart rate, low heart rate variability, sympathetic nervous system dominance over parasympathetic, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and poor flow-mediated arterial dilatation are all associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. This review of randomised controlled trials and other studies demonstrates that caloric restriction (CR) is capable of significantly improving all these parameters, normalising blood pressure (BP) and allowing patients to discontinue antihypertensive medication, while never becoming hypotensive...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mare Mechelinck, Marc Hein, Sven Bellen, Rolf Rossaint, Anna B Roehl
The extent of right ventricular compensation compared to the left ventricle is restricted and varies among individuals, which makes it difficult to define. While establishing a model of acute pulmonary hypertension in pigs we observed two different kinds of compensation in our animals. Looking deeper into the hemodynamic data we tried to delineate why some animals could compensate and others could not. Pulmonary hypertension (mean pressure 45 mmHg) was induced gradually by infusion of a stable thromboxane A2 analogue U46619 in a porcine model (n = 22)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Hans Erik Botker, Thomas Ravn Lassen, Nichlas Riise Jespersen
Rapid admission and acute interventional treatment combined with modern antithrombotic pharmacologic therapy have improved outcome in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The next major target to further improve outcome, seems to be ischemia reperfusion injury, which may contribute significantly to the final infarct size and hence mortality and post-infarction heart failure. Mechanical conditioning strategies including local and remote ischemic pre-, per- and postconditioning have demonstrated consistent cardioprotective capacities in experimental models of acute IR injury...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
S T Bittar, P S Pfeiffer, H H Santos, M S Cirilo-Sousa
This study analysed the effect of low-intensity (LI) exercises with blood flow restriction (BFR) on bone metabolism compared with high-intensity (HI) exercises without BFR. The following databases were searched using the keywords therapeutic occlusion training OR BFR training OR vascular occlusion training OR KAATSU training OR ischaemia training AND osteogenesis OR bone biomarkers OR bone metabolic marker OR bone mass OR bone turnover OR osteoporosis OR osteopenia: PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Science Direct, Cochrane and Google Scholar...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Sabino J Pietrangelo, Hae-Seung Lee, Charles G Sodini
OBJECTIVE:  Practical deficiencies related to conventional transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography have restricted its use and applicability. This work seeks to mitigate several such constraints through the development of a wearable, electronically steered TCD velocimetry system, which enables noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) for monitoring applications with limited operator interaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A highly-compact, discrete prototype system was designed and experimentally validated through flow phantom and preliminary human subject testing...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Ehsan Akbari, Griffin B Spychalski, Kaushik K Rangharajan, Shaurya Prakash, Jonathan W Song
Endothelial barrier function is known to be regulated by a number of molecular mechanisms; however, the role of biomechanical signals associated with blood flow is comparatively less explored. Biomimetic microfluidic models comprised of vessel analogues that are lined with endothelial cells (ECs) have been developed to help answer several fundamental questions in endothelial mechanobiology. However, previously described microfluidic models have been primarily restricted to single straight or two parallel vessel analogues, which do not model the bifurcating vessel networks typically present in physiology...
February 28, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Vincent J Huber, Hironaka Igarashi, Satoshi Ueki, Ingrid L Kwee, Tsutomu Nakada
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which imposes significant water permeability restriction, effectively isolates the brain from the systemic circulation. Seemingly paradoxical, the abundance of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) on the inside of the BBB strongly indicates the presence of unique water dynamics essential for brain function. On the basis of the highly specific localization of AQP-4, namely, astrocyte end feet at the glia limitans externa and pericapillary Virchow-Robin space, we hypothesized that the AQP-4 system serves as an interstitial fluid circulator, moving interstitial fluid from the glia limitans externa to pericapillary Virchow-Robin space to ensure proper glymphatic flow draining into the cerebrospinal fluid...
February 23, 2018: Neuroreport
Bobby G Yow, David J Tennent, Thomas C Dowd, Jeremy P Loenneke, Johnny G Owens
Blood flow restriction (BFR) training is a technique shown to be safe and effective at increasing muscular strength and endurance in healthy fitness populations and is under study for its use in postinjury rehabilitation. BFR stimulates muscular strength and hypertrophy gains at much lower loads than traditional methods, allowing patients to begin the rehabilitation process much sooner. We report on 2 patients who incorporated BFR training into their traditional rehabilitation program after Achilles tendon ruptures...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Filippo Molinari, U Raghavendra, Anjan Gudigar, Kristen M Meiburger, U Rajendra Acharya
Atherosclerosis is a type of cardiovascular disease which may cause stroke. It is due to the deposition of fatty plaque in the artery walls resulting in the reduction of elasticity gradually and hence restricting the blood flow to the heart. Hence, an early prediction of carotid plaque deposition is important, as it can save lives. This paper proposes a novel data mining framework for the assessment of atherosclerosis in its early stage using ultrasound images. In this work, we are using 1353 symptomatic and 420 asymptomatic carotid plaque ultrasound images...
February 23, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Meghan E Rebuli, Erica A Pawlak, Dana Walsh, Elizabeth M Martin, Ilona Jaspers
Natural killer (NK) cells are members of the innate lymphoid cells group 1 (ILC1s), which play a critical role in innate host defense against viruses and malignancies. While many studies have examined the role of circulating peripheral blood (PB) CD56+ NK cells, little is known about the resident CD56+ cell population. Therefore, matched CD56+ cells from nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and PB of smokers and non-smokers were compared phenotypically, via flow cytometry, and functionally, via NK-cell specific gene expression...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jihong Xing, Jian Lu, Jiahao Liu, Jianhua Li
The exercise pressor reflex is amplified in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and in an experimental PAD model of rats induced by femoral artery occlusion. Heightened blood pressure worsens the restricted blood flow directed to the limbs in this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by muscle oxidative stress in regulating the augmented pressor response to static exercise in PAD. We hypothesized that limb ischemia impairs muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD) thereby leading to abnormal autonomic responsiveness observed in PAD animals, and a chronic compensation of SOD for anti-oxidation improves the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Stella Thomassen, Tom G Mastenbroek, Frauke Swieringa, Kristien Winckers, Marion A H Feijge, Roy Schrijver, Judith M E M Cosemans, Susan A Maroney, Alan E Mast, Tilman M Hackeng, Johan W M Heemskerk
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-alpha (TFPI-α) is a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor, which suppresses coagulation by inhibiting the tissue factor (TF)/factor VIIa complex as well as factor Xa. In static plasma-phospholipid systems, TFPI-α thus suppresses both factor Xa and thrombin generation. In this article, we used a microfluidics approach to investigate how TFPI-α regulates fibrin clot formation in platelet thrombi at low wall shear rate. We therefore hypothesized that the anticoagulant effect of TFPI-α in plasma is a function of the local procoagulant strength-defined as the magnitude of thrombin generation under flow, due to local activities of TF/factor VIIa and factor Xa...
February 16, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Christoph Centner, Denise Zdzieblik, Patrick Dressler, Bruno Fink, Albert Gollhofer, Daniel König
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the acute local and systemic effects of low-load resistance exercise (30% 1RM) with partial vascular occlusion on exercise-induced free radical production and to compare these effects with other established training methods. Fifteen young and healthy males (25 ± 3 years) performed the following four sessions in a counterbalanced order on separate days: low-load resistance exercise (LI: 30% 1RM), low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (LIBR: 30% 1RM), high-load resistance exercise (HI: 80% 1RM) and an additional session without exercise but blood flow restriction only (BR)...
February 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
J E Jakobsgaard, M Christiansen, P Sieljacks, J Wang, T Groennebaek, F de Paoli, K Vissing
This study ascertains the ability of bodyweight blood flow-restricted (BFR) exercise training to promote skeletal muscle adaptations of significance for muscle accretion and metabolism. Six healthy young individuals (three males and three females) performed six weeks of bodyweight BFR training. Each session consisted of five sets of sit-to-stand BFR exercise to volitional failure with 30-second inter-set recovery. Prior to, and at least 72 h after training, muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis to assess changes in fibre type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), satellite cell (SC) and myonuclei content and capillarization, as well as mitochondrial protein expression...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Malte Mohme, Simon Schliffke, Cecile L Maire, Alessandra Rünger, Laura Glau, Klaus C Mende, Jakob Matschke, Christina Gehbauer, Nuray Akyüz, Svenja Zapf, Mareike Holz, Miriam Schaper, Tobias Martens, Nils O Schmidt, Sven Peine, Manfred Westphal, Mascha Binder, Eva Tolosa, Katrin Lamszus
PURPOSE: Immunotherapeutic treatment strategies for glioblastoma (GBM) are under investigation in clinical trials. However, our understanding of the immune phenotype of GBM-infiltrating T-cells (TILs) and changes during disease progression is limited. Deeper insight is urgently needed to therapeutically overcome tumor-induced immune exhaustion. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used flow-cytometry and cytokine assays to profile TILs and blood lymphocytes (PBL) from GBM patients, comparing newly diagnosed or recurrent GBM to long-term survivors (LTS) and healthy donors...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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