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Blood flow restriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101429/chronic-wide-field-imaging-of-brain-hemodynamics-in-behaving-animals
#1
Peng Miao, Lingke Zhang, Miao Li, Yiguang Zhang, Shihan Feng, Qihong Wang, Nitish V Thakor
Chronically monitoring cerebral activities in awake and freely moving status is very important in physiological and pathological studies. We present a novel standalone micro-imager for monitoring the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and total hemoglobin (HbT) activities in freely moving animals using the laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and optical intrinsic signal (OIS) methods. A new cranial window method, using contact lens and wide field optics, is also proposed to achieve the chronic and wide-field imaging of rat's cerebral cortex...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093857/can-blood-flow-restriction-augment-muscle-activation-during-high-load-training
#2
Scott J Dankel, Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
INTRODUCTION: Blood flow restriction has been shown to augment muscle activation and increase muscle size when combined with low-load training; however, much less is known on whether blood flow restriction can augment muscle activation during high-load exercise. PURPOSE: To determine whether applying blood flow restriction can augment muscle activation with traditional high-load resistance exercise. METHOD: Ten individuals completed two sets of elbow flexion exercise to volitional fatigue...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093446/tumor-infiltrating-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-specific-t-cells-are-diverse-and-associated-with-improved-patient-survival
#3
Natalie J Miller, Candice D Church, Lichun Dong, David Crispin, Matthew P Fitzgibbon, Kristina Lachance, Lichen Jing, Michi Shinohara, Ioannis Gavvovidis, Gerald Willimsky, Martin McIntosh, Thomas Blankenstein, David M Koelle, Paul Nghiem
Tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells are associated with improved survival of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive skin cancer causally linked to Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). However, CD8(+) T-cell infiltration is robust in only 4% to 18% of MCC tumors. We characterized the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire restricted to one prominent epitope of MCPyV (KLLEIAPNC, "KLL") and assessed whether TCR diversity, tumor infiltration, or T-cell avidity correlated with clinical outcome. HLA-A*02:01/KLL tetramer(+) CD8(+) T cells from MCC patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were isolated via flow cytometry...
January 16, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090634/dietary-interventions-for-fetal-growth-restriction-therapeutic-potential-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-in-pregnancy
#4
Elizabeth Cottrell, Teresa Tropea, Laura Ormesher, Susan Greenwood, Mark Wareing, Edward Johnstone, Jenny Myers, Colin Sibley
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects around 5% of pregnancies and is associated with significant short- and long-term adverse outcomes. A number of factors can increase the risk of FGR, one of which is poor maternal diet. In terms of pathology, both clinically and in many experimental models of FGR, impaired uteroplacental vascular function is implicated, leading to a reduction in the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. Whilst mechanisms underpinning impaired uteroplacental vascular function are not fully understood, interventions aimed at enhancing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability remain a key area of interest in obstetric research...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088558/the-effects-of-upper-body-exercise-across-different-levels-of-blood-flow-restriction-on-arterial-occlusion-pressure-and-perceptual-responses
#5
Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Brittany R Counts, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Scott J Dankel, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
Recent studies have investigated relative pressures that are applied during blood flow restriction exercise ranging from 40%-90% of resting arterial occlusion pressure; however, no studies have investigated relative pressures below 40% arterial occlusion pressure. The purpose of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular and perceptual responses to different levels of pressures. Twenty-six resistance trained participants performed four sets of unilateral elbow flexion exercise using 30% of their 1RM in combination with blood flow restriction inflated to one of six relative applied pressures (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, 90% arterial occlusion pressure)...
January 11, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076241/phenotypic-and-functional-characteristics-of-hla-dr-neutrophils-in-brazilians-with-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#6
Richard E Davis, Smriti Sharma, Jacilara Conceição, Pedro Carneiro, Fernanda Novais, Phillip Scott, Shyam Sundar, Olivia Bacellar, Edgar M Carvalho, Mary E Wilson
The protozoan Leishmania braziliensis causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in endemic regions. In murine models, neutrophils (PMNs) are recruited to the site of infection soon after parasite inoculation. However, the roles of neutrophils during chronic infection and in human disease remain undefined. We hypothesized that neutrophils help maintain a systemic inflammatory state in subjects with CL. Lesion biopsies from all patients with CL tested contained neutrophils expressing HLA-DR, a molecule thought to be restricted to professional antigen-presenting cells...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068596/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-low-dose-aspirin-and-omega-3-in-treatment-of-asymmetrically-intrauterine-growth-restriction-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Mohammed K Ali, Maggy E Amin, Ahmed F Amin, Diaa Eldeen M Abd El Aal
OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of aspirin and omega 3 on fetal weight as well as feto-maternal blood flow in asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). STUDY DESIGN: This study is a clinically registered (NCT02696577), open, parallel, randomized controlled trial, conducted at Assiut Woman's Health Hospital, Egypt including 80 pregnant women (28-30 weeks) with IUGR. They were randomized either to group I: aspirin or group II: aspirin plus omega 3. The primary outcome was the fetal weight after 6 weeks of treatment...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062416/blood-flow-patterns-underlie-developmental-heart-defects
#8
Madeline Midgett, Kent L Thornburg, Sandra Rugonyi
Although cardiac malformations at birth are typically associated with genetic anomalies, blood flow dynamics also play a crucial role in heart formation. However, the relationship between blood flow patterns in the early embryo and later cardiovascular malformation has not been determined. We used the chicken embryo model to quantify the extent to which anomalous blood flow patterns predict cardiac defects that resemble those in humans, and found that restricting either the inflow to the heart or the outflow led to reproducible abnormalities with a dose-response type relationship between blood flow stimuli and the expression of cardiac phenotypes...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033028/single-particle-analysis-methods-for-detection-of-platelet-extracellular-vesicles-in-suspension-excluding-flow-cytometry
#9
Edit I Buzás, Chris Gardiner, Changwon Lee, Zachary J Smith
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, membrane-bound particles released by all cell types, including abundant release by platelets. EVs are a topic of increasing interest in the academic and clinical community due to their increasingly recognised and diverse role in normal biology as well as in disease. However, typical analysis methods to characterise EVs released by cultured cells or isolated from whole blood or other body fluids are restricted to bulk analysis of all EVs in a sample. In this review, we discuss the motivation for analysis of individual EVs, as well as discuss three emerging methods for physical and chemical characterisation of individual EVs: nanoparticle tracking analysis, tunable resistive pulse sensing and Raman spectroscopy...
December 29, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029066/cardiac-autonomic-and-haemodynamic-recovery-after-a-single-session-of-aerobic-exercise-with-and-without-blood-flow-restriction-in-older-adults
#10
Marina Lívia Venturini Ferreira, Amanda Veiga Sardeli, Giovana Vergínia De Souza, Valéria Bonganha, Lucas Do Carmo Santos, Alex Castro, Cláudia Regina Cavaglieri, Mara Patrícia Traina Chacon-Mikahil
This study investigated the autonomic and haemodynamic responses to different aerobic exercise loads, with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). In a crossover study, 21 older adults (8 males and 13 females) completed different aerobic exercise sessions: low load without BFR (LL) (40% VO2max), low load with BFR (LL-BFR) (40% VO2max + 50% BFR) and high load without BFR (HL) (70% VO2max). Heart rate variability and haemodynamic responses were recorded during rest and throughout 30 min of recovery. HL reduced R-R interval, the root mean square of successive difference of R-R intervals and high frequency during 30 min of recovery at a greater magnitude compared with LL and LL-BFR...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009639/increased-expression-of-the-type-i-interferon-receptor-on-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#11
M Scott Killian, Sue H Fujimura, Ramu G Sudhagoni
BACKGROUND: Type I interferons (IFN1; e.g. IFN-α and IFN-β) are potent cytokines that inhibit the replication of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and other viruses. The antiviral and immunoregulatory activities of IFN1 are mediated through ligand/receptor interactions with the IFN1 receptor complex (IFNAR). Variation in the cell surface density of IFNAR could play a role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of fresh whole blood, we used flow cytometry to evaluate the expression of IFNAR2 on lymphocyte subsets from HIV-1-infected (n=33) and -uninfected (n=22) individuals...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002685/effects-of-blood-flow-restriction-on-biomarkers-of-myogenesis-in-response-to-resistance-exercise
#12
Andrew S Layne, Kelly Larkin-Kaiser, R Gavin MacNeil, Marvin Dirain, Bhanuprasad Sandesara, Todd M Manini, Thomas W Buford
We investigated the acute myogenic response to resistance exercise with and without blood-flow restriction (BFR). Six men and women (age, 22 ± 1 years) performed unilateral knee extensions at 40% of 1-repetition maximum with or without (CNTRL) BFR applied via pressure cuff inflated to 220 mm Hg. Muscle biopsies were collected at 4 h and 24 h postexercise. Addition of BFR increased myoD and c-Met messenger RNA expression relative to CNTRL. Expression of hepatocyte growth factor protein was significantly higher following CNTRL...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997443/automated-infarct-core-volumetry-within-the-hypoperfused-tissue-technical-implementation-and-evaluation
#13
Elias Kellner, Marco Reisert, Valerij G Kiselev, Christoph J Maurer, Lena-Alexandra Beume, Horst Urbach, Karl Egger
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and fully automatic infarct core and tissue at risk volumetry approach in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We evaluated an algorithm in which segmentation was restricted to 1 hemisphere and the potential lesion characterized on the basis of the perfusion parameter Tmax with a region-wise comparison of local histograms to its mirrored counterpart. RESULTS: We applied the "Tmax inside" method to 30 cases of a public data set with ground-truth segmentations for diffusion-weighted and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977053/protease-modulating-matrix-treatments-for-healing-venous-leg-ulcers
#14
REVIEW
Maggie J Westby, Gill Norman, Jo C Dumville, Nikki Stubbs, Nicky Cullum
BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are open skin wounds on the lower leg that occur because of poor blood flow in the veins of the leg; leg ulcers can last from weeks to years, and are both painful and costly. Prevalence in the UK is about 2.9 cases per 10,000 people. First-line treatment for VLUs is compression therapy, but around 60% of people have unhealed ulcers after 12 weeks' treatment and about 40% after 24 weeks; therefore, there is scope for further improvement. Limited evidence suggests non-healing leg ulcers may have persisting elevated levels of proteases, which is thought to deter the later stages of healing; thus, timely protease-modulating matrix (PMM) treatments may improve healing by physically removing proteases from the wound fluid...
December 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941491/low-intensity-sprint-training-with-blood-flow-restriction-improves-100-m-dash
#15
M Behringer, D Behlau, J Montag, M McCourt, J Mester
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of practical blood flow restriction (pBFR) of leg muscles during sprint training on the 100 m dash time in well-trained sport students. METHODS: Participants performed 6x100 m sprints at 60-70% of their maximal 100 m sprinting speed twice a week for 6 weeks, either with (IG; n=12) or without pBFR (CG; n=12). RESULTS: The 100 m dash time significantly decreased more in the IG (-0.38±0.24 s) than in the CG (-0...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931053/hemodynamic-responses-to-blood-flow-restriction-and-resistance-exercise-to-muscular-failure
#16
C A Libardi, A M Catai, M Miquelini, A Borghi-Silva, V Minatel, I F Alvarez, J C Milan-Mattos, H Roschel, V Tricoli, C Ugrinowitsch
The aim of the present study was to compare hemodynamic responses between blood flow-restricted resistance exercise (BFR-RE), high-intensity resistance exercise (HI-RE) and low-intensity resistance exercise (LI-RE) performed to muscular failure. 12 men (age: 20±3 years; body mass: 73.5±9 kg; height: 174±6 cm) performed 4 sets of leg press exercises using BFR-RE (30% of 1-RM), HI-RE (80% of 1-RM) and LI-RE (30% of 1-RM) protocols. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) were measured on a beat-to-beat continuous basis by a noninvasive photoplethysmographic arterial pressure device...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927771/propagation-of-thrombosis-by-neutrophils-and-extracellular-nucleosome-networks
#17
Susanne Pfeiler, Konstantin Stark, Steffen Massberg, Bernd Engelmann
Neutrophils, early mediators of innate immune defense, are recruited to developing thrombi in different types of thrombosis. They amplify intravascular coagulation by stimulating the tissue factor-dependent extrinsic pathway via inactivation of endogenous anticoagulants, enhancing factor XII activation or decreasing plasmin generation. Neutrophil-dependent prothrombotic mechanisms are supported by the externalization of decondensed nucleosomes and granule proteins that together form neutrophil extracellular traps...
December 7, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916232/neuroinflammation-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#18
REVIEW
Julie A Wixey, Kirat K Chand, Paul B Colditz, S Tracey Bjorkman
Disruption to the maternal environment during pregnancy from events such as hypoxia, stress, toxins, inflammation, and reduced placental blood flow can affect fetal development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly caused by chronic placental insufficiency, interrupting supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus resulting in abnormal fetal growth. IUGR is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, occurring in approximately 5-10% of pregnancies. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable in IUGR and there is an increased risk of long-term neurological disorders including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties and psychiatric diagnoses...
November 25, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906869/early-and-sustained-vasopressin-infusion-augments-the-hemodynamic-efficacy-of-restrictive-fluid-resuscitation-and-improves-survival-in-a-liver-laceration-model-of-hemorrhagic-shock
#19
Raúl J Gazmuri, Kasen Whitehouse, Kruti Shah, Karla Whittinghill, Alvin Baetiong, Jeejabai Radhakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Current management of hemorrhagic shock favors restrictive fluid resuscitation before control of the bleeding source. We investigated the additional effects of early and sustained vasopressin infusion in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock produced by liver laceration. METHODS: Forty male domestic pigs (32 to 40 kg) had a liver laceration inflicted with an X-shaped blade clamp, 32 received a second laceration at minute 7.5, and 24 received two additional lacerations at minute 15...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906117/carotid-artery-stenting-versus-no-stenting-assisting-thrombectomy-for-acute-ischaemic-stroke-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-clinical-trials-with-meta-analyses-and-trial-sequential-analyses
#20
Henrik Steglich-Arnholm, Markus Holtmannspötter, Christian Gluud, Derk Wolfgang Krieger
BACKGROUND: In patients with intracranial large vessel arterial occlusion, ipsilateral extracranial carotid artery occlusions or near-occlusions pose a significant hurdle in endovascular management of acute ischaemic stroke. Stenting of the carotid lesion may be beneficial in this situation to provide a stable access for introducing catheters through the carotid lesion into the intracranial vasculature and the target occlusion. Furthermore, carotid stenting may ensure ample blood flow for wash-out of clot material and reperfusion of the ischaemic penumbral tissue...
December 1, 2016: Systematic Reviews
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