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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913267/serum-metabolome-profiling-revealed-potential-biomarkers-for-milk-protein-yield-in-dairy-cows
#1
Xuehui Wu, Huizeng Sun, Mingyuan Xue, Diming Wang, Le Luo Guan, Jianxin Liu
Milk yield (MY) and milk protein (MP) content are crucial milk performance traits of dairy cows that directly affect the dairy profits. This study first proposed milk protein yield (MPY) by considering MY and MP content together. Forty multiparous cows were selected from the 348 Holstein dairy cows, which fed the same diet under the same management condition, to investigate the serum metabolome profiles and to identify key metabolites associated with MPY. Among them, 20 cows with a higher MPY (MY > 34...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913183/predictive-metabolic-signatures-of-end-stage-renal-disease-a-multivariate-analysis-of-population-based-data
#2
Robson E Silva, João L Baldim, Daniela A Chagas-Paula, Marisi G Soares, João H G Lago, Reggiani V Gonçalves, Rômulo D Novaes
The variability of molecular signatures and predictive low molecular weight markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in different populations are poorly understood. Thus, in a large sample with 4763 people we compare the molecular signatures and metabolites with diagnostic relevance in plasma and urine of CKD patients of different geographical origins. From an integrated model based on dynamic networks and multivariate statistics, metabolites with predictive value obtained from targeted and untargeted molecular analysis, interactions between metabolic pathways affected by CKD, and the methodological quality of metabolomic studies were analyzed...
June 15, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910804/targeting-inflammatory-t-helper-cells-via-retinoic-acid-related-orphan-receptor-gamma-t-is-ineffective-to-prevent-allo-response-driven-colitis
#3
Vera Buchele, Benjamin Abendroth, Maike Büttner-Herold, Tina Vogler, Johanna Rothamer, Sakhila Ghimire, Evelyn Ullrich, Ernst Holler, Markus F Neurath, Kai Hildner
Intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a life-threatening, inflammatory donor T cell-mediated complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In the light of the reported efficacy of interleukin-23 (IL-23)-blockade to mitigate syngeneic intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease patients, targeting IL-23 and thereby interleukin-17a (IL-17a) producing T helper (Th17) cells as the T cell subset assumed to be mostly regulated by IL-23, has emerged as a putatively general concept to harness immune-mediated mucosal inflammation irrespective of the underlying trigger...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910077/endogenous-stochastic-decoding-of-the-cug-codon-by-competing-ser-and-leu-trnas-in-ascoidea-asiatica
#4
Stefanie Mühlhausen, Hans Dieter Schmitt, Kuan-Ting Pan, Uwe Plessmann, Henning Urlaub, Laurence D Hurst, Martin Kollmar
Although the "universal" genetic code is now known not to be universal, and stop codons can have multiple meanings, one regularity remains, namely that for a given sense codon there is a unique translation. Examining CUG usage in yeasts that have transferred CUG away from leucine, we here report the first example of dual coding: Ascoidea asiatica stochastically encodes CUG as both serine and leucine in approximately equal proportions. This is deleterious, as evidenced by CUG codons being rare, never at conserved serine or leucine residues, and predominantly in lowly expressed genes...
June 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909813/reduced-plasma-concentration-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-in-sarcopenic-older-subjects-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Inger Ottestad, Stine M Ulven, Linn K L Øyri, Kristin S Sandvei, Gyrd O Gjevestad, Asta Bye, Navida A Sheikh, Anne S Biong, Lene F Andersen, Kirsten B Holven
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids that are necessary for muscle mass maintenance. Little is known about the plasma concentrations of BCAA and the protein intake in relation to sarcopenia. We aimed to compare the non-fasting plasma concentrations of the BCAA and the dietary protein intake between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic older adults. Norwegian older home-dwelling adults (≥70 years) were invited to a cross-sectional study with no other exclusion criteria than age. Sarcopenic subjects were defined by the diagnostic criteria by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People...
June 18, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909526/a-bean-common-mosaic-virus-bcmv-resistance-gene-is-fine-mapped-to-the-same-region-as-rsv1-h-in-the-soybean-cultivar-suweon-97
#6
Mian Wu, Wen-Ping Wu, Cheng-Chen Liu, Ying-Na Liu, Xiao-Yi Wu, Fang-Fang Ma, An-Qi Zhu, Jia-Yin Yang, Bin Wang, Jian-Qun Chen
In the soybean cultivar Suweon 97, BCMV-resistance gene was fine-mapped to a 58.1-kb region co-localizing with the Soybean mosaic virus (SMV)-resistance gene, Rsv1-h raising a possibility that the same gene is utilized against both viral pathogens. Certain soybean cultivars exhibit resistance against soybean mosaic virus (SMV) or bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). Although several SMV-resistance loci have been reported, the understanding of the mechanism underlying BCMV resistance in soybean is limited. Here, by crossing a resistant cultivar Suweon 97 with a susceptible cultivar Williams 82 and inoculating 220 F2 individuals with a BCMV strain (HZZB011), we observed a 3:1 (resistant/susceptible) segregation ratio, suggesting that Suweon 97 possesses a single dominant resistance gene against BCMV...
June 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908325/dopamine-d2-receptor-activation-potently-inhibits-striatal-glutamatergic-transmission-in-a-g2019s-lrrk2-genetic-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Alessandro Tozzi, Valentina Durante, Guendalina Bastioli, Petra Mazzocchetti, Salvatore Novello, Alessandro Mechelli, Michele Morari, Cinzia Costa, Andrea Mancini, Massimiliano Di Filippo, Paolo Calabresi
Among genetic abnormalities identified in Parkinson's disease (PD), mutations of the leucine-rich repeat kinase2 (LRRK2) gene, such as the G2019S missense mutation linked to enhanced kinase activity, are the most common. While the complex role of LRRK2 has not been fully elucidated, evidence that mutated kinase activity affects synaptic transmission has been reported. Thus, our aim was to explore possible early alterations of neurotransmission produced by the G2019S LRRK2 mutation in PD. We performed electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings of striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) in the G2019S-Lrrk2 knock-in (KI) mouse model of PD, in D1994S kinase-dead (KD), Lrrk2 knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice...
June 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908255/genetic-overexpression-of-glutathione-peroxidase-1-attenuates-microcystin-leucine-arginine-induced-memory-impairment-in-mice
#8
Eun-Joo Shin, Yeong Gwang Hwang, Duc Toan Pham, Ji Won Lee, Yu Jeung Lee, Dongjin Pyo, Xin Gen Lei, Ji Hoon Jeong, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MCLR) is the most common form of microcystins, which are environmental toxins produced by cyanobacteria, and its hepatotoxicity has been well-documented. However, the neurotoxic potential of MCLR remains to be further elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of MCLR induces mortality and neuronal loss in the hippocampus of mice. Because we found that MCLR impairs memory function in the hippocampus at a low dose (4 ng/μl/mouse, i...
June 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906245/the-gut-microbiota-metabolite-indole-alleviates-liver-inflammation-in-mice
#9
Martin Beaumont, Audrey M Neyrinck, Marta Olivares, Julie Rodriguez, Audrey de Rocca Serra, Martin Roumain, Laure B Bindels, Patrice D Cani, Pieter Evenepoel, Giulio G Muccioli, Jean-Baptiste Demoulin, Nathalie M Delzenne
The gut microbiota regulates key hepatic functions, notably through the production of bacterial metabolites that are transported via the portal circulation. We evaluated the effects of metabolites produced by the gut microbiota from aromatic amino acids (phenylacetate, benzoate, p-cresol, and indole) on liver inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin. Precision-cut liver slices prepared from control mice, Kupffer cell (KC)-depleted mice, and obese mice ( ob/ ob) were treated with or without LPS and bacterial metabolites...
June 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905348/on-the-dual-reactivity-of-a-janus-type-mesoionic-dipole-experiments-and-theoretical-validation
#10
Juan García de la Concepción, Martín Ávalos, Pedro Cintas, José L Jiménez, Mark E Light
A mesoionic bicycle, easily synthesized from a proteinogenic amino acid, l-leucine, behaves as both thiazolium-olate and diazolium-olate dipoles, as unveiled by its dipolar cycloadditions. This chameleonic reactivity has been thoroughly interpreted by dissecting the mechanistic landscape aided by the distortion-interaction model.
June 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904627/metabolic-patterns-in-spirodela-polyrhiza-revealed-by-15-n-stable-isotope-labeling-of-amino-acids-in-photoautotrophic-heterotrophic-and-mixotrophic-growth-conditions
#11
Erin M Evans, Dana M Freund, Veronica M Sondervan, Jerry D Cohen, Adrian D Hegeman
In this study we describe a [15 N] stable isotopic labeling study of amino acids in Spirodela polyrhiza (common duckweed) grown under three different light and carbon input conditions which represent unique potential metabolic modes. Plants were grown with a light cycle, either with supplemental sucrose (mixotrophic) or without supplemental sucrose (photoautotrophic) and in the dark with supplemental sucrose (heterotrophic). Labeling patterns, pool sizes (both metabolically active and inactive), and kinetics/turnover rates were estimated for 17 of the proteinogenic amino acids...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903759/l-leucine-increases-translation-of-rps14-and-larp1-in-erythroblasts-from-del-5q-myelodysplastic-syndrome-patients
#12
Erica Bello, Jonathan Kerry, Shalini Singh, Bon Ham Yip, Rajko Kušec, Sally Killick, Sophie Raynaud, Jacqueline Boultwood, Andrea Pellagatti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903014/lrrk-2-gene-mutations-in-the-pathophysiology-of-the-roco-domain-and-therapeutic-targets-for-parkinson-s-disease-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Meng-Ling Chen, Ruey-Meei Wu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder and manifests as resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Pathologically, PD is characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the formation of intracellular inclusions containing α-synuclein and ubiquitin called Lewy bodies. Consequently, a remarkable deficiency of dopamine in the striatum causes progressive disability of motor function. The etiology of PD remains uncertain. Genetic variability in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the most common genetic cause of sporadic and familial PD...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901760/leucine-not-total-protein-content-of-a-supplement-is-the-primary-determinant-of-muscle-protein-anabolic-responses-in-healthy-older-women
#14
Michaela C Devries, Chris McGlory, Douglas R Bolster, Alison Kamil, Maike Rahn, Laura Harkness, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
Background: Older adults show a blunted muscle protein synthesis (MPS) response to postprandial hyperaminoacidemia relative to younger adults. Evidence suggests that this anabolic resistance can be overcome by consuming greater quantities of leucine. Objective: The purpose of this trial was to determine whether the addition of leucine to a smaller dose (10 g) of milk proteins would, when compared with a larger dose (25 g) of whey protein isolate (WPI), result in similar increases in acute (hourly) and integrated (daily) myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901732/growth-and-clinical-variables-in-nitrogen-restricted-piglets-fed-an-adjusted-essential-amino-acid-mix-effects-of-free-amino-acid-based-diets
#15
Mikkel Lykke, Per T Sangild, Johannes B van Goudoever, Dewi van Harskamp, Henk Schierbeek, Berthold Koletzko, Eline M van der Beek, Marieke Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Bert J M van de Heijning, Barbara Stoll, Douglas G Burrin, Thomas Thymann
Background: Excess protein intake in early life has been linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Yet protein, and in particular the essential amino acids (EAAs), need to be present in adequate quantity to support growth. Objective: With the use of a piglet model restricted in dietary amino acids (AAs), we compared the efficacy and safety of a standard formula with a low-AA formula containing an adjusted AA composition. Methods: Female piglets (3-7 d old; Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) were fed 1 of 4 isoenergetic AA-based formulas for 14 d (700 kJ · kg body weight-1 · d-1)...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899783/imaging-findings-in-maple-syrup-urine-disease-a-case-report
#16
Anjaneya S Kathait, Paulo Puac, Mauricio Castillo
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that affects branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism. It is characterized by accumulation of BCAAs and corresponding branched-chain keto acids of leucine, isoleucine, and valine in plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Leucine is toxic to brain cells, leading to cytotoxic edema affecting the myelinated white matter, and involving the corticospinal tracts, thalami, globus palladi, midbrain, dorsal brain stem, and cerebellum. We present a neonate with the classic subtype of MSUD and its imaging features on magnetic resonance imaging...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899530/enteric-bacteria-boost-defences-against-oxidative-stress-in-entamoeba-histolytica
#17
Hugo Varet, Yana Shaulov, Odile Sismeiro, Meirav Trebicz-Geffen, Rachel Legendre, Jean-Yves Coppée, Serge Ankri, Nancy Guillen
Oxidative stress is one of the strongest toxic factors in nature: it can harm or even kill cells. Cellular means of subverting the toxicity of oxidative stress are important for the success of infectious diseases. Many types of bacterium inhabit the intestine, where they can encounter pathogens. During oxidative stress, we analyzed the interplay between an intestinal parasite (the pathogenic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica - the agent of amoebiasis) and enteric bacteria (microbiome residents, pathogens and probiotics)...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899118/endocytosis-is-required-for-c-x-c-chemokine-receptor-type-4-cxcr4-mediated-akt-activation-and-anti-apoptotic-signaling
#18
Elizabeth J English, Sarah A Mahn, Adriano Marchese
Signaling activated by binding of the C-X-C motif chemokine ligand CXCL12 to its cognate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), chemokine C-X-C motif receptor 4 (CXCR4), is linked to metastatic disease. Yet the mechanisms governing CXCR4 signaling remain poorly understood. Here we show that endocytosis and early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1), which is part of the endosome fusion machinery, are required for CXCL12-mediated AKT Ser/Thr kinase (Akt) signaling selective for certain Akt substrates. Pharmacological inhibition of endocytosis partially attenuated CXCL12-induced phosphorylation of Akt, but not phosphorylation of ERK-1/2...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898658/two-divergent-symbiodinium-genomes-reveal-conservation-of-a-gene-cluster-for-sunscreen-biosynthesis-and-recently-lost-genes
#19
Eiichi Shoguchi, Girish Beedessee, Ipputa Tada, Kanako Hisata, Takeshi Kawashima, Takeshi Takeuchi, Nana Arakaki, Manabu Fujie, Ryo Koyanagi, Michael C Roy, Masanobu Kawachi, Michio Hidaka, Noriyuki Satoh, Chuya Shinzato
BACKGROUND: The marine dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium, is a well-known photosynthetic partner for coral and other diverse, non-photosynthetic hosts in subtropical and tropical shallows, where it comprises an essential component of marine ecosystems. Using molecular phylogenetics, the genus Symbiodinium has been classified into nine major clades, A-I, and one of the reported differences among phenotypes is their capacity to synthesize mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), which absorb UV radiation...
June 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898625/branched-chain-amino-acids-are-associated-with-metabolic-parameters-in-bipolar-disorder
#20
F T Fellendorf, M Platzer, R Pilz, A Rieger, H P Kapfhammer, H Mangge, N Dalkner, S Zelzer, A Meinitzer, A Birner, S A Bengesser, R Queissner, C Hamm, R Hartleb, E Z Reininghaus
OBJECTIVES: An important aspect of bipolar disorder (BD) research is the identification of biomarkers pertaining to the somatic health state. The branched-chain essential amino acids (BCAAs), viz valine, leucine and isoleucine, have been proposed as biomarkers of an individual's health state, given their influence on protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis inhibition. METHODS: BCAA levels of 141 euthymic/subsyndromal individuals with BD and 141 matched healthy controls (HC) were analyzed by high-pressure lipid chromatography and correlated with clinical psychiatric, anthropometric and metabolic parameters...
June 14, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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