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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244952/metabolic-responses-of-mytilus-galloprovincialis-to-fullerenes-in-mesocosms-exposure-experiments
#1
Josep Sanchís, Marta Llorca, Mar Olmos, Gabriella Francesca Schirinzi, Cristina Bosch-Orea, Esteban Abad, Damia Barcelo, Marinella Farre
In this study, Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed through the diet to fullerene soot, at three concentrations in parallel to a control group. Their metabolomics response was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS). The experiments were conducted in marine mesocosms, during 35 days (7 days of acclimatization, 21 days of exposure and 7 seven days of depuration). Real conditions were emulated in terms of physicochemical conditions of the habitat...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244079/a-non-hemolytic-group-b-streptococcus-strain-exhibits-hypervirulence
#2
Claire Gendrin, Jay Vornhagen, Blair Armistead, Pallavi Singh, Christopher Whidbey, Sean Merillat, David Knupp, Robert Parker, Lisa M Rogers, Phoenicia Quach, Lakshminarayan M Iyer, L Aravind, Shannon D Manning, David M Aronoff, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B Streptococci (GBS) are gram-positive bacteria that are a leading cause of neonatal infections. Most invasive isolates are -hemolytic and hemolytic activity is critical for GBS virulence. While non-hemolytic GBS strains are occasionally isolated, they are often thought to be virulence attenuated. Here, we show that a non-hemolytic GBS strain (GB37) isolated from a septic neonate exhibits hypervirulence. Substitution of tryptophan to leucine (W297L) in the sensor histidine kinase CovS results in constitutive kinase signaling, leading to decreased hemolysis and increased activity of the GBS hyaluronidase, HylB...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242232/ralf4-19-peptides-interact-with-lrx-proteins-to-control-pollen-tube-growth-in-arabidopsis
#3
Martin A Mecchia, Gorka Santos-Fernandez, Nadine N Duss, Sofía C Somoza, Aurélien Boisson-Dernier, Valeria Gagliardini, Andrea Martínez-Bernardini, Tohnyui Ndinyanka Fabrice, Christoph Ringli, Jorge P Muschietti, Ueli Grossniklaus
The communication of changes in the extracellular matrix to the interior of the cell is crucial for a cell's function. The extracellular peptides of the RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) family have been identified as ligands of receptor-like kinases of the CrRLK1L subclass, but the exact mechanism of their perception is unclear. We found that Arabidopsis RALF4 and RALF19 redundantly regulate pollen tube integrity and growth, and that their function depends on pollen-expressed proteins of the LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT EXTENSIN (LRX) family, which play a role in cell wall development but whose mode of action is not understood...
December 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242132/molecular-characterization-expression-and-functional-analysis-of-nod1-nod2-and-nlrc3-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#4
Feng-Ying Gao, Ji-Cai Pang, Mai-Xin Lu, Xian-le Yang, Hua-Ping Zhu, Xiao-Li Ke, Zhi-Gang Liu, Jian-Meng Cao, Miao Wang
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins NOD1, NOD2 and NLRC3 are cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family. In the present study, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) NOD1 (ntNOD1), NOD2 (ntNOD2) and NLRC3 (ntNLRC3) genes were cloned and characterized. The full-length ntNOD1, ntNOD2 and ntNLRC3 genes were 3924, 3886 and 4574 bp, encoding 941, 986 and 1130 amino acids, respectively. The three Nod-like receptors have a NACHT domain and a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain...
December 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241968/case-control-analysis-of-leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2-protective-variants-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Adeline S L Ng, Ebonne Y L Ng, Yi Jayne Tan, Nagaendran Kandiah, Juan Zhou, Shahul Hameed, Simon K S Ting, Eng-King Tan
Amyloid is the main pathological substrate of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been described in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) carriers with Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 has been linked with amyloid precursor protein pathways in neurodegeneration. Two common LRRK2 variants, R1398H and N551K, have been shown to be protective in multiple Parkinson's disease cohorts. We hypothesized that R1398H and N551K may be protective in AD. In a case-control study involving 1390 subjects (719 controls and 671 AD cases), R1398H was demonstrated in 16...
November 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240953/influence-of-excess-branched-chain-amino-acid-uptake-by-streptococcus-mutans-in-human-host-cells
#6
Takafumi Arimoto, Rei Yambe, Hirobumi Morisaki, Haruka Umezawa, Hideo Kataoka, Shohei Matsui, Hirotaka Kuwata
Oral streptococci, including cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans, comprise a large percentage of human supragingival plaque, which contacts both tooth surfaces and gingiva. Eukaryotic cells are able to take up macromolecules and particles, including bacteria, by endocytosis. Increasing evidence indicates endocytosis may be used as an entry process by bacteria. We hypothesized some endocytosed bacteria might survive and obtain nutrients, such as amino acids, until they are killed. To verify this hypothesis, we focused on bacterial utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, and valine) in host cells...
December 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240802/systemic-factors-related-to-soluble-pro-renin-receptor-in-plasma-of-patients-with-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#7
Keitaro Hase, Atsuhiro Kanda, Ikuyo Hirose, Kousuke Noda, Susumu Ishida
(Pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], a new component of the tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays a crucial role in inflammation and angiogenesis in the eye, thus contributing to the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In this study, we investigated systemic factors related to plasma levels of soluble form of (P)RR [s(P)RR] in patients with PDR. Twenty type II diabetic patients with PDR and 20 age-matched, non-diabetic patients with idiopathic macular diseases were enrolled, and plasma levels of various molecules were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240717/a-novel-antibiotic-mechanism-of-l-cyclopropylalanine-blocking-the-biosynthetic-pathway-of-essential-amino-acid-l-leucine
#8
Bingji Ma, Jinwen Shen, Wandee Yindeeyoungyeon, Yuan Ruan
The unusual amino acid l-cyclopropylalanine was isolated from the mushroom Amanita virgineoides after detection in an anti-fungal screening test. l-Cyclopropylalanine was found to exhibit broad-spectrum inhibition against fungi and bacteria. The anti-fungal activity was found to be abolished in the presence of the amino acid l-leucine, but not any other amino acids, indicating that l-cyclopropylalanine may block the biosynthesis of the essential amino acid l-leucine, thereby inhibiting fungal and bacteria growth...
December 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240672/amount-distribution-and-quality-of-protein-intake-are-not-associated-with-muscle-mass-strength-and-power-in-healthy-older-adults-without-functional-limitations-an-enable-study
#9
Anne Gingrich, Alexandra Spiegel, Robert Kob, Daniel Schoene, Thomas Skurk, Hans Hauner, Cornel C Sieber, Dorothee Volkert, Eva Kiesswetter
To maintain muscle mass in older age, several aspects regarding the amount and distribution of protein intake have been suggested. Our objective was to investigate single and combined associations of daily protein intake, evenness of protein distribution across the three main meals, number of meals providing ≥0.4 g protein/kg body weight (BW), and number of meals providing ≥2.5 g leucine, with muscle mass, strength, and power in successful agers. In this cross-sectional study in 97 healthy community-dwelling adults without functional limitations aged 75-85 years, protein intake was assessed using 7-day food records...
December 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237723/the-e3-ligase-drought-hypersensitive-negatively-regulates-cuticular-wax-biosynthesis-by-promoting-the-degradation-of-transcription-factor-roc4-in-rice
#10
Zhenyu Wang, Xiaojie Tian, Qingzhen Zhao, Zhiqi Liu, Xiufeng Li, Yuekun Ren, Jiaqi Tang, Jun Fang, Qijiang Xu, Qingyun Bu
Cuticular wax plays crucial roles in protecting plants from environmental stresses, particularly drought stress. Many enzyme-encoding genes and transcription factors involved in wax biosynthesis have been identified, but the underlying posttranslational regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that DROUGHT HYPERSENSITIVE (DHS), encoding a Really Interesting New Gene (RING)-type protein, is a critical regulator of wax biosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa). The cuticular wax contents were significantly reduced in DHS overexpression plants but increased in dhs mutants compared to the wild type, which resulted in a response opposite that of drought stress...
December 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237452/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-the-family-of-feline-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-lgi-genes-and-mutational-analysis-in-familial-spontaneous-epileptic-cats
#11
Yoshihiko Yu, Daisuke Hasegawa, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Yuji Hamamoto, Shunta Mizoguchi, Takayuki Kuwabara, Michio Fujita
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated (LGI) proteins play a critical role in synaptic transmission. Dysfunction of these genes and encoded proteins is associated with neurological disorders such as genetic epilepsy or autoimmune limbic encephalitis in animals and human. Familial spontaneous epileptic cats (FSECs) are the only feline strain and animal model of familial temporal lobe epilepsy. The seizure semiology of FSECs comprises recurrent limbic seizures with or without evolution into generalized epileptic seizures, while cats with antibodies against voltage-gated potassium channel complexed/LGI1 show limbic encephalitis and recurrent limbic seizures...
December 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236054/genome-wide-profiling-of-small-rnas-and-degradome-revealed-conserved-regulations-of-mirnas-on-auxin-responsive-genes-during-fruit-enlargement-in-peaches
#12
Mengya Shi, Xiao Hu, Yu Wei, Xu Hou, Xue Yuan, Jun Liu, Yueping Liu
Auxin has long been known as a critical phytohormone that regulates fruit development in plants. However, due to the lack of an enlarged ovary wall in the model plants Arabidopsis and rice, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of fruit division and enlargement remain unclear. In this study, we performed small RNA sequencing and degradome sequencing analyses to systematically explore post-transcriptional regulation in the mesocarp at the hard core stage following treatment of the peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit with the synthetic auxin α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA)...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235163/ultraviolet-b-eye-irradiation-aggravates-atopic-dermatitis-via-acth-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-nc-nga-mice
#13
Keiichi Hiramoto, Yurika Yamate, Satoshi Yokoyama
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation has been shown to improve atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the relationship between UVB eye irradiation and AD is not known. This issue was addressed using a mouse model of AD. METHODS: The eyes of NC/Nga mice were irradiated with UVB at a dose of 1.0 kJ/m2 using a 20SE sunlamp for the duration of the experimental period. RESULTS: AD symptoms deteriorated upon UVB eye irradiation. The levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the plasma and nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing (NLRP)3 and neutrophil markers in the skin were increased in UVB-irradiated mice...
December 13, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232098/amyloid-%C3%AE-1-40-toxicity-depends-on-the-molecular-contact-between-phenylalanine-19-and-leucine-34
#14
Alexander Korn, Steffane McLennan, Juliane Adler, Martin Krueger, Dayana Surendran, Sudipta Maiti, Daniel Huster
The formation of the hydrophobic contact between phenylalanine 19 (F19) and leucine 34 (L34) of amyloid β (1-40) (Aβ(1-40)) is known to be an important step in the fibrillation of Aβ(1-40) peptides. Mutations of this putatively early molecular contact were shown to strongly influence the toxicity of Aβ(1-40) (Das et al., ACS Chem. Neurosci. 6 (2015) 1290-1295). Any mutation of residue F19 completely abolished the toxicity of Aβ(1-40), suggesting that a proper F19 - L34 contact is crucial also for the formation of transient oligomers...
December 12, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231777/de-novo-transcriptome-study-identifies-candidate-genes-involved-in-resistance-to-austropuccinia-psidii-myrtle-rust-in-syzygium-luehmannnii-riberry
#15
Peri Ann Tobias, David Guest, Carsten Külheim, Robert F Park
Austropuccinia psidii, causal agent of myrtle rust, was discovered in Australia in 2010 and has since become established on a wide range of species within the Myrtaceae. Syzygium luehmannii, endemic to Australia, is an increasingly valuable berry crop. Plants were screened for responses to A. psidii inoculation and specific resistance, in the form of localised necrosis, was determined in 29% of individuals. To understand the molecular basis underlying this response, mRNA was sequenced from leaf samples taken pre-inoculation, and at 24 and 48 hours post inoculation, from four resistant and four susceptible plants...
December 12, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231324/-effects-of-heat-reinforcing-acupuncture-on-urine-metabolites-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-rabbits
#16
Xiaozheng Du, Bo Yuan, Jinhai Wang, Xinghua Zhang, Liang Tian, Chaozhan Ren, Huazong Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different acupuncture methods on urine metabolites in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) rabbits, and to explore the specificity mechanism of heat-reinforcing acupuncture for RA. METHODS: A total of 40 clean purple-blue rabbits were randomly allocated to a normal group, a model group, a mild reinforcing-reducing needling (MRRN) group, a twirling-reinforcing needling (TRN) group and a heat-reinforcing needling (HRN) group, 8 rabbits in each one...
January 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230231/activation-of-the-lrr-receptor-like-kinase-psy1r-requires-transphosphorylation-of-residues-in-the-activation-loop
#17
Christian B Oehlenschlæger, Lotte B A Gersby, Nagib Ahsan, Jesper T Pedersen, Astrid Kristensen, Tsvetelina V Solakova, Jay J Thelen, Anja T Fuglsang
PSY1R is a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like kinase (RLK) previously shown to act as receptor for the plant peptide hormone PSY1 (peptide containing sulfated tyrosine 1) and to regulate cell expansion. PSY1R phosphorylates and thereby regulates the activity of plasma membrane-localized H+-ATPases. While this mechanism has been studied in detail, little is known about how PSY1R itself is activated. Here we studied the activation mechanism of PSY1R. We show that full-length PSY1R interacts with members of the SERK co-receptor family in planta...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229919/migratory-dendritic-cells-acquire-and-present-lymphatic-endothelial-cell-archived-antigens-during-lymph-node-contraction
#18
Ross M Kedl, Robin S Lindsay, Jeffrey M Finlon, Erin D Lucas, Rachel S Friedman, Beth A Jirón Tamburini
Antigens derived from viral infection or vaccination can persist within a host for many weeks after resolution of the infection or vaccine responses. We previously identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) as the repository for this antigen archival, yet LECs are unable to present their archived antigens to CD8+ T cells, and instead transfer their antigens to CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells (APC). Here we show that the exchange of archived antigens between LECs and APCs is mediated by migratory dendritic cells (DC)...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229865/daple-coordinates-organ-wide-and-cell-intrinsic-polarity-to-pattern-inner-ear-hair-bundles
#19
Kimberly Siletti, Basile Tarchini, A J Hudspeth
The establishment of planar polarization by mammalian cells necessitates the integration of diverse signaling pathways. In the inner ear, at least two systems regulate the planar polarity of sensory hair bundles. The core planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins coordinate the orientations of hair cells across the epithelial plane. The cell-intrinsic patterning of hair bundles is implemented independently by the G protein complex classically known for orienting the mitotic spindle. Although the primary cilium also participates in each of these pathways, its role and the integration of the two systems are poorly understood...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229527/surface-proteins-and-the-formation-of-biofilms-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Sung Joon Kim, James Chang, Binayak Rimal, Hao Yang, Jacob Schaefer
Staphylococcus aureus biofilms pose a serious clinical threat as reservoirs for persistent infections. Despite this clinical significance, the composition and mechanism of formation of S. aureus biofilms are unknown. To address these problems, we used solid-state NMR to examine S. aureus (SA113), a strong biofilm-forming strain. We labeled whole cells and cell walls of planktonic cells, young biofilms formed for 12-24h after stationary phase, and more mature biofilms formed for up to 60h after stationary phase...
December 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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