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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531844/development-of-an-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-simultaneous-quantitation-of-11-d-amino-acids-in-different-regions-of-rat-brain-application-to-a-study-on-the-associations-of-d-amino-acid-concentration-changes-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Zhe Li, Yuping Xing, Xingjie Guo, Yan Cui
There are significant differences in d-amino acid concentrations between healthy people and Alzheimer's disease patients. In order to investigate the potential correlation between d-amino acids and Alzheimer's disease, a simple and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed. The method was applied to simultaneous determination of 11 d-amino acids in different regions of rat brain. Rat brain homogenates were firstly pretreated with protein precipitation procedure and then derivatized with (S)-N-(4-nitrophenoxycarbonyl) phenylalanine methoxyethyl ester [(S)-NIFE]...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531279/mechanisms-governing-inflammasome-activation-assembly-and-pyroptosis-induction
#2
Sannula Kesavardhana, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that regulate inflammatory responses and pyroptotic cell death to exert host defense against microbes. Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors such as nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) and absent in melanoma 2 like receptors (ALRs) assemble the inflammasome complexes in response to pathogens and danger or altered-self signals in the cell. Inflammasome sensors, in association with an adaptor protein - apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activation and -recruitment domain (ASC) - activate inflammatory caspase-1 to enable the release of inflammatory cytokines and induce cell death, conferring host defense against pathogens...
May 20, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529470/microdissection-of-the-ah01-chromosome-in-upland-cotton-and-microcloning-of-resistance-gene-anologs-from-the-single-chromosome
#3
Xinchuan Cao, Yuling Liu, Zhen Liu, Fang Liu, Yalei Wu, Zhongli Zhou, Xiaoyan Cai, Xingxing Wang, Zhenmei Zhang, Yuhong Wang, Zhimin Luo, Renhai Peng, Kunbo Wang
BACKGROUND: Chromosome microdissection is one of the most important techniques in molecular cytogenetic research. Cotton (Gossypium Linnaeus, 1753) is the main natural fiber crop in the world. The resistance gene analog (RGA) cloning after its single chromosome microdissection can greatly promote cotton genome research and breeding. RESULTS: Using the linker adaptor PCR (LA-PCR) with the primers of rice disease-resistance homologues, three nucleotide sequences PS016 (KU051681), PS054 (KU051682), and PS157 (KU051680) were obtained from the chromosome Ah01 of upland cotton (cv...
2017: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529327/metabolite-profiling-of-obese-individuals-before-and-after-a-one-year-weight-loss-program
#4
N Geidenstam, M Al-Majdoub, M Ekman, P Spégel, M Ridderstråle
OBJECTIVE: We and others have previously characterized changes in circulating metabolite levels following diet-induced weight loss. Our aim was to investigate if baseline metabolite levels and weight loss-induced changes in these are predictive of or associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) and metabolic risk traits. METHODS: Serum metabolites were analyzed with gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in 91 obese individuals at baseline and after participating in a one year non-surgical weight loss program...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528776/structural-basis-of-tpr-mediated-oligomerization-and-activation-of-oncogenic-fusion-kinases
#5
Kuntal Pal, Abhishek Bandyopadhyay, X Edward Zhou, Qingping Xu, David P Marciano, Joseph S Brunzelle, Smitha Yerrum, Patrick R Griffin, George Vande Woude, Karsten Melcher, H Eric Xu
The nuclear pore complex subunit TPR is found in at least five different oncogenic fusion kinases, including TPR-MET, yet how TPR fusions promote activation of kinases and their oncogenic activities remains poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of TPR(2-142), the MET fusion partner of oncogenic TPR-MET. TPR(2-142) contains a continuous 124-residue α helix that forms an antiparallel tetramer from two leucine zipper-containing parallel coiled coils. Remarkably, single mutations cause strikingly different conformations of the coiled coil, indicating its highly dynamic nature...
May 18, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527646/high-dose-amino-acid-administration-achieves-an-anabolic-response-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-that-is-independent-of-glycaemic-control-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Chelsia Gillis, Patricia S Roque, Jürgen Bläss, Albert Urwyler, Harald Schepperle, Guido Kunz, Thomas Peters, Thomas Schricker, Linda Wykes, Andrea Kopp Lugli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Surgical stress provokes protein catabolism and hyperglycaemia that is enhanced in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and increases perioperative morbidity. This study hypothesized that perioperative administration of high dose intravenous (IV) amino acids (AA) will augment protein balance in T2DM patients receiving tight plasma glucose control via continuous IV insulin compared to standard plasma glucose control via subcutaneous (SC) insulin sliding scale. METHODS: Eighteen patients with well-controlled T2DM (HbA1C% < 7...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525375/ros-enhance-angiogenic-properties-via-regulation-of-nrf2-in-tumor-endothelial-cells
#7
Takayuki Hojo, Nako Maishi, Alam Mohammad Towfik, Kosuke Akiyama, Noritaka Ohga, Masanobu Shindoh, Yasuhiro Hida, Kazuyuki Minowa, Toshiaki Fujisawa, Kyoko Hida
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are unstable molecules that activate oxidative stress. Because of the insufficient blood flow in tumors, the tumor microenvironment is often exposed to hypoxic condition and nutrient deprivation, which induces ROS accumulation. We isolated tumor endothelial cells (TECs) and found that they have various abnormalities, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we showed that ROS were accumulated in tumor blood vessels and ROS enhanced TEC migration with upregulation of several angiogenesis related gene expressions...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523591/assessment-of-the-neuroprotective-effects-of-arginine-rich-protamine-peptides-poly-arginine-peptides-r12-cyclic-r22-and-arginine-tryptophan-containing-peptides-following-in-vitro-excitotoxicity-and-or-permanent-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rats
#8
Bruno P Meloni, Diego Milani, Jane L Cross, Vince W Clark, Adam B Edwards, Ryan S Anderton, David J Blacker, Neville W Knuckey
We have demonstrated that arginine-rich and poly-arginine peptides possess potent neuroprotective properties with arginine content and peptide positive charge being particularly critical for neuroprotective efficacy. In addition, the presence of other amino acids within arginine-rich peptides, as well as chemical modifications, peptide length and cell-penetrating properties also influence the level of neuroprotection. Against this background, we have examined the neuroprotective efficacy of arginine-rich protamine peptides, a cyclic (R12-c) poly-arginine peptide and a R22 poly-arginine peptide, as well as arginine peptides containing tryptophan or other amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, glycine or leucine) in in vitro glutamic acid excitotoxicity and in vivo rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion models of stroke...
May 18, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522549/carbonic-anhydrases-function-in-anther-cell-differentiation-downstream-of-the-receptor-like-kinase-ems1
#9
Jian Huang, Zhiyong Li, Gabriel Biener, Erhui Xiong, Shikha Malik, Nathan Eaton, Catherine Z Zhao, Valerica Raicu, Hongzhi Kong, Dazhong Dave Zhao
Plants extensively employ leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), the largest family of RLKs, to control a wide range of growth and developmental processes as well as defense responses. To date, only a few direct downstream effectors for LRR-RLKs have been identified. We previously showed that the LRR-RLK EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) and its ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) are required for the differentiation of somatic tapetal cells and reproductive microsporocytes during early anther development in Arabidopsis thaliana...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522372/effective-antimicrobial-activity-of-a-peptide-mutant-cbf-14-2-against-penicillin-resistant-bacteria-based-on-its-unnatural-amino-acids
#10
Wei Kang, Hanhan Liu, Lingman Ma, Mengxiao Wang, Shanshan Wei, Pengbo Sun, Meiling Jiang, Min Guo, Changlin Zhou, Jie Dou
Broad spectrum activities, a unique mode of actions and rare resistant variants make antimicrobial peptide (AMP) a potential alternative to antibiotics. However, AMPs still have limitations in clinical development due to their physiological stability, toxicity and manufacturing costs. Cbf-14, derived from cathelicidin-BF has been proven to be effective against drug-resistant bacteria. Herein, a series of Cbf-14 mutants were designed to overcome these limitations. Design strategies included substitutions of lysine (Lys) or leucine (Leu) with similar residues such as ornithine (Orn) and norleucine (Ile), which are unnatural amino acids, to generate AMPs with enhanced therapeutic potential...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521442/mrna-expression-of-steroidogenic-enzymes-steroid-hormone-receptors-and-their-coregulators-in-gastric-cancer
#11
Bartosz Adam Frycz, Dawid Murawa, Maciej Borejsza-Wysocki, Mateusz Wichtowski, Arkadiusz Spychała, Ryszard Marciniak, Paweł Murawa, Michał Drews, Paweł Piotr Jagodziński
Epidemiological and experimental findings suggest that the development of gastric cancer (GC) is regulated by steroid hormones. In postmenopausal women and older men, the majority of steroid hormones are produced locally in peripheral tissue through the enzymatic conversion of steroid precursors. Therefore, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, the mRNA expression of genes encoding steroidogenic enzymes, including steroid sulfatase (STS), hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 1 (HSD3B1), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 and aromatase (CYP19A1), was investigated in primary tumoral and adjacent healthy gastric mucosa from 60 patients with GC...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516268/gpna-inhibits-the-sodium-independent-transport-system-l-for-neutral-amino-acids
#12
Martina Chiu, Cosimo Sabino, Giuseppe Taurino, Massimiliano G Bianchi, Roberta Andreoli, Nicola Giuliani, Ovidio Bussolati
L-γ-Glutamyl-p-nitroanilide (GPNA) is widely used to inhibit the glutamine transporter ASCT2, although it is known that it also inhibits other sodium-dependent amino acid transporters. In a panel of human cancer cell lines, which express the system L transporters LAT1 and LAT2, GPNA inhibits the sodium-independent influx of leucine and glutamine. The kinetics of the effect suggests that GPNA is a low affinity, competitive inhibitor of system L transporters. In Hs683 human oligodendroglioma cells, the incubation in the presence of GPNA, but not ASCT2 silencing, lowers the cell content of leucine...
May 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515914/analysis-of-the-function-of-microrna-375-in-humans-using-bioinformatics
#13
Xiaohua Chen, Baoxia Li, Rongcheng Luo, Sina Cai, Cao Zhang, Xiaolong Cao
MicroRNA-375 (miR-375) is expressed at low levels in many types of solid tumor, particularly in gastrointestinal tumors. It is considered to be important in the development of cancer and certain diseases. Thus, more detailed knowledge is required on the particular functions of miR-375. miRs function by regulating target genes. Therefore, in the current study, miRWalk (which includes the data from 10 prediction software programs) was used to predict the target genes of miR-375. The genes, which were co-predicted using five different software programs were further analyzed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online software [including gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis]...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515732/osmotic-stress-induced-cell-death-in-wheat-is-alleviated-by-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-and-involves-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-related-gene-expression
#14
Liting Zhang, Zeyu Xin, Xing Yu, Chao Ma, Weiwei Liang, Meichen Zhu, Qiwei Cheng, Zongzhen Li, Yanan Niu, Yongzhe Ren, Zhiqiang Wang, Tongbao Lin
Although, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been widely studied in mammalian cells because of its role in inhibiting apoptosis, its effects on plants remain almost unknown, especially in the case of crops such as wheat. In this study, we conducted a series of experiments to explore the effects and mechanisms of action of TUDCA on wheat growth and cell death induced by osmotic stress. Our results show that TUDCA: (1) ameliorates the impact of osmotic stress on wheat height, fresh weight, and water content; (2) alleviates the decrease in chlorophyll content as well as membrane damage caused by osmotic stress; (3) decreases the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes under osmotic stress; and (4) to some extent alleviates osmotic stress-induced cell death probably by regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related gene expression, for example expression of the basic leucine zipper genes bZIP60B and bZIP60D, the binding proteins BiP1 and BiP2, the protein disulfide isomerase PDIL8-1, and the glucose-regulated protein GRP94...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515297/attenuation-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-by-engineering-viral-polymerase-fidelity
#15
Devendra K Rai, Fayna Diaz-San Segundo, Grace Campagnola, Anna Keith, Elizabeth A Schafer, Anna Kloc, Teresa de Los Santos, Olve Peersen, Elizabeth Rieder
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3D(pol)) catalyzes viral RNA synthesis. Its characteristic low fidelity and absence of proofreading activity allows FMDV to rapidly mutate and adapt to dynamic environments. In this study, we used the structure of FMDV 3D(pol) in combination with prior results from similar picornaviral polymerases to design point mutations that would alter replication fidelity. In particular, we targeted Trp237 within conserved polymerase motif A because of the low reversion potential inherent in the single UGG codon...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514978/jugular-infused-methionine-lysine-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-does-not-improve-milk-production-in-holstein-cows-experiencing-heat-stress
#16
K R Kassube, J D Kaufman, K G Pohler, J W McFadden, A G Ríus
Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14...
May 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513068/a-randomized-controlled-trial-branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-and-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-obesity-and-sleep-apnea
#17
Antonia Barceló, Daniel Morell-Garcia, Neus Salord, Cristina Esquinas, Gerardo Pérez, Antonio Pérez, Carmen Monasterio, Merce Gasa, Ana Maria Fortuna, Josep Maria Montserrat, Mercedes Mayos
There is evidence that changes in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels may correlate with the efficacy of therapeutic interventions for affecting improvement in metabolic control. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) could mediate in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective randomized controlled trial of OSA patients with morbid obesity was conducted...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510691/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-upregulation-through-epigenetic-silencing-of-ldoc1-drives-tumor-biology-and-specific-immunophenotype-in-group-a-ependymoma
#18
Andrea M Griesinger, Davis A Witt, Sydney T Grob, Sabrina R Georgio Westover, Andrew M Donson, Bridget Sanford, Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Randall Wong, Daniel C Moreira, John A DeSisto, Ilango Balakrishnan, Lindsey M Hoffman, Michael H Handler, Kenneth L Jones, Rajeev Vibhakar, Sujatha Venkataraman, Nicholas K Foreman
Background.: Inflammation has been identified as a hallmark of high-risk Group A (GpA) ependymoma (EPN). Chronic interleukin (IL)-6 secretion from GpA tumors drives an immune suppressive phenotype by polarizing infiltrating monocytes. This study determines the mechanism by which IL-6 is dysregulated in GpA EPN. Methods.: Twenty pediatric GpA and 21 pediatric Group B (GpB) EPN had gene set enrichment analysis for MSigDB Hallmark gene sets performed. Protein and RNA from patients and cell lines were used to validate transcriptomic findings...
May 16, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508902/non-zeolitic-properties-of-the-dipeptide-l-leucyl-l-leucine-as-a-result-of-the-specific-nanostructure-formation
#19
Marat A Ziganshin, Aisylu S Safiullina, Sufia A Ziganshina, Alexander V Gerasimov, Valery V Gorbatchuk
The non-zeolitic behavior of l-leucyl-l-leucine and its self-organization in solid state and from solutions with the formation of different nanostructures are reported. This dipeptide forms porous crystals, but does not exhibit molecular sieve effects typical of classical zeolites and biozeolites. The specific sorption properties of l-leucyl-l-leucine result from a change in its crystal packing from channel-type to layered-type, when binding strong proton acceptors or proton donors of molecular size greater than 18-20 cm(3) mol(-1)...
May 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508261/functional-roles-of-the-pepper-leucine-rich-repeat-protein-and-its-interactions-with-pathogenesis-related-and-hypersensitive-induced-proteins-in-plant-cell-death-and-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Jeum Kyu Hong, In Sun Hwang, Byung Kook Hwang
Pepper leucine-rich repeat protein (CaLRR1) interacts with defense response proteins to regulate plant cell death and immunity. This review highlights the current understanding of the molecular functions of CaLRR1 and its interactor proteins. Plant cell death and immune responses to microbial pathogens are controlled by complex and tightly regulated molecular signaling networks. Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv)-inducible pepper (Capsicum annuum) leucine-rich repeat protein 1 (CaLRR1) serves as a molecular marker for plant cell death and immunity signaling...
May 15, 2017: Planta
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