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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668138/-molecular-typing-of-leishmania-leishmania-amazonensis-and-species-of-the-subgenus-viannia-associated-with-cutaneous-and-mucosal-leishmaniasis-in-colombia-a-concordance-study
#1
Clemencia Ovalle-Bracho, Carolina Camargo, Yira Díaz-Toro, Marcela Parra-Muñoz
INTRODUCTION: Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) is the reference standard for the characterization of Leishmania species. The test is restricted to specialized laboratories due to its technical complexity, cost, and time required to obtain results. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is used to identify Leishmania species. OBJECTIVE: To establish the concordance between the two tests as identifying methods for circulating species in Colombia...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668121/lipofection-of-plasmid-dna-into-human-mast-cell-lines-using-lipid-nanoparticles-generated-by-microfluidic-mixing
#2
Brett A Duguay, Kate Wei-Chen Huang, Marianna Kulka
Mast cells are important immune cells that have significant roles in mediating allergy and asthma. Therefore, studying the molecular mechanisms regulating these and other processes in mast cells is important to elucidate. Methods such as lipofection, transduction, and electroporation are often employed to dissect these mechanisms by disrupting gene expression in mast cell lines. However, as with other leukocytes, human mast cells (HMCs) are often refractory to the delivery of plasmids by lipofection. In this study, we investigated the utility of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) containing the ionizable cationic lipids 1,2-dioleoyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane, 1,2-dioleyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane, or 2,2-dilinoleyl-4-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-[1,3]-dioxolane for the delivery of plasmid DNA into HMC lines...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668032/presence-of-meniscus-tear-alters-gene-expression-profile-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-tears
#3
Robert H Brophy, Marcus A Rothermich, Eric D Tycksen, Lei Cai, Muhammad Farooq Rai
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears occur in isolation or in tandem with other intra-articular injuries such as meniscus tears. The impact of injury pattern on the molecular biology of the injured ACL is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the biological response of the ACL to injury varies based on the presence or absence of concomitant meniscus tear. We performed RNA-seq on 28 ACL tears remnants (12 isolated, 16 combined). In total, 16,654 transcripts were differentially-expressed between isolated and combined injury groups at false-discovery-rate of 0...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668012/evolution-of-dnmt2-in-drosophilids-evidence-for-positive-and-purifying-selection-and-insights-into-new-protein-pathways-interactions
#4
Gilberto Cavalheiro Vieira, Marícia Fantinel D'Ávila, Rebeca Zanini, Maríndia Deprá, Vera Lúcia da Silva Valente
The DNA methyltransferase 2 (DNMT2) protein is the most conserved member of the DNA methyltransferase family. Nevertheless, its substrate specificity is still controversial and elusive. The genomic role and determinants of DNA methylation are poorly understood in invertebrates, and several mechanisms and associations are suggested. In Drosophila, the only known DNMT gene is Dnmt2. Here we present our findings from a wide search for Dnmt2 homologs in 68 species of Drosophilidae. We investigated its molecular evolution, and in our phylogenetic analyses the main clades of Drosophilidae species were recovered...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667746/an-integrative-approach-combining-passive-sampling-bioassays-and-effect-directed-analysis-to-assess-the-impact-of-wastewater-effluent
#5
Manoj Sonavane, Jennifer E Schollée, Anita O Hidasi, Nicolas Creusot, François Brion, Marc J-F Suter, Juliane Hollender, Selim Aït-Aïssa
Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are major sources of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and of other chemicals of toxicological concern for the aquatic environment. In this study, we used an integrated strategy combining passive sampling (Chemcatcher®), developmental toxicity and mechanism-based in vitro and in vivo bioassays to monitor the impacts of a WWTP on a river. In vitro screening revealed the WWTP effluent as a source of estrogen (ER), glucocorticoid (GR), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) receptor mediated activities, impacting the downstream river site where significant activities were also measured, albeit to a lesser extent than in the effluent...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667742/genetic-association-and-expression-analyses-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase-pip5k1c-gene-in-alcohol-use-disorder-relevance-for-pain-signaling-and-alcohol-use
#6
Ji Soo Lee, Jill L Sorcher, Allison D Rosen, Ruslan Damadzic, Hui Sun, Melanie Schwandt, Markus Heilig, John Kelly, Kelsey L Mauro, Audrey Luo, Daniel Rosoff, Christine Muench, Jeesun Jung, Zachary A Kaminsky, Falk W Lohoff
BACKGROUND: The gene encoding Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase (PIP5K1C) has been recently implicated in pain regulation. Interestingly, a recent cross-tissue and cross-phenotypic epigenetic analysis identified the same gene in alcohol use disorder (AUD). Given the high comorbidity between AUD and chronic pain, we hypothesized that genetic variation in PIP5K1C might contribute to susceptibility to AUD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control association study of genetic variants in PIP5K1C...
April 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667617/combination-of-stromal-vascular-fraction-and-ad-comp-ang1-gene-therapy-improves-long-term-therapeutic-efficacy-for-diabetes-induced-erectile-dysfunction
#7
Guo-Nan Yin, Lin Wang, Xiang-Nan Lin, Lei Shi, Zhen-Lin Gao, Feng-Chan Han, Ping Li, Yin-Chuan Jin, Jun-Kyu Suh, Ji-Kan Ryu, Xiong Wang, Hai-Rong Jin
Men with diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED) respond poorly to the currently available oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Therefore, functional therapies for diabetic ED are needed. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and the adenovirus-mediated cartilage oligomeric matrix angiopoietin-1 (Ad-COMP-Ang1) gene are known to play critical roles in penile erection. We previously reported that SVF and Ad-COMP-Ang1 have only a short-term effect in restoring erectile function. Further improvements to ED therapy are needed for long-lasting effects...
April 17, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667381/galleria-mellonella-l-as-model-organism-used-in-biomedical-and-other-studies
#8
Ewa Mikulak, Aleksandra Gliniewicz, Marta Przygodzka, Jolanta Solecka
Comparative of studies of genomes of invertebrates and humans shows that in invertebrates including insects there are numerous homologues of human’s genes coding proteins involved in recognition pathogens or transduction of the expression signal. Thanks this features, insects such as Drosophila melanogaster M., Blattella germanica L., Culex quinquefasciatus S., Bombyx mori L. and Galleria mellonella L. are used in studies on virulence, host resistance or in assessing the in vivo efficacy of antibiotics, fungicides and other biologically active substances...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667364/heritability-of-body-size-in-the-polar-bears-of-western-hudson-bay
#9
René M Malenfant, Corey S Davis, Evan S Richardson, Nicholas J Lunn, David W Coltman
Among polar bears (Ursus maritimus), fitness is dependent on body size through males' abilities to win mates, females' abilities to provide for their young, and all bears' abilities to survive increasingly longer fasting periods caused by climate change. In the Western Hudson Bay subpopulation (near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada), polar bears have declined in body size and condition, but nothing is known about the genetic underpinnings of body size variation, which may be subject to natural selection. Here, we combine a 4449-individual pedigree and an array of 5433 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to provide the first quantitative genetics study of polar bears...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667327/novel-west-syndrome-candidate-genes-in-a-chinese-cohort
#10
Jing Peng, Ying Wang, Fang He, Chen Chen, Li-Wen Wu, Li-Fen Yang, Yu-Ping Ma, Wen Zhang, Zi-Qing Shi, Chao Chen, Kun Xia, Hui Guo, Fei Yin, Nan Pang
AIMS: West syndrome (WS) is a classic form of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE) characterized by tonic spasms with clustering, arrest of psychomotor development, and hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalography. Genetic defects play a critical role in the pathology of WS, and 54 EIEE genes have been identified till date. This study was designed to uncover new candidate genes for West syndrome. METHODS: In this study, we recruited 56 Chinese families with WS of unknown etiology...
April 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667323/clades-a-classification-based-machine-learning-method-for-species-delimitation-from-population-genetic-data
#11
Jingwen Pei, Chong Chu, Xin Li, Bin Lu, Yufeng Wu
Species are considered to be the basic unit of ecological and evolutionary studies. Since multi-locus genomic data are increasingly available there has been considerable interests in the use of DNA sequence data to delimit species. In this paper, we show that machine learning can be used for species delimitation. Our method treats the species delimitation problem as a classification problem for identifying the category of a new observation on the basis of training data. Extensive simulation is first conducted over a broad range of evolutionary parameters for training purposes...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667309/low-warfarin-resistance-frequency-in-norway-rats-in-two-cities-in-china-after-30-years-usage-of-anticoagulant-rodenticides
#12
Xiaohui Ma, Da-Wei Wang, Ning Li, Lan Liu, Lin Tian, Chan Luo, Lin Cong, Zhiyong Feng, Xiao-Hui Liu, Ying Song
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant rodenticides have been widely used in rodent control in China for over 30 years and resistant Norway rats have been reported. Mutations in the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1 (Vkorc1) gene can cause anticoagulant resistance in rodents. In this study, we analyzed the Vkorc1 polymorphisms of 681 Norway rats collected in Zhanjiang and Harbin City in China from 2008 to 2015 and evaluated the warfarin resistance frequency. RESULTS: Analysis revealed 4 mutations including 3 not previously reported...
April 17, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667244/the-effects-of-atrad52-overexpression-on-homologous-recombination-in-arabidopsis
#13
Aviva Samach, Vyacheslav Gurevich, Naomi Avivi-Ragolsky, Avraham A Levy
AtRad52 homologs are involved in DNA recombination and repair but their precise functions in different homologous recombination pathways or in gene-targeting have not been analyzed. In order to facilitate our analyses, we generated an AtRad52-1A variant that had a stronger nuclear localization than the native gene thanks to the removal of the transit peptide for mitochondrial localization and to the addition of a nuclear localization signal. Overexpression of this variant increased homologous recombination in the nucleus, compared to the native AtRad52-1A: it increased Intra-Chromosomal Recombination and Synthesis-Dependent Strand-Annealing homologous recombination repair rates; but conversely, it repressed the Single-Strand Annealing pathway...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667122/the-gene-editing-of-super-ego
#14
Bjørn Hofmann
New emerging biotechnologies, such as gene editing, vastly extend our ability to alter the human being. This comes together with strong aspirations to improve humans not only physically, but also mentally, morally, and socially. These conjoined ambitions aggregate to what can be labelled "the gene editing of super-ego." This article investigates a general way used to argue for new biotechnologies, such as gene-editing: if it is safe and efficacious to implement technology X for the purpose of a common good Y, why should we not do so? This is a rhetorical question with a conditional, and may be dismissed as such...
April 17, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667009/encapsulating-viability-of-multi-strain-lactobacilli-as-potential-probiotic-in-pigs
#15
Sudthidol Piyadeatsoontorn, Rutjawate Taharnklaew, Tewa Upathanpreecha, Pairat Sornplang
Important aspects of the selection of probiotics to be used for mixing in animal feed include host species specificity and probiotic cell survival during production and storage of their products. The research was to screen and investigate some probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from pig fecal samples. One hundred and thirty-eight representative LAB isolates, which were isolated from 51 pig fecal samples, were tested for acid and bile tolerance, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibacterial activity, potential adhesion to the cell surface, and survival rates when stored in varied microencapsulation forms: freeze-dried, spray-dried, and micro-beads...
April 17, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666938/multigene-phylogeny-and-cell-evolution-of-chromist-infrakingdom-rhizaria-contrasting-cell-organisation-of-sister-phyla-cercozoa-and-retaria
#16
Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Ema E Chao, Rhodri Lewis
Infrakingdom Rhizaria is one of four major subgroups with distinct cell body plans that comprise eukaryotic kingdom Chromista. Unlike other chromists, Rhizaria are mostly heterotrophic flagellates, amoebae or amoeboflagellates, commonly with reticulose (net-like) or filose (thread-like) feeding pseudopodia; uniquely for eukaryotes, cilia have proximal ciliary transition-zone hub-lattices. They comprise predominantly flagellate phylum Cercozoa and reticulopodial phylum Retaria, whose exact phylogenetic relationship has been uncertain...
April 17, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666765/characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-haemophilus-parasuis-isolated-from-pigs-in-china
#17
Yongda Zhao, Lili Guo, Jie Li, Xianhui Huang, Binghu Fang
Background: Haemophilus parasuis is a common porcine respiratory pathogen that causes high rates of morbidity and mortality in farmed swine. We performed a molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance genes harbored by H. parasuis from pig farms in China. Methods: We screened 143 H. parasuis isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility against six fluoroquinolone antibiotics testing by the broth microdilution method, and the presence of 64 antimicrobial resistance genes by PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666752/pathways-of-topological-rank-analysis-potra-a-novel-method-to-detect-pathways-involved-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Chaoxing Li, Li Liu, Valentin Dinu
Complex diseases such as cancer are usually the result of a combination of environmental factors and one or several biological pathways consisting of sets of genes. Each biological pathway exerts its function by delivering signaling through the gene network. Theoretically, a pathway is supposed to have a robust topological structure under normal physiological conditions. However, the pathway's topological structure could be altered under some pathological condition. It is well known that a normal biological network includes a small number of well-connected hub nodes and a large number of nodes that are non-hubs...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666540/antimicrobial-antioxidant-and-probiotics-characterization-of-dominant-bacterial-isolates-from-traditional-fermented-fish-of-manipur-north-east-india
#19
Sambanduram Samarjit Singh, Surajit De Mandal, Esther Lalnunmawii, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar
Utonga - kupsu , Hentak and Ngari are traditional fermented fish products produced by the Manipuri people living in the North-Eastern part of India. The present study was designed with the aim to isolate, identify and characterize the microorganisms present in these fermented foods. Bacterial pure cultures were isolated using serially diluted samples and were further identified by conventional biochemical tests and Sanger sequencing of 16s rRNA gene. Results show that the number of bacterial count in Nutrient agar and Starch casein agar was 14-20 and 10-16 CFU/g, respectively...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666456/serotonin-is-an-endogenous-regulator-of-intestinal-cyp1a1-via-ahr
#20
Christopher Manzella, Megha Singhal, Waddah A Alrefai, Seema Saksena, Pradeep K Dudeja, Ravinder K Gill
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a nuclear receptor that controls xenobiotic detoxification via induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and regulates immune responses in the intestine. Metabolites of L-tryptophan activate AhR, which confers protection against intestinal inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that serotonin (5-HT) is an endogenous activator of AhR in intestinal epithelial cells. Treatment of Caco-2 monolayers with 5-HT induced CYP1A1 mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and also stimulated CYP1A1 activity...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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