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Vincent Laurent, Billy Chieng, Bernard W Balleine
Extinction involves altering a previously established predictive relationship between a cue and its outcome by repeatedly presenting that cue alone. Although it is widely accepted that extinction generates some form of inhibitory learning [1-4], direct evidence for this claim has been lacking, and the nature of the associative changes induced by extinction have, therefore, remained a matter of debate [5-8]. In the current experiments, we used a novel behavioral approach that we recently developed and that provides a direct measure of conditioned inhibition [9] to compare the influence of extinguished and non-extinguished cues on choice between goal-directed actions...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
P S Heng, M Irfan
Hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) is generally a rare head and neck malignancy. There are differing clinical presentations depending on the subsite location of primary tumour. Advanced HPC will have neck node metastasis particularly upper jugulodigastric nodes. We report a patient with postcricoid tumour who presented with anterior huge neck swelling mimic thyroid mass. The patient first presented to the General Surgical Unit for management of presumed thyroid lesion. She was diagnosed post-cricoid squamous cell carcinoma when further assessed by otorhinolaryngologist...
December 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Brunella Parodi, Eleonora Russo, Sara Baldassari, Guendalina Zuccari, Sara Pastorino, Mengying Yan, Karthik Neduri, Gabriele Caviglioli
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was the development of mucoadhesive sublingual films, prepared using a casting method, for the administration of oxycodone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A solvent casting method was employed to prepare the mucoadhesive films. A calibrated pipette was used to deposit single aliquots of different polymeric solutions on a polystyrene plate lid. Among the various tested polymers, hydroxypropylcellulose at low and medium molecular weight (HPC) and pectin at two different degrees of esterification (PC) were chosen for preparing solutions with good casting properties, capable of producing films suitable for mucosal application...
January 11, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Zhixin Li, Dandan Su, Haijiang Zhu, Wei Li, Fan Zhang, Ruirui Li
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) raw data simulation is a fundamental problem in radar system design and imaging algorithm research. The growth of surveying swath and resolution results in a significant increase in data volume and simulation period, which can be considered to be a comprehensive data intensive and computing intensive issue. Although several high performance computing (HPC) methods have demonstrated their potential for accelerating simulation, the input/output (I/O) bottleneck of huge raw data has not been eased...
January 8, 2017: Sensors
Naoki Ikenaga, Zhen-Wei Peng, Kahini A Vaid, Susan B Liu, Shuhei Yoshida, Deanna Y Sverdlov, Amanda Mikels-Vigdal, Victoria Smith, Detlef Schuppan, Yury V Popov
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We studied the role of lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) in collagen crosslinking and hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) differentiation, and the therapeutic efficacy of a LOXL2-blocking monoclonal antibody on liver fibrosis progression/reversal in mice. METHODS: Anti-LOXL2 antibody, control antilysyl oxidase antibody or placebo was administered during thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis progression or during recovery. Therapeutic efficacy in biliary fibrosis was tested in BALB/c...
January 10, 2017: Gut
Claudia Reinheimer, Volkhard A J Kempf, Katalin Jozsa, Thomas A Wichelhaus, Michael Hogardt, Fiona O'Rourke, Christian Brandt
BACKGROUND: Patients with contact to healthcare-system in high-prevalence countries (HPC) and refugee patients in hospital settings (REF) have previously been identified to be at risk of carrying multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). Comparative studies addressing the epidemiology of MDRO in patients transferred from hospitals abroad (ABROAD) and REF are lacking but are necessary to introduce refined infection control measures. METHODS: From December 2015 to June 2016, 117 REF, 84 ABROAD and 495 patients admitted to intensive care unit, with no refugee history or pre-treatment abroad (ICU), at University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany (UHF) were screened for MDRO on day of admittance...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Dongdong Yang, Hailong Yang, Luming Wang, Yucong Zhou, Zhiyuan Zhang, Rui Wang, Yi Liu
Marine science and numerical modeling (MASNUM) is widely used in forecasting ocean wave movement, through simulating the variation tendency of the ocean wave. Although efforts have been devoted to improve the performance of MASNUM from various aspects by existing work, there is still large space unexplored for further performance improvement. In this paper, we aim at improving the performance of propagation solver and data access during the simulation, in addition to the efficiency of output I/O and load balance...
2017: PloS One
Cristiane R D Hoffmeister, Cinira Fandaruff, Maíra A da Costa, Lucio M Cabral, Luciana R Pitta, Stanley E R Bilatto, Livia D Prado, Daniel S Corrêa, Leandro Tasso, Marcos Antônio S Silva, Helvécio V A Rocha
Efavirenz (EFV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), is part of first-line therapy for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (HIV-1/AIDS). This drug shows relatively low oral absorption and bioavailability, as well as high intra- and inter-subject variability. Several studies have shown that treatment failure and adverse effects are associated with low and high EFV plasma concentrations, respectively. Some studies suggest different EFV formulations to minimize inter-patient variability and improve its solubility and dissolution; however, all of these formulations are complex, using for instance, cyclodextrins, dendrimers and polymeric nanoparticles, rendering them inviable industrially...
December 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Maria Burkovetskaya, Nikolay Karpuk, Tammy Kielian
Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a fatal lysosomal storage disease caused by autosomal recessive mutations in CLN3. JNCL is typified by progressive neurodegeneration that has been suggested to occur from excessive excitatory and impaired inhibitory synaptic input; however, no studies to date have directly evaluated neuronal function. To examine changes in neuronal activity with advancing disease, electrophysiological recordings were performed in the CA1 hippocampus (HPC) and visual cortex (VC) of acute brain slices from Cln3(Δex7/8) mice at 1, 4, 8, and 12months of age...
December 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Xin Hao, Yi Huang, Xueting Li, Yiying Song, Xiangzhen Kong, Xu Wang, Zetian Yang, Zonglei Zhen, Jia Liu
INTRODUCTION: Navigation is a fundamental and multidimensional cognitive function that individuals rely on to move around the environment. In this study, we investigated the neural basis of human spatial navigation ability. METHODS: A large cohort of participants (N > 200) was examined on their navigation ability behaviorally and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were then used to explore the corresponding neural basis of spatial navigation...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
Miguel Gallardo, María Hebles, Beatriz Migueles, Mónica Dorado, Laura Aguilera, Mercedes González, Paloma Piqueras, Alejandro Lucas, Lorena Montero, Pascual Sánchez-Martín, Fernando Sánchez-Martín, Ramón Risco
PURPOSE: Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), a polysaccharide that forms a viscous gel under low temperatures, is a promising substitute of the blood-derived macromolecules traditionally used in cryopreservation solutions. The performance of a protein-free, fully synthetic set of vitrification and warming solutions was assessed in a matched pair analysis with donor oocytes. METHODS: A prospective study including 219 donor MII oocytes was carried out, comparing the laboratory outcomes of oocytes vitrified with HPC-based solutions and their fresh counterparts...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Daniel L Leberfinger, Kira L Badman, Joseph M Roig, Tamara Loos
BACKGROUND: Increased emphasis on cost and productivity in apheresis centers calls for a proficient and predictable hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) collection. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the value of a customized predictive algorithm that estimates how many blood volumes are required to process for a targeted CD34 cell dose. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on 107 HPC collections completed on the Spectra Optia MNC from January 2013 to June 2014 in 51 patients and 12 donors...
December 26, 2016: Transfusion
Ignazio Carbone, James B White, Jolanta Miadlikowska, A Elizabeth Arnold, Mark A Miller, Frank Kauff, Jana M U'Ren, Georgiana May, François Lutzoni
MOTIVATION: High-quality phylogenetic placement of sequence data has the potential to greatly accelerate studies of the diversity, systematics, ecology and functional biology of diverse groups. We developed the Tree-Based Alignment Selector (T-BAS) toolkit to allow evolutionary placement and visualization of diverse DNA sequences representing unknown taxa within a robust phylogenetic context, and to permit the downloading of highly curated, single- and multi-locus alignments for specific clades...
December 21, 2016: Bioinformatics
Annet Heuvelink, Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan, Hilmar van Weering, Erik van Engelen, Michael Bülte, Ömer Akineden
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a vigorous microorganism which causes incurable chronic enteritis, Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. A target of control programmes for JD is to accurately detect MAP-infected cattle early to reduce disease transmission. The present study evaluated the efficacy of two different cultural procedures and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detection of subclinical paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Therefore, sixty-one faecal samples were collected from two Dutch dairy herds (n = 40 and n = 21, respectively) which were known to be MAP-ELISA positive...
December 17, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Shaofeng Wei, Yueqin Ma, Jing Luo, Xiaoru He, Pengfei Yue, Zhiyu Guan, Ming Yang
The objective of this study is to design novel dissolution-enhanced microparticles loaded poorly soluble drug nanocrystals used a low viscosity of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as matrix carrier. An interesting approach combined homogenization and the spray-freeze-drying technique was developed. The results demonstrated that the ratio of HPC to drug played an important role in size-reduction efficiency of drug during homogenization. And the formation of cage-like structure of the composite particles depended on ratio of HPC to drug...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jiliang Ci, Hongliang Kang, Chenguang Liu, Aihua He, Ruigang Liu
Zwitterionic graft copolymers, hydroxypropyl cellulose graft poly(2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl phosphorylcholine) (HPC-g-PMPC) with well-defined architecture were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The self-assembly behaviors and thermal sensitivity of HPC-g-PMPC copolymers and their correlations with graft density and side chain length were investigated in details. HPC-g-PMPC copolymers can self-assemble into spherical aggregate structure above the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) at room temperature...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Timothy H Yosca, Matthew C Langston, Courtney M Krest, Elizabeth L Onderko, Tyler L Grove, Jovan Livada, Michael T Green
We report on the protonation state of Helicobacter pylori catalase compound II. UV/visible, Mössbauer, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies have been used to examine the intermediate from pH 5 to 14. We have determined that HPC-II exists in an iron(IV) hydroxide state up to pH 11. Above this pH, the iron(IV) hydroxide complex transitions to a new species (pKa = 13.1) with Mössbauer parameters that are indicative of an iron(IV)-oxo intermediate. Recently, we discussed a role for an elevated compound II pKa in diminishing the compound I reduction potential...
December 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Suranie Horn, Rialet Pieters, Carlos Bezuidenhout
Evidence suggests that heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria may be hazardous to humans with weakened health. We investigated the pathogenic potential of HPC bacteria from untreated borehole water, consumed by humans, for: their haemolytic properties, the production of extracellular enzymes such as DNase, proteinase, lipase, lecithinase, hyaluronidase and chondroitinase, the effect simulated gastric fluid has on their survival, as well as the bacteria's antibiotic-susceptible profile. HuTu-80 cells acted as model for the human intestine and were exposed to the HPC isolates to determine their effects on the viability of the cells...
December 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Junling Zhang, Xiaodan Han, Song Huang, Lu Lu, Deguan Li, Aimin Meng
Both resveratrol(Res) and diphenyleneiodonium(DPI) have been shown to have radioprotective effects on hematopoietic system injury. However, the cooperative effect of Res and DPI are unknown. In this study, we explored the radioprotective effect of the combination of Res and DPI both in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that the combined treatment of Res and DPI was more effective in protecting irradiated BMMNCs in terms of cell viability, colony-forming ability, and reconstitution ability in vitro compared with Res or DPI treatment alone...
February 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Lixuan Zhan, Liu Liu, Kongping Li, Baoxing Wu, Dandan Liu, Donghai Liang, Haixia Wen, Yanmei Wang, Weiwen Sun, Weiping Liao, En Xu
We previously reported that hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) ameliorated hippocampal neuronal death induced by transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI) in adult rats. However, the mechanism of HPC-induced neuroprotection is still elusive. Notably, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) has recently emerged as a potent neuroprotectant in cerebral ischemia. Although its robust protective effect on stroke has been recognized, the mechanism of Hsp27-mediated neuroprotection is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the potential molecular mechanism by which HPC modulates the posttranslational regulations of Hsp27 after tGCI...
December 9, 2016: Brain Pathology
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