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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329901/-pathophysiology-of-headaches
#1
Charly Gaul, Karl Meßlinger, Dagny Holle-Lee, Lars Neeb
Pathophysiological concepts of primary headache diseases have been developed significantly in the last decades. Nevertheless pathophysiology of single diseases is unexplained. Migraine headache arises from activation and sensibilization of trigeminal nociceptors, essential processes are located at the meninges and the meningeal vessels. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) seems to have essential importance concerning migraine and cluster headache. Mechanisms leading to peripheral and central sensitization are relevant in chronification of migraine and tension-type headache...
March 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324021/endogenous-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-energy-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#2
Tian Liu, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Takayuki Sakurai, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Lei Yang, Megumu Tanaka, Xian Xian, Akira Imai, Liuyu Zhai, Kazutaka Hirabayashi, Kun Dai, Keiya Tanimura, Teng Liu, Nanqi Cui, Kyoko Igarashi, Akihiro Yamauchi, Takayuki Shindo
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a bioactive peptide produced by alternative splicing of the primary transcript of the calcitonin/CGRP gene. CGRP is largely distributed in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, where it acts as a regulatory factor. CGRP is also expressed in organs and tissues involved in metabolic regulation, including white adipose tissue (WAT), where its function is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of endogenous CGRP on metabolic function. When we administered a high-fat diet to CGRP knockout (CGRP-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice for 10 weeks, we observed that food intake did not differ between the two groups, but body weight and visceral fat weight were significantly lower in CGRP-/- mice...
January 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324017/a-novel-selective-bombesin-receptor-subtype-3-agonist-promotes-weight-loss-in-male-diet-induced-obese-rats-with-circadian-rhythm-change
#3
Yasunori Nio, Natsu Hotta, Minoru Maruyama, Kenichi Hamagami, Toshimi Nagi, Masaaki Funata, Junichi Sakamoto, Masanori Nakakariya, Nobuyuki Amano, Tomohiro Okawa, Yasuyoshi Arikawa, Shinobu Sasaki, Shoki Okuda, Shizuo Kasai, Yugo Habata, Yasutaka Nagisa
Bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Based on the obese phenotype of male BRS-3-deficient mice, BRS-3 has been considered an attractive target for obesity treatment. Here, we developed a novel selective BRS-3 agonist (Compound-A) and evaluated its anti-obesity effects. Compound-A showed anorectic effects and enhanced energy expenditure in diet-induced obese (DIO)-F344 rats. Moreover, repeated oral administration of Compound-A for 7 days resulted in a significant body weight reduction in DIO-F344 rats...
March 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323975/muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-is-associated-with-elements-of-the-plasma-lipidomic-profile-in-young-asian-adults
#4
Nina Eikelis, Elisabeth A Lambert, Sarah Phillips, Carolina Ika Sari, Piyushkumar A Mundra, Jacquelyn M Weir, Kevin Huynh, Mariee T Grima, Nora E Straznicky, John B Dixon, Markus P Schlaich, Peter J Meikle, Gavin W Lambert
Background: Asian subjects are at increased cardio-metabolic risk at comparatively lower BMI compared with Caucasians. Sympathetic nervous system activation and dyslipidaemia, both characteristics of increased adiposity, appear to be related. We therefore analysed the association of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) with the plasma lipidomic profile in young Asian and Caucasian subjects. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 101 participants of either Asian or Caucasian background, aged 18-30, BMI 28...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323584/evidence-for-gz-adaptation-observed-with-wearable-biosensors-during-high-performance-jet-flight
#5
G Merrill Rice, Dallas Snider, Jeffrey L Moore, J Timothy Lavan, Rich Folga, Thomas B VanBrunt
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have evaluated physiological responses to high acceleration forces during actual flight and to our knowledge no normative data has been acquired by technologies such as wearable biosensors during high performance jet aircraft operations. METHODS: In-flight physiological data from an FDA cleared portable triaxial accelerometer and bio-sensor were observed from five active duty F-18 pilots of the Naval Flight Demonstration Squadron (Blue Angels)...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322240/international-spinal-cord-injury-endocrine-and-metabolic-extended-data-set
#6
W A Bauman, J M Wecht, F Biering-Sørensen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Endocrine and Metabolic Extended Data Set (ISCIEMEDS) within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of endocrine and metabolic findings in the SCI population. SETTING: This study was conducted in an international setting. METHODS: The ISCIEMEDS was developed by a working group...
March 21, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321682/recent-advances-and-clinical-applications-of-pet-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system-imaging
#7
REVIEW
Nabil E Boutagy, Albert J Sinusas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to summarize current advances in positron emission tomography (PET) cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) imaging, with a specific focus on clinical applications of novel and established tracers. RECENT FINDINGS: [(11)C]-Meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) has provided useful information in evaluation of normal and pathological cardiovascular function. Recently, [(11)C]-HED PET imaging was able to predict lethal arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death (SCD), and all-cause mortality in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
April 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321563/do-patients-with-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-have-attacks-of-syncope
#8
Ilmari Pyykkö, Vinaya Manchaiah, Jing Zou, Hilla Levo, Erna Kentala
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors for syncope among patients with Ménière's disease (MD). An attack of syncope was defined as a sudden and transient loss of consciousness, which subsides spontaneously and without a localizing neurological deficit. The study used an across-sectional survey design. Information from a database consisting of 961 individuals was collected from the Finnish Ménière Association. The data contained case histories, general health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and impact measurements of the complaints...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319819/childhood-cancer-in-small-geographical-areas-and-proximity-to-air-polluting-industries
#9
Juan A Ortega-García, Fernando A López-Hernández, Alberto Cárceles-Álvarez, José L Fuster-Soler, Diana I Sotomayor, Rebeca Ramis
AIM: Pediatric cancer has been associated with exposure to certain environmental carcinogens. The purpose of this work is to analyse the relationship between environmental pollution and pediatric cancer risk. METHOD: We analysed all incidences of pediatric cancer (<15) diagnosed in a Spanish region during the period 1998-2015. The place of residence of each patient and the exact geographical coordinates of main industrial facilities was codified in order to analyse the spatial distribution of cases of cancer in relation to industrial areas...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317476/myocardial-infarction-pathological-relevance-and-relationship-with-coronary-risk-factors
#10
Aurelio Leone
BACKGROUND: Three types of necrosis characterize MI: coagulation necrosis, typically due to a coronarogenic mechanism, coagulative myocytolysis with formation of contract bands as an effect of sympathetic nervous system and adrenergic stimulation, and colliquative myocytolysis, characterized by myocardial fiber lysis, which is a close result of hydrolytic enzyme activity deriving from the material reaching the infarct area. METHODS: Although a multifactorial etiology may be identified, nevertheless coronary alterations, which are a consequence of atherosclerotic plaque formation and complications with a reduced blood flow supply to the myocardium, are the benchmark of MI...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316029/impulsivity-and-stress-response-in-pathological-gamblers-during-the-trier-social-stress-test
#11
G Maniaci, A E Goudriaan, C Cannizzaro, R J van Holst
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314642/hypotensive-effects-of-renal-denervation-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-based-on-ultrasonic-contrast-imaging
#12
Ke Li, Jinwen Tian, Yuxiao Zhang, Qiao Xue, Caiyi Lu
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerves-fire rate is generally enhanced in some types of hypertension models. Renal sympathetic denervation(RSD) by the radiofrequency ablation was used to treat the hypertension has achieved curative effect.HTN-1 and HTN-2 trial reported catheter-based renal denervation may cause substantial and sustained blood-pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension. However, recent controlled HTN-3 trial questioned the BP lowering effect of Renal denervation treatment...
February 9, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306318/magnetic-trapping-of-cold-methyl-radicals
#13
Yang Liu, Manish Vashishta, Pavle Djuricanin, Sida Zhou, Wei Zhong, Tony Mittertreiner, David Carty, Takamasa Momose
We have demonstrated that a supersonic beam of methyl radicals (CH_{3}) in the ground rotational state of both para and ortho species has been slowed down to standstill with a magnetic molecular decelerator, and successfully captured spatially in an anti-Helmholtz magnetic trap for >1  s. The trapped CH_{3} radicals have a mean translational temperature of about 200 mK with an estimated density of >5.0×10^{7}  cm^{-3}. The methyl radical is an ideal system for the study of cold molecules not only because of its high reactivities at low temperatures, but also because further cooling below 1 mK is plausible via sympathetic cooling with ultracold atoms...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299842/electroacupuncture-promotes-cns-dependent-release-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Tatiana E Salazar, Matthew R Richardson, Eleni Beli, Matthew S Ripsch, John George, Youngsook Kim, Yaqian Duan, Leni Moldovan, Yuanqing Yan, Ashay Bhatwadekar, Vaishnavi Jadhav, Jared A Smith, Susan McGorray, Alicia L Bertone, Dmitri O Traktuev, Keith L March, Luis M Colon-Perez, Keith Avin, Emily Sims, Julie A Mund, Jamie Case, Shaolin Deng, Min Su Kim, Bruce McDavitt, Michael E Boulton, Jeffrey Thinschmidt, Sergio Li Calzi, Stephanie D Fitz, Robyn K Fuchs, Stuart J Warden, Todd McKinley, Anantha Shekhar, Marcelo Febo, Phillip L Johnson, Lung Ji Chang, Zhanguo Gao, Mikhail G Kolonin, Song Lai, Jinfeng Ma, Xinzhong Dong, Fletcher A White, Huisheng Xie, Mervin C Yoder, Maria B Grant
Electro-acupuncture (EA) performed in rats and humans using front-limb acupuncture sites, LI-4 and LI-11, and Du-14 and Du-20 increased functional connectivity between the anterior hypothalamus and the amygdala and mobilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into the systemic circulation. In human subjects, the source of the MSC was found to be primarily adipose tissue whereas in rodents the tissue sources were considered more heterogeneous. Pharmacological disinhibition of rat hypothalamus enhanced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and similarly resulted in a release of MSC into the circulation...
March 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299616/promise-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-heart-failure-diabetes-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Pieter Martens, Chantal Mathieu, Frederik H Verbrugge
This review provides mechanistic insight in the pleiotropic effects of sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors with particular interest to the pathophysiology of heart failure. The SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin has recently demonstrated an unprecedented 38% reduction in cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes. Despite modest effects on long-term glycemic control, highly significant reductions in heart failure admissions and end-stage kidney disease were observed. SGLT-2 inhibitors are the latest approved class of glucose-lowering agents...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292194/clinical-utility-of-sympathetic-blockade-in-cardiovascular-disease-management
#16
Chan Soon Park, Hae-Young Lee
A dysregulated sympathetic nervous system is a major factor in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease; thus, understanding the mechanism and function of the sympathetic nervous system and appropriately regulating sympathetic activity to treat various cardiovascular diseases are crucial. Areas covered: This review focused on previous studies in managing hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and perioperative management with sympathetic blockade. We reviewed both pharmacological and non-pharmacological management...
March 15, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291413/harlequin-sign-concomitant-with-horner-syndrome-after-anterior-cervical-discectomy-a-case-of-intrusion-into-the-cervical-sympathetic-system
#17
Yannick Fringeli, Andrea M Humm, Alexandre Ansorge, Gianluca Maestretti
Harlequin syndrome is a rare autonomic disorder referring to the sudden development of flushing and sweating limited to one side of the face. Like Horner syndrome, associating miosis, ptosis, and anhidrosis, Harlequin syndrome is caused by disruption of the cervical sympathetic pathways. Authors of this report describe the case of a 55-year-old female who presented with both Harlequin sign and Horner syndrome immediately after anterior cervical discectomy (C6-7) with cage fusion and anterior spondylodesis. They discuss the pathophysiology underlying this striking phenomenon and the benign course of this condition...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290898/-renoprotecion-with-metabolic-syndrome-the-possibility-of-receptor-agonist-imidazoline-moxonidine
#18
O D Ostroumova, A A Zykova
The article is devoted to the of prevalence, diagnosis, and prognostic significance of renal damage in metabolic syndrome. The pathogenetic mechanisms of development and progression of chronic kidney disease in individuals with obesity, including the role of increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system is discussed. Approaches to the choice of antihypertensive drugs with an emphasis on metabolic and renal protection properties are given. The advantages of imidazoline receptors in neuroprotective of moxonidine in patients with arterial hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus is discussed in detail...
October 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290886/-the-insufficiency-type-of-metabolic-balance-and-nutritional-status-in-patient-with-heart-failure
#19
A G Obrezan, S A Spitsa
A lot of data has been accumulated at present on the metabolic and nutritional insufficiency in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Researchers have noted an actuality of the study of nutritional and metabolic insufficiency in CHF patients as independent factors affecting the course of CHF and because of its relationship with triggers of inflammation, sympathetic-adrenal system, and markers of functional state of the cardiovascular system (CVS). In some works attention has been given to relationship of nutritional and metabolic insufficiency with autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm...
August 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290835/-the-course-of-pregnancy-in-women-with-arterial-hypertension
#20
Ya V Brytkova, R I Stryuk
We included in this study 69 women with hypertension in the II trimester of pregnancy, of whom 52 (75%) had normal weight gain during the period of gestation, and 17 (25%) had abnormal weight gain. Comprehensive clinical and instrumental examination included calculation of body mass index before and during gestation, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring, assessment of activity of sympathetic-adrenal system by quantification of -adrenoreception of erythrocytes cell membranes. Women with excessive weight gain during gestation were older, more often had increased body weight before pregnancy...
January 2017: Kardiologiia
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