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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156227/low-physiological-arousal-and-high-impulsivity-as-predictors-of-self-injurious-thoughts-and-behaviors-among-adolescents
#1
Jaclyn T Aldrich, Madeline D Wielgus, Amy H Mezulis
Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors are used to escape or regulate aversive physiological states during stress. Low sympathetic nervous system arousal during stress has been shown to confer risk. This risk may be exacerbated by trait impulsivity; adolescents high in impulsivity are more likely to rashly use maladaptive regulation strategies. We examined this relationship longitudinally in a sample of adolescents ages 10 to 14 (55.4% female) from the United States. Consistent with our hypothesis, low arousal during stress and high trait impulsivity interacted to predict the use of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors over a six-month period...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155297/divergent-profile-between-hypothalamic-and-plasmatic-aminopeptidase-activities-in-wky-and-shr-influence-of-beta-adrenergic-blockade
#2
Isabel Prieto, Ana B Segarra, Marc de Gasparo, Magdalena Martínez-Cañamero, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez
AIMS: Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) differ in their renin-angiotensin system function and sympathetic tone. The metabolism of angiotensins and vasopressin depends on the action of certain aminopeptidases whose activity may be influenced by the autonomic nervous system. Their regulation may differ between WKY and SHR in hypothalamus and plasma according to the sympathetic tone. We analyzed aminopeptidases responsible for the hydrolysis of certain angiotensins, vasopressin, cholecystokinin or enkephalins in hypothalamus and plasma of WKY and SHR in untreated controls rats and under beta-adrenoceptor blockade...
November 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150864/seeing-is-believing-a-review-of-apheresis-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-ophthalmologic-disease
#3
Brendan C Graham, Jose S Pulido, Jeffrey L Winters
Apheresis procedures have a role in treatment of disparate diseases involving many different organ systems. Often the disease processes where apheresis plays a role in treatment are considered "orphan diseases"-relatively rare disease processes that lack specific pharmaceutical agents or established treatment protocols. Many of these disease processes can affect the eye with devastating results for the eyesight of these patients. The unique ability of apheresis to affect disease by modifying blood plasma and modulating disease-causing agents therein renders apheresis procedures valuable tools in the treatment of certain ophthalmologic diseases...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150306/a-proposal-for-a-noninvasive-monitoring-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-patients-with-takotsubo-syndrome
#4
John E Madias
The pathophysiology of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is still elusive; many hypotheses of its cause have been proposed with a heightened activity of the peripheral autonomic sympathetic nervous system (PASNS) via local norepinephrine release, and direct cardiomyocyte toxicity mediated by blood-borne catecholamines, being among the most currently entertained. Monitoring of PASNS during hospitalization will provide a metric which could be of immense value in unraveling of the pathophysiology and aiding in the management of the patients with TTS by predicting in-hospital complications, long-term outcome, and its recurrence...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147595/synchronous-ganglioneuroma-and-schwannoma-mistaken-for-carotid-body-tumor
#5
Konstantinos Paraskevopoulos, Angeliki Cheva, Styliani Papaemmanuil, Konstantinos Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos Antoniades
Ganglioneuromas are a very rare benign neural tumor, commonly derived from the ganglia of the sympathetic system, and are composed of mature Schwann cells, ganglion cells, and nerve fibres. They may arise anywhere from the base of the skull to the pelvis along the paravertebral sympathetic plexus. We report a rare case of synchronous ganglioneuroma and schwannoma, mistaken for carotid body tumor. The coexistence of these two entities in head and neck region is very rare.
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147581/review-of-and-updates-on-hypertension-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#6
REVIEW
Masood Ahmad, Devan Makati, Sana Akbar
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder as is hypertension (HTN) in the 21st century with the rising incidence of obesity. Numerous studies have shown a strong association of OSA with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is overwhelming evidence supporting the relationship between OSA and hypertension (HTN). The pathophysiology of HTN in OSA is complex and dependent on various factors such as sympathetic tone, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial dysfunction, and altered baroreceptor reflexes...
2017: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146604/the-effect-of-treatment-for-sleep-apnoea-on-determinants-of-blood-pressure-control
#7
Raquel Casitas, Elisabet Martínez-Cerón, Raúl Galera, Carolina Cubillos-Zapata, María Jesús González-Villalba, Isabel Fernández-Navarro, Begoña Sánchez, Aldara García-Sánchez, Ester Zamarrón, Francisco García-Río
Our aim was to assess the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the nocturnal evolution of peripheral chemosensitivity, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, sympathetic tone and endothelial biomarkers in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients with isolated nocturnal hypertension (INH) or day-night sustained hypertension (D-NSH).In a crossover randomised trial, 32 OSA patients newly diagnosed with hypertension and without antihypertensive treatment were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of CPAP or sham CPAP...
November 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145764/plasma-corticosterone-epinephrine-and-norepinephrine-levels-increase-during-administration-of-nitrous-oxide-in-rats
#8
Salwa Al-Noori, Andreas Cimpan, Zoe Maltzer, Karl J Kaiyala, Douglas S Ramsay
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a gaseous drug with abuse potential. Despite its common clinical use, little is known about whether N2O administration activates the HPA axis and/or the sympathetic adrenomedullary system. The goal of this study was to determine whether 60% N2O alters plasma concentrations of corticosterone (CORT), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE) in male Long-Evans rats. A gas-tight swivel assembly in the lid of a gas administration chamber allowed the remote collection of blood samples from an indwelling jugular vein catheter at four time-points: baseline and at 30, 60, and 120 min during a two-hour administration of 60% N2O...
November 16, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144026/heart-rate-variability-and-implication-for-sport-concussion
#9
REVIEW
Scott A Bishop, Ryan T Dech, Przemyslaw Guzik, J Patrick Neary
Finding sensitive and specific markers for sports-related concussion is both challenging and clinically important. Such biomarkers might be helpful in the management of patients with concussion (i.e. diagnosis, monitoring and risk prediction). Among many parameters, blood flow-pressure metrics and heart rate variability (HRV) have been used to gauge concussion outcomes. Reports on the relation between HRV and both acute and prolonged concussion recovery are conflicting. While some authors report on differences in the low-frequency (LF) component of HRV during postural manipulations and postexercise conditions, others observe no significant differences in various HRV measures...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143123/recovery-of-the-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-and-vascular-system-after-maximal-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-recreational-athletes
#10
Heidi Weberruss, Johannes Maucher, Renate Oberhoffer, Jan Müller
OBJECTIVE: The body's adaptation to physical exercise is modulated by sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagal) branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation of the heart, is a proxy measure for ANS activity, whereas blood pressure (BP) is an indicator for cardiovascular function. Impaired vagal activity and lower BP is already described after exercise. However, inconsistent results exist about how long vagal recovery takes and how long post-exercise hypotension persists...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142091/physiological-and-pathophysiological-firing-properties-of-single-postganglionic-sympathetic-neurons-in-humans
#11
Vaughan G Macefield, B Gunnar Wallin
It has long been known from microneurographic recordings in human subjects that activity of postganglionic sympathetic axons occurs as spontaneous bursts, with muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) exhibiting strong cardiac rhythmicity via the baroreflex and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) showing much weaker cardiac modulation. Here we review the firing properties of single sympathetic neurons, obtained using highly selective microelectrodes. Individual vasoconstrictor neurons supplying muscle or skin, or sudomotor neurones supplying sweat glands, always discharge with a low firing probability (~30%) and at very low frequencies (~0...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141540/polyphenols-antioxidants-and-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#12
Rosa Maria Bruno, Lorenzo Ghiadoni
BACKGROUND: A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. METHODS: This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138224/short-term-metformin-and-exercise-training-effects-on-strength-aerobic-capacity-glycemic-control-and-mitochondrial-function-in-children-with-burn-injury
#13
Eric Rivas, David N Herndon, Craig Porter, Walter Meyer, Oscar E Suman
Severely burned children experience a chronic state of sympathetic nervous system activation that is associated with hypermetabolic/cardiac stress and muscle wasting. Metformin, a diabetes medication, helps control hyperglycemia in diabetic populations, and exercise has been shown to improve exercise strength and aerobic exercise capacity after severe burns. However, whether exercise improves glycemic control in burned children and whether combining exercise and metformin improves outcomes to a greater degree than exercise alone is unknown...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138216/autonomic-regulation-of-the-immune-system-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#14
François M Abboud, Madhu V Singh
The autonomic nervous system is a powerful regulator of circulatory adjustments to acute hemodynamic stresses. Here we focus on new concepts that emphasize the chronic influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on cardiovascular pathology. The autonomic neurohumoral system can dramatically influence morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease through newly discovered influences on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Specifically, the end-organ damage in heart failure or hypertension may be worsened or alleviated by pro- or anti-inflammatory pathways of the immune system, respectively, that are activated through neurohumoral transmitters...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137381/gene-expression-and-molecular-pathway-activation-signatures-of-mycn-amplified-neuroblastomas
#15
Ivan Petrov, Maria Suntsova, Elena Ilnitskaya, Sergey Roumiantsev, Maxim Sorokin, Andrew Garazha, Pavel Spirin, Timofey Lebedev, Nurshat Gaifullin, Sergey Larin, Olga Kovalchuk, Dmitry Konovalov, Vladimir Prassolov, Alexander Roumiantsev, Anton Buzdin
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer arising from sympathetic nervous system. Remarkable heterogeneity in outcomes is one of its widely known features. One of the traits strongly associated with the unfavorable subtype is the amplification of oncogene MYCN. Here, we performed cross-platform biomarker detection by comparing gene expression and pathway activation patterns from the two literature reports and from our experimental dataset, combining profiles for the 761 neuroblastoma patients with known MYCN amplification status...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137090/diabetic-and-sympathetic-influences-on-the-water-permeability-barrier-function-of-human-skin-as-measured-using-transepidermal-water-loss-a-case-control-study
#16
Seung Hoon Han, Ji Woong Park
The presence of long-standing hyperglycemic conditions has been suggested to lead to many skin problems associated with an impaired skin barrier function. However, the relationship between impaired skin barrier status and altered peripheral nervous system function has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the water evaporation rate as a measure of the permeability barrier function of diabetic skin and its relationship to diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) and peripheral autonomic neuropathy (PAN) using well-controlled confounding variables...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136166/diabetes-induced-hyperglycemia-impairs-male-reproductive-function-a-systematic-review
#17
Constanze C Maresch, Dina C Stute, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, David M de Kretser, Thomas Linn
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia can result from a loss of pancreatic beta-cells or a decline in their function leading to decreased insulin secretion or may arise from insulin resistance and variable degrees of inadequate insulin secretion resulting in diabetes and related comorbidities. To date several reviews have addressed the issue of diabetes-related male infertility but most have focused on how metabolic syndrome causes the decline in male fertility. However, a comprehensive overview as to how diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male fertility is missing...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130313/the-role-of-biomarkers-in-research-on-caregivers-for-cancer-patients-a-scoping-review
#18
Jumin Park, Alyson Ross, Stephen D Klagholz, Margaret F Bevans
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers can be used as prognostic, predictive, or monitoring indicators of an associated outcome. The purpose of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of the research examining the use of biomarkers as surrogate end points for clinical outcomes in family caregivers for cancer patients, identify gaps, and make recommendations for future research. METHODS: A scoping review, a process of mapping the existing literature, was conducted. Studies comparing biomarkers across caregivers and controls and/or examining relationships between biomarkers and psychological health were reviewed...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128306/norman-bowery-s-discoveries-about-extrasynaptic-and-asynaptic-gaba-systems-and-their-significance
#19
REVIEW
David A Brown
Before discovering the GABA-B receptor, Norman Bowery completed a series of studies on an extrasynaptic or asynaptic "GABA system" in the rat superior cervical sympathetic ganglion. First, he discovered an uptake system for GABA in neuroglial cells in the ganglia and in peripheral nerves, with a different substrate specificity than that in neurons. Second, he showed that accumulated GABA in sympathetic glial cells was metabolized to succinate by a transaminase enzyme. Third, he provided detailed structure-activity information about compounds activating an extrasynaptic GABA-A receptor on neurons in the rat sympathetic ganglion...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127233/vascular-endothelial-function-masks-increased-sympathetic-vasopressor-activity-in-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Sylvain Battault, Cindy Meziat, Alessandro R Nascimento, Laura Braud, Sandrine Gayrard, Christian Legros, Frederic De Nardi, Jocelyne Drai, Olivier Cazorla, Jérôme Thireau, Gregory Meyer, Cyril Reboul
OBJECTIVE: Sympathetic hyperactivation, a common feature of obesity and metabolic syndrome, is a key trigger of hypertension. However, some obese subjects with autonomic unbalance present a dissociation between sympathetic activity mediated vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. Here, we aimed to determine in a rat model of metabolic syndrome, whether the endothelium eNOS-NO pathway contribute to counteract the vasopressor effect of the sympathetic system. METHODS: Rats were fed a high fat and high sucrose diet for 15 weeks (HFS)...
November 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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