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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346237/current-and-future-pharmacologic-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
Bubu A Banini, Arun J Sanyal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the aggressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in 5-15% of patients and is rapidly becoming the leading cause for end-stage liver disease. Dietary caloric restriction and exercise, currently the cornerstone of therapy for NAFLD, can be difficult to achieve and maintain, underscoring the dire need for pharmacotherapy. This review presents the agents currently used in managing NAFLD and their pharmacologic targets...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344837/exploring-supervisor-related-job-resources-as-mediators-between-supervisor-conflict-and-job-attitudes-in-hospital-employees
#2
Achim Elfering, Christin Gerhardt, Simone Grebner, Urs Müller
BACKGROUND: Conservation of resources theory assumes loss of resources as a cause of job strain. In hospital work, conflicts with supervisors are tested to predict lower resources, that is, supervisory social support, participation possibilities, and appreciation. All three resources are expected to predict, in turn, experienced stress (job strain) and lower job satisfaction, lower affective commitment, and a higher resigned attitude towards the job (job attitudes). METHODS: The sample included 1,073 employees from 14 Swiss hospitals (n = 604 nurses, n = 81 physicians, n = 135 medical therapists, and n = 253 technical and administrative staff)...
March 2017: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344751/management-of-critically-ill-patients-with-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Livier Josefina Silva-Perez, Mario Alberto Benitez-Lopez, Joseph Varon, Salim Surani
Disorders of glucose homeostasis, such as stress-induced hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, are common complications in patients in the intensive care unit. Patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to hyperglycemia, as well as a higher risk from glucose overcorrection, that may results in severe hypoglycemia. In critically ill patients with DM, it is recommended to maintain a blood glucose range between 140-180 mg/dL. In neurological patients and surgical patients, tighter glycemic control (i...
March 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344715/the-emotional-intelligence-of-pediatric-residents-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study
#4
Scott A McLeod, Lyn K Sonnenberg
BACKGROUND: Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a type of social intelligence. Excellent scores are achieved by displaying high levels of empathy in interpersonal relationships, strong skills in managing stressful situations as well as other personal competencies. Many of the social competencies that EI describes may have a direct impact on patient care. The objective of this study was to describe EI of pediatric residents and to identify if there are EI skills that should be selected for targeted intervention...
February 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343769/response-to-collating-science-based-evidence-to-inform-public-opinion-on-the-environmental-effects-of-marine-drilling-platforms-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#5
Neal R Haddaway
In their recent review article, Mangano and Será (Journal of Environmental Management, 188:195-202) collate and describe the evidence base relating to the impacts of marine drilling platforms in the Mediterranean. The authors claim to have undertaken a systematic map using the Guidelines for Systematic Review in Environmental Management produced by the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence (CEE) as a basis for their methods. Here, I highlight major problems with their methods and the reporting of their activities...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343329/stress-fractures-of-the-foot-and-ankle-part-2-site-specific-etiology-imaging-and-treatment-and-differential-diagnosis
#6
Jacob C Mandell, Bharti Khurana, Stacy E Smith
Stress fractures of the foot and ankle are a commonly encountered problem among athletes and individuals participating in a wide range of activities. This illustrated review, the second of two parts, discusses site-specific etiological factors, imaging appearances, treatment options, and differential considerations of stress fractures of the foot and ankle. The imaging and clinical management of stress fractures of the foot and ankle are highly dependent on the specific location of the fracture, mechanical forces acting upon the injured site, vascular supply of the injured bone, and the proportion of trabecular to cortical bone at the site of injury...
March 25, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343083/life-satisfaction-and-perceived-stress-among-young-offenders-in-a-residential-therapeutic-community-latent-change-score-analysis
#7
Kristen N S Tang, Christian S Chan
Recent rehabilitation frameworks underscore the importance of strength-based interventions for young offenders who may lack internal and external resources to manage their stress and plan for their life. This multi-wave longitudinal study investigated the dynamic relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction among a group of young ex-offenders in a residential therapeutic community. Four waves of data were collected from 117 Hong Kong youths (24.0% female, mean age = 17.7) over one year. Latent change score analysis was employed to examine the univairate and bivariate changes of their perceived stress and life satisfaction...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343043/clonal-integration-increases-tolerance-of-a-phalanx-clonal-plant-to-defoliation
#8
Pu Wang, Huan Li, Xiao-Yu Pang, Ao Wang, Bi-Cheng Dong, Jing-Pin Lei, Fei-Hai Yu, Mai-He Li
Defoliation by herbivores commonly imposes negative effects on plants, and physiological integration (resource sharing) can enhance the ability of guerilla clonal plants to tolerate stresses. Here we examined whether physiological integration can increase the ability of phalanx clonal plants to withstand defoliation. On a high mountain grassland in southwestern China, we subjected the phalanx clonal plant Iris delavayi within 10cm×10cm plots to three levels of defoliation intensity, i.e., control (no defoliation), moderate (50% shoot removal to simulate moderate herbivory) and heavy defoliation (100% shoot removal to simulate heavy herbivory), and kept rhizomes at the plot edges connected (allowing physiological integration) or disconnected (preventing integration) with intact ramets outside the plots...
March 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342997/the-author-s-reply-to-n-r-haddaway
#9
M Cristina Mangano, G Sarà
In this reply we respond to the commentary of Dr. Haddaway addressed in searching for pitfalls in our systematic mapping exercise "Collating science-based evidence to inform public opinion on the environmental effects of marine drilling platforms in the Mediterranean Sea" recently published in Journal of Environmental Management (Mangano, M.C. and Sarà, G. 2017. Journal of Environmental Management 188: 195-202). We discussed each so called "pitfalls" and, in our opinion, the main cornerstones of systematic map - SM (repeatability, comprehensiveness, transparency, traceability, quality, generalizability) are safe guaranteeing the "gold standard" required by this technique...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342990/telephone-adapted-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-tmbsr-for-patients-awaiting-kidney-transplantation
#10
Cynthia R Gross, Maryanne Reilly-Spong, Taehwan Park, Ruizhi Zhao, Olga V Gurvich, Hassan N Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Patients with progressive kidney disease experience increasing physiologic and psychosocial stressors and declining health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: We conducted a randomized, active-controlled, open-label trial to test whether a Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program delivered in a novel workshop-teleconference format would reduce symptoms and improve HRQOL in patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Sixty-three transplant candidates were randomized to one of two arms: i) telephone-adapted MBSR (tMBSR, an 8-week program of meditation and yoga); or ii) a telephone-based support group (tSupport)...
March 22, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342757/role-of-enzymatic-free-radical-scavengers-in-management-of-oxidative-stress-and-autoimmune-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Shikha Srivastava, Deependra Singh, Satish Patel, Manju R Singh
Autoimmune disorders are distinct with over production and accumulation of free radicals due to its undisclosed genesis. The cause of numerous disorders as cancer, arthritis, psoriasis, diabetes, alzheimer's, cardiovascular disease, Parkinson's, respiratory distress syndrome, colitis, crohn's, pulmonary fibrosis, obesity and ageing have been associated with immune dysfunction and oxidative stress. In an oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species generally provoke the series of oxidation at cellular level. The buildup of free radicals in turn triggers various inflammatory cells causing release of various inflammatory interleukins, cytokines, chemokines, and tumor necrosis factors which mediate signal transduction and transcription pathways as nuclear factor- kappa B (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341391/mice-lacking-liver-specific-%C3%AE-catenin-develop-steatohepatitis-and-fibrosis-after-iron-overload
#12
Morgan E Preziosi, Sucha Singh, Erika V Valore, Chun-Ling Jung, Branimir Popovic, Minakshi Poddar, Shanmugam Nagarajan, Tomas Ganz, Satdarshan P Monga
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Iron overload disorders such as hereditary hemochromatosis and iron-loading anemias are a common cause of morbidity from liver diseases and increase risk of hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Once iron-induced damage occurs, treatment options are limited partly because of the lack of animal models recapitulating human disease, which do not exhibit relevant sequelae after chronic iron overload. METHODS: Since liver-specific β-catenin knockout mice (KO) are susceptible to injury, fibrosis and tumorigenesis following chemical carcinogen exposure, iron-overload diet was administered to KO and littermate control (CON) mice for various times...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339415/lifestyle-factors-in-croatian-seafarers-as-relating-to-health-and-stress-on-board
#13
Ana Slišković, Zvjezdan Penezić
BACKGROUND: Seafaring is characterized by specific stressors and health risks. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to compare the prevalence of various lifestyle factors between the shipping and home environments, and in addition to test the relations between lifestyle factors, perceived stress on board, and health in seafarers. METHODS: A total of 530 Croatian seafarers participated in an on-line survey. The questionnaire contained requests for demographic data and a set of questions relating to lifestyle, stress on board, physical health symptoms, and mental health...
March 23, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338918/integrated-mirna-and-mrna-expression-profiling-reveals-the-response-regulators-of-a-susceptible-tomato-cultivar-to-early-blight-disease
#14
Deepti Sarkar, Ranjan Kumar Maji, Sayani Dey, Arijita Sarkar, Zhumur Ghosh, Pallob Kundu
Early blight, caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, is a devastating foliar disease of tomatoes, causes massive yield loss each year worldwide. Molecular basis of the compatible host-pathogen interaction was elusive. We adopted next generation sequencing approach to decipher miRNAs and mRNAs that are differentially expressed during Alternaria-stress in tomato. Some of the interesting findings were also validated by alternative techniques. Our analysis revealed 181 known-miRNAs, belonging to 121 miRNA families, of which 67 miRNAs showed at least 2-fold change in expression level with the majority being downregulated...
March 3, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337926/telephone-crisis-support-workers-psychological-distress-and-impairment
#15
Taneile A Kitchingman, Coralie J Wilson, Peter Caputi, Ian Wilson, Alan Woodward
BACKGROUND: In order to respond to crises with appropriate intervention, crisis workers are required to manage their own needs as well as the needs of those they respond to. AIMS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine whether telephone crisis support workers experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress and are impaired by elevated symptoms. METHOD: Studies were identified in April 2015 by searching three databases, conducting a gray literature search, and forward and backward citation chaining...
March 24, 2017: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337867/psychological-stress-activates-mast-cell-inflammation-role-of-il-1-and-its-inhibitor
#16
C Conti, Al Caraffa, S K Kritas, G Ronconi, M Fulcheri
The major aim of this study is to provide a review of the research studies regarding the clinical link between alexithymia and interleukins (IL). We performed a search for the relevant literature in PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar by using search terms as "alexithymia" combined with "interleukin or IL". A total of 9 original research studies were identified and included. Alexithymia was found to be prevalent in inflammatory response and associated with inflammatory cytokines. Our review emphasized for the first time the relationships of alexithymia with inflammatory response mediated by IL-1 family members...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336342/pharmacological-assessments-of-potent-a2a-receptor-antagonist-idpu-1-7-imino-3-propyl-2-3-dihydrothiazolo-4-5-d-pyrimidin-6-7h-yl-urea-in-rodent-model-of-haloperidol-induced-parkinson-like-symptoms
#17
Namrata Kumari, Saurabh Agrawal, Pratibha Mehta Luthra
A2A receptor antagonists emerged as potential candidate for management of Parkinson's disease. Earlier we had reported the therapeutic potential of 1-(7-imino-3-propyl-2,3-dihydrothiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-6(7H)-yl) urea (IDPU) as A2A receptor antagonist. Herein, we have investigated the effect of IDPU in attenuation of haloperidol induced Parkinson like symptoms in rats. It has successfully restored hypo-locomotion induced by haloperidol and NECA. IDPU also displayed protective effect against oxidative stress induced by chronic haloperidol treatment in rats...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335462/therapeutic-potentials-of-microalgae-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Tosin A Olasehinde, Ademola O Olaniran, Anthony I Okoh
Current research is geared towards the discovery of new compounds with strong neuroprotective potential and few or no side effects compared to synthetic drugs. This review focuses on the potentials of extracts and biologically active compounds derived from microalgal biomass for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microalgal research has gained much attention recently due to its contribution to the production of renewable fuels and the ability of alga cells to produce several secondary metabolites such as carotenoids, polyphenols, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polysaccharides...
March 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334420/evaluation-of-hydraulic-properties-of-aquitards-using-earthquake-triggered-groundwater-variation
#19
Shih-Jung Wang, Kuo-Chin Hsu, Chein-Lee Wang, Wen-Chi Lai, Liang-Tzu Hsu
The hydraulic properties of aquitards are not easily obtained because monitoring wells are usually installed in aquifers for groundwater resources management. Earthquake-induced crust stress (strain) triggers groundwater level variations over a short period of time in a large area. These groundwater anomalies can be used to investigate aquifer systems. This study uses a poroelastic model to fit the postseismic variations of groundwater level triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake to evaluate the hydraulic properties of aquitards in the Jhoushuei River alluvial fan (JRAF), Taiwan...
March 23, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334296/impact-of-thiamethoxam-seed-treatment-on-growth-and-yield-of-rice-oryza-sativa
#20
S K Lanka, S Senthil-Nathan, D J Blouin, M J Stout
Neonicotinoid seed treatments are widely used in agriculture. In rice, Oryza sativa L., in the southern United States, neonicotinoid seed treatments are used to manage early-season populations of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel. In addition to their effects on pests, neonicotinoid seed treatments may benefit crop plants directly by increasing plant growth or altering plant responses to stresses. As part of an effort to assess the overall benefits of thiamethoxam seed treatment in rice, rice emergence, growth, and yield were evaluated...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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