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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054014/sex-differences-in-behavioral-and-neurochemical-effects-of-gonadectomy-and-aromatase-inhibition-in-rats
#1
N Kokras, N Pastromas, D Papasava, C de Bournonville, C A Cornil, C Dalla
Aromatase inhibitors, which are widely used for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers, have been associated with psychiatric side effects ranging from mania to depression. In the present study, we investigated sex differences in the behavioral and neurochemical effects of aromatase inhibition on male and female, sham-operated or gonadectomized adult rats. Three weeks after surgery, rats received chronic treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole or vehicle and were then subjected to the open field test, which assesses general activity...
October 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051371/adrenergic-nerves-activate-an-angio-metabolic-switch-in-prostate-cancer
#2
Ali H Zahalka, Anna Arnal-Estapé, Maria Maryanovich, Fumio Nakahara, Cristian D Cruz, Lydia W S Finley, Paul S Frenette
Nerves closely associate with blood vessels and help to pattern the vasculature during development. Recent work suggests that newly formed nerve fibers may regulate the tumor microenvironment, but their exact functions are unclear. Studying mouse models of prostate cancer, we show that endothelial β-adrenergic receptor signaling via adrenergic nerve-derived noradrenaline in the prostate stroma is critical for activation of an angiogenic switch that fuels exponential tumor growth. Mechanistically, this occurs through alteration of endothelial cell metabolism...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048800/-determination-of-urine-catecholamines-and-metanephrines-by-reversed-phase-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
Man-Yung Cheuk, Yun-Chuen Lo, Wing-Tat Poon
The measurement of urine catecholamine and metanephrine concentrations is important for biochemical screening and diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. The goal of this work was to develop a simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determining catecholamines and metanephrines in urine to replace an existing liquid chromatographic method using electrochemical detection. Urine samples were prepared using Oasis weak-cation-exchange cartridges. The eluate was analyzed on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus Phenyl-Hexyl column in 3 min...
October 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046732/effect-of-a-diet-containing-folate-and-hazelnut-oil-capsule-on-the-methylation-level-of-the-adrb3-gene-lipid-profile-and-oxidative-stress-in-overweight-or-obese-women
#4
Raquel Patrícia Ataíde Lima, Rayner Anderson Ferreira do Nascimento, Rafaella Cristhine Pordeus Luna, Darlene Camati Persuhn, Alexandre Sérgio da Silva, Maria da Conceição Rodrigues Gonçalves, Alessio Tony Cavalcanti de Almeida, Ronei Marcos de Moraes, Eliseu Verly Junior, Emmanuelle Fouilloux-Meugnier, Hubert Vidal, Luciano Pirola, Marciane Magnani, Naila Francis Paulo de Oliveira, Patrícia Oliveira Prada, Maria José de Carvalho Costa
BACKGROUND: Studies of genes that play an important role in the development of obesity are needed, especially studies focusing on genes that regulate food intake and affect nutrient metabolism. For example, the beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) responds to noradrenaline and mediates lipolysis in adipocytes. METHODS: This was a controlled intervention study involving 40 overweight and obese adult women in which food intake, anthropometric measurements, biochemical analyses, and methylation levels of the ADRB3 gene were evaluated before and after intervention...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043399/immunohistochemical-evaluation-of-molecular-radiotherapy-target-expression-in-neuroblastoma-tissue
#5
Jennifer E Gains, Neil J Sebire, Veronica Moroz, Keith Wheatley, Mark N Gaze
PURPOSE: Neuroblastoma may be treated with molecular radiotherapy, (131)I meta-Iodobenzylguanidine and (177)Lu Lutetium DOTATATE, directed at distinct molecular targets: Noradrenaline Transporter Molecule (NAT) and Somatostatin Receptor (SSTR2), respectively. This study used immunohistochemistry to evaluate target expression in archival neuroblastoma tissue, to determine whether it might facilitate clinical use of molecular radiotherapy. METHODS: Tissue bank samples of formalin fixed paraffin embedded neuroblastoma tissue from patients for whom clinical outcome data were available were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and monoclonal antibodies directed against NAT and SSTR2...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033793/from-serotonin-to-neuroplasticity-evolvement-of-theories-for-major-depressive-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Bangshan Liu, Jin Liu, Mi Wang, Yan Zhang, Lingjiang Li
The serotonin (5-HT) hypothesis of depression has played an important role in the history of psychiatry, yet it has also been criticized for the delayed onset and inadequate efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). With evolvement of neuroscience, the neuroplasticity hypothesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been proposed and may provide a better framework for clarification the pathogenesis of MDD and antidepressant efficacy. In this article, we first summarized the evidence challenging the monoamine hypothesis and proposed that the antidepressant efficacy of SSRIs is not derived from elevated monoamine (5-HT, noradrenaline (NE), or dopamine (DA)) concentration or monoamine neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030008/assessment-of-leukocyte-activity-in-mice-devoid-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-noradrenergic-system-gr-dbhcre
#7
Adam Roman, Justyna Kuśmierczyk, Grzegorz Kreiner, Irena Nalepa
Disturbances in brain monoamines, overactivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and pro-inflammatory tendency in the immune system are the key features of depressive disorders. Recently, several murine lines with mutations in glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) have been generated and these animals may be utilized for study depressive-like disorders. In the present study, we have investigated whether selective ablation of GRs in noradrenergic neurons affects functional properties of leukocytes and redirects them towards pro-inflammatory activity...
October 8, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029974/altered-cardiac-gene-expression-of-noradrenaline-enzymes-transporter-and-%C3%AE-adrenoceptors-in-rat-model-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
Sladjana Dronjak, Bojana Stefanovic, Predrag Jovanovic, Natasa Spasojevic, Milica Jankovic, Ivica Jeremic, Markus Hoffmann
Baseline sympathetic activity was found to be elevated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and it is related to increased cardiovascular risk in these patients. Although many studies have highlighted the association between RA and increased cardiac sympathetic activity, the underlying mechanistic links remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to understand how diseases-triggered changes in gene expression may result in maladaptive physiological changes. Our results suggest that the equilibrium between noradrenaline synthesis, release and reuptake was disrupted in the ventricles of arthritic rats...
October 6, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029015/an-experimental-study-comparing-the-respiratory-effects-of-tapentadol-and-oxycodone-in-healthy-volunteers
#9
R van der Schrier, K Jonkman, M van Velzen, E Olofsen, A M Drewes, A Dahan, M Niesters
Background: There is a clinical need for potent opioids that produce little or no respiratory depression. In the current study we compared the respiratory effects of tapentadol, a mu-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and oxycodone, a selective mu-opioid receptor agonist. We hypothesize that tapentadol 100 mg has a lesser effect on the control of breathing than oxycodone 20 mg. Methods: Fifteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive oral tapentadol (100 and 150 mg), oxycodone 20 mg or placebo immediate release tablets in a crossover double-blind randomized design...
October 4, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027903/functional-dichotomy-in-spinal-vs-prefrontal-projecting-locus-coeruleus-modules-splits-descending-noradrenergic-analgesia-from-ascending-aversion-and-anxiety-in-rats
#10
Stefan Hirschberg, Yong Li, Andrew Randall, Eric J Kremer, Anthony E Pickering
The locus coeruleus (LC) projects throughout the brain and spinal cord and is the major source of central noradrenaline. It remains unclear whether the LC acts functionally as a single global effector or as discrete modules. Specifically, while spinal-projections from LC neurons can exert analgesic actions, it is not known whether they can act independently of ascending LC projections. Using viral vectors taken up at axon terminals, we expressed chemogenetic actuators selectively in LC neurons with spinal (LC:(SC)) or prefrontal cortex (LC:(PFC)) projections...
October 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027806/annals-express-clinical-evaluation-and-treatment-of-phaeochromocytoma
#11
Andrew Stuart Davison, Danielle Jones, Stuart Ruthven, Timothy Helliwell, Susannah L Shore
Phaeochromocytoma and extra adrenal paraganglioma are rare neuroendocrine tumours and have the potential to secrete adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine causing a myriad of clinical symptoms. Prompt diagnosis is essential for clinicians and requires a multi-disciplinary specialist approach for the clinical and laboratory investigation, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients. This paper is an integrated review of the clinical and laboratory evaluation and treatment of patients suspected to have phaeochromocytoma or paraganglioma, highlighting recent developments and best practices from recent published clinical guidelines...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024784/causal-role-of-noradrenaline-in-the-timing-of-internally-generated-saccades-in-monkeys
#12
Tomoki W Suzuki, Masaki Tanaka
We recently found that when monkeys performed an oculomotor version of the time production task, the trial-by-trial latency of self-timed saccades was negatively correlated with pupil diameter just before the delay period (Suzuki et al., 2016). Since pupil diameter has been shown to correlate with neuronal activity in the locus coeruleus, the level of noradrenaline (NA) in the brain might regulate the subjective passage of time. To examine this, we orally administered a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (reboxetine, 0...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021760/saponins-and-flavonoids-from-adzuki-bean-vigna-angularis-l-ameliorate-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-icr-mice
#13
Rui Liu, Yinan Zheng, Zongwei Cai, Baojun Xu
Background and purpose: As an herbal medicine, adzuki bean has been practiced since the Tang Dynasty of China to maintain health and control weight; this practice is still very popular in China nowadays. However, it is still lack of sufficient scientific basis to explain scientific principle of this popular civil practice in weight control using adzuki bean. The purpose of this study was to verify and explain the anti-obesity effects of adzuki bean through in vitro enzymatic assays, in vitro lipolysis and in vivo study of obese mice model...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018356/xiao-yao-san-a-chinese-medicine-formula-ameliorates-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-polycystic-ovary-in-rat
#14
Hao-Yu Sun, Quan Li, Yu-Ying Liu, Xiao-Hong Wei, Chun-Shui Pan, Jing-Yu Fan, Jing-Yan Han
Chronic stress induces endocrine disturbance, which contributes to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition that remains a challenge for clinicians to cope with. The present study investigated the effect of Xiao-Yao-San (XYS), a traditional Chinese medicine formula used for treatment of gynecological disease, on the chronic stress-induced polycystic ovary and its underlying mechanism. Female Sprague-Dwaley rats underwent a 3 weeks chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) procedure to establish the PCOS model, followed by 4 weeks treatment with XYS (0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016861/dj-1-is-a-redox-sensitive-adapter-protein-for-high-molecular-weight-complexes-involved-in-regulation-of-catecholamine-homeostasis
#15
Dominik Piston, Lydia Alvarez-Erviti, Vikas Bansal, Daniela Gargano, Zhi Yao, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Mark Odell, M Rhyan Puno, Benny Björkblom, Jodi Maple-Grødem, Peter Breuer, Oliver Kaut, Jan Petter Larsen, Stefan Bonn, Simon Geir Møller, Ullrich Wüllner, Anthony H V Schapira, Matthew E Gegg
DJ-1 is an oxidation sensitive protein encoded by the PARK7 gene. Mutations in PARK7 are a rare cause of familial recessive Parkinson's disease (PD), but growing evidence suggests involvement of DJ-1 in idiopathic PD. The key clinical features of PD, rigidity and bradykinesia, result from neurotransmitter imbalance, particularly the catecholamines dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline. We report in human brain and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines that DJ-1 predominantly forms high molecular weight (HMW) complexes that included RNA metabolism proteins hnRNPA1 and PABP1 and the glycolysis enzyme GAPDH...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016795/leonurine-exerts-antidepressant-like-effects-in-the-chronic-mild-stress-induced-depression-model-in-mice-by-inhibiting-neuroinflammation
#16
Miaomiao Jia, Chenxin Li, Ying Zheng, Xiaojing Ding, Meng Chen, Jianhua Ding, Renhong Du, Ming Lu, Gang Hu
Background: Leonurine is an active alkaloid that is extracted from Traditional Chinese Medicine Herba leonuri. Emerging evidence indicates that leonurine produces neuroprotective effects in ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. However, the effect of leonurine in neuropsychiatric disorders, especially in major depression, remains unknown. Methods: We used the chronic mild stress mouse model to explore the antidepressant effects of leonurine and the potential mechanisms...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991106/pharmacological-therapies-for-hepatorenal-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Arjun Nanda, Rewanth Reddy, Humaira Safraz, Salameh Habeeb, Ashwani K Singal
BACKGROUND: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a serious complication of advanced chronic liver disease. Different pharmacological therapies have variable efficacy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of various drugs in the treatment of HRS. STUDY: Randomized controlled trials comparing active drug with placebo or comparing 2 different drugs were included in this analysis. Primary study outcome was reversal of HRS. Secondary outcomes were HRS relapse and patient survival...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991047/vasopressors-do-not-influence-cerebral-critical-closing-pressure-during-systemic-inflammation-evoked-by-experimental-endotoxemia-and-sepsis-in-humans
#18
Judith Maria Dimphena van den Brule, Roeland Stolk, Elisabeth Janine Vinke, Lex Maxim van Loon, Peter Pickkers, Johannes Gerardus van der Hoeven, Matthijs Kox, Cornelia Wilhelmina Elisabeth Hoedemaekers
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different vasopressors on the cerebral vasculature during experimental human endotoxemia and sepsis. We used the critical closing pressure (CrCP) as a measure of cerebral vascular tone. METHODS: We performed a prospective pilot study, at the intensive care department (ICU) of a tertiary care university hospital in the Netherlands, in 40 healthy male subjects during experimental human endotoxemia (administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) and in 10 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989069/the-role-of-biomarkers-in-dilated-cardiomyopathy-assessment-of-clinical-severity-and-reverse-remodeling
#19
Sandra Amorim, Manuel Campelo, Brenda Moura, Elisabete Martins, João Rodrigues, Isaac Barroso, Margarida Faria, Tiago Guimarães, Filipe Macedo, José Silva-Cardoso, Maria Júlia Maciel
INTRODUCTION: Biomarkers in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) reflect various pathobiological processes, including neurohormonal activation, oxidative stress, matrix remodeling, myocyte injury and myocyte stretch. We assessed the role of biomarkers in clinical and echocardiographic parameters and in left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling (LVRR). METHODS: In this prospective study of 50 DCM patients (28 men, aged 59±10 years) with LV ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%, LVRR was defined as an increase of >10 U in LVEF after optimal medical therapy...
October 5, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983659/cardiac-and-peripheral-vasomotor-autonomic-functions-in-late-onset-transthyretin-val30met-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy
#20
Haruki Koike, Tomohiko Nakamura, Atsushi Hashizume, Ryoji Nishi, Shohei Ikeda, Yuichi Kawagashira, Masahiro Iijima, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
The objective of this study was to systematically investigate cardiac and peripheral vasomotor autonomic functions in late-onset transthyretin Val30Met familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP ATTR Val30Met) patients from non-endemic areas. The coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVR-R), responses to the Valsalva manoeuvre, head-up tilt test with impedance cardiography, noradrenaline infusion test, and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy were assessed in eight patients. Although only four patients manifested orthostatic hypotension during the head-up tilt test, CVR-R, responses to the Valsalva manoeuvre, and myocardial MIBG uptake indicated a higher prevalence of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunction...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neurology
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