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Noradrenalin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235100/embryonic-exposure-to-valproic-acid-affects-the-histaminergic-system-and-the-social-behavior-of-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Diego Baronio, Henri A J Puttonen, Maria Sundvik, Svetlana Semenova, Essi Lehtonen, Pertti Panula
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Histamine modulates several behaviors and physiological functions and its deficiency is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Gestational intake of valproic acid (VPA) is linked to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), which is characterized by impaired sociability and stereotypies. VPA effects on the neurochemistry and functional morphology of the histaminergic system in ASD are unclear. Zebrafish are highly social and given the similarities between zebrafish and human neurotransmitter systems, we decided to use zebrafish to study VPA effects on histamine...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234450/the-modulatory-effect-of-acupuncture-on-the-activity-of-locus-coeruleus-neuronal-cells-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Gihyun Lee, Woojin Kim
The Locus Coeruleus (LC) is a small collection of noradrenergic neurons located in the pons. In the brain, noradrenaline (NE) is primarily produced by noradrenergic cell groups in the LC, which is the largest group of noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. Acupuncture, including the electroacupuncture which is a modified acupuncture method, is known to be effective in various kinds of diseases, and the involvement of noradrenergic system in the central nervous system has been reported by previous studies...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233551/generation-of-adrenal-chromaffin-like-cells-from-human-pluripotent-stem%C3%A2-cells
#3
Kwaku Dad Abu-Bonsrah, Dongcheng Zhang, Andrew R Bjorksten, Mirella Dottori, Donald F Newgreen
Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells are catecholamine (CA)-producing cells originating from trunk neural crest (NC) via sympathoadrenal progenitors (SAPs). We generated NC and SAPs from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in vitro via BMP2/FGF2 exposure, ascertained by qPCR and immunoexpression of SOX10, ASCL1, TFAP2α, and PHOX2B, and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting selection for p75NTR and GD2, and confirmed their trunk-like HOX gene expression. We showed that continuing BMP4 and curtailing FGF2 in vitro, augmented with corticosteroid mimetic, induced these cells to upregulate the chromaffin cell-specific marker PNMT and other CA synthesis and storage markers, and we demonstrated noradrenaline and adrenaline by Faglu and high-performance liquid chromatography...
November 27, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230959/fishing-for-histamine-h3-receptor-functions
#4
EDITORIAL
Helmut Haas
Puttonen et al. (this issue) report behavioral features and abnormalities of zebrafish lacking the histamine H3 receptor, which regulates the release of several neurotransmitters, including GABA, glutamate, histamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine1 . Despite normal morphological development, mutant larvae show faster locomotor adaptation to sudden darkness than control larvae, whereas there are no differences in basic locomotor activity during daytime and night. Zebrafish sleep, defined by immobility for a period of longer than 1 min, is normal in hrh3 KO larvae...
December 12, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230168/a-novel-dopamine-transporter-inhibitor-ce-123-improves-cognitive-flexibility-and-maintains-impulsivity-in-healthy-male-rats
#5
Agnieszka Nikiforuk, Predrag Kalaba, Marija Ilic, Volker Korz, Vladimir Dragačević, Judith Wackerlig, Thierry Langer, Harald Höger, Joanna Golebiowska, Piotr Popik, Gert Lubec
Reduced cognitive abilities are often characterized by an impairment of flexibility, i.e., the ability to switch from learned rules or categories that were important in certain contexts to different new modalities that rule the task. Drugs targeting the dopamine transporter (DAT) are widely used for their potential to enhance cognitive abilities. However, commercially available drugs are of limited specificity for DAT, blocking also noradrenaline and serotonine transporters, that can lead to unwanted side effects in healthy subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225214/noradrenergic-effects-in-rat-sacral-autonomic-nucleus-using-in-vitro-slice-patch-clamp-recordings
#6
Masahiro Kawatani, Nozomi Akimoto, Akihiro Yamada, Hidemasa Furue, Masahito Kawatani
Noradrenergic modulation has been frequently discussed in the context of neural activities that are related to pelvic organs. The sacral preganglionic nucleus (SPN) is a spinal nucleus containing parasympathetic preganglionic neurons that send fibers to pelvic nerves. In spite of the abundant presence of noradrenergic fibers around the SPN, the effects of noradrenaline (NA) remain obscure. To explore this issue, NA (50 μM) was applied to parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the SPN during whole-cell patch clamp recording...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222896/serum-vitamin-b-12-in-children-presenting-with-vasovagal-syncope
#7
Ayhan Pektas, Resit Koken, Halit Bugra Koca
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to determine the serum vitamin B-12 in children presenting with vasovagal syncope. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective review of 160 children presenting with vasovagal syncope. Subgroup analysis was done based on the results of head up tilt test. RESULTS: Head up tilt test gave positive results in 80 children and yielded negative results in the remaining 80 children. The tilt test positive children had significantly lower thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations (p=0...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220864/the-nature-of-catecholamine-containing-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-in-relationship-with-organogenesis-normal-human-anatomy-and-neurodegeneration
#8
G Natale, L Ryskalin, C L Busceti, F Biagioni, F Fornai
The gastrointestinal tract is provided with extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. The extrinsic innervation includes the classic vagal parasympathetic and sympathetic components, with afferent sensitive and efferent secretomotor fibers. The intrinsic innervations is represented by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is recognized as a complex neural network controlling a variety of cell populations, including smooth muscle cells, mucosal secretory cells, endocrine cells, microvasculature, immune and inflammatory cells...
September 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220406/excessively-low-salt-diet-damages-the-heart-through-activation-of-cardiac-pro-renin-receptor-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-and-sympatho-adrenal-systems-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#9
Chihiro Okamoto, Yuka Hayakawa, Takuma Aoyama, Hisaaki Komaki, Shingo Minatoguchi, Masamitsu Iwasa, Yoshihisa Yamada, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Masanori Kawasaki, Kazuhiko Nishigaki, Atsushi Mikami, Shinya Minatoguchi
OBJECTIVE: A high salt intake causes hypertension and leads to cardiovascular disease. Therefore, a low salt diet is now recommended to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, it is still unknown whether an excessively low salt diet is beneficial or harmful for the heart. METHODS: Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) received normal salt chow (0.9% salt diet) and excessively low salt chow (0.01% salt diet referred to as saltless diet) for 8 weeks from 8 to 16 weeks of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219620/a-common-humoral-background-of-intraocular-and-arterial-blood-pressure-dysregulation
#10
Janusz Skrzypecki, Iwona Grabska-Liberek, Joanna Przybek, Marcin Ufnal
It has been postulated that intraocular pressure, an important glaucoma risk factor, correlates positively with arterial blood pressure (blood pressure). However, results of experimental and clinical studies are often contradictory. We hypothesize that in some hypertensive patients, disturbances in intraocular pressure regulation may depend on biological effects of blood borne hormones underlying a particular type of hypertension, rather than on blood pressure level itself. This review compares the effects of hormones on blood pressure and intraocular pressure, in order to identify a hormonal profile of hypertensive patients with an increased risk of intraocular pressure surge...
December 8, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219316/from-the-promiscuous-asenapine-to-potent-fluorescent-ligands-acting-at-a-series-of-aminergic-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#11
Candide Hounsou, Corinne Baehr, Vincent Gasparik, Doria Alili, Abderazak Belhocine, Thiéric Rodriguez, Elodie Dupuis, Thomas Roux, André Mann, Denis Heissler, Jean-Philippe Pin, Thierry Durroux, Dominique Bonnet, Marcel Hibert
Monoamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, histamine and noradrenaline have important and varied physiological functions and similar chemical structures. Representing important pharmaceutical drug targets, the corresponding G protein coupled receptors (termed aminergic GPCRs) belong to the class of cell membrane receptors and share many levels of similarity as well. Given their pharmacological and structural closeness, one could hypothesize the possibility to derivatize a ubiquitous ligand to afford rapidly fluorescent probes for a large set of GPCRs to be used for instance in FRET-based binding assays...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217652/initial-clinical-presentation-and-spectrum-of-pheochromocytoma-a-study-of-94-cases-from-a-single-center
#12
Henrik Falhammar, Magnus Kjellman, Jan Calissendorff
BACKGROUND: With the increasing access to imaging more pheochromocytomas are diagnosed in the workup of adrenal incidentalomas. This may have changed the occurrence of the classic presentation with hypertension and the classic triad (headaches, sweating and palpitation). METHODS: We reviewed 94 consecutive cases of pheochromocytomas. Two cases of ectopic ACTH-syndrome were subsequently excluded. RESULTS: Of the 92 cases included 64% had presented as an incidentaloma, 32% as a suspected pheochromocytoma and 4% had been screened because of previously diagnosed MEN2A...
December 7, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217165/anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-activities-of-a-methanolic-extract-of-morinda-citrifolia-linn-noni-fruit-in-mice-involvement-of-benzodiazepine-gabaaergic-serotonergic-and-adrenergic-systems
#13
Megala Narasingam, Kamini Vijeepallam, Zahurin Mohamed, Vijayapandi Pandy
This study presents anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (noni) fruit (MMC) in well-established mouse models of anxiety and depression. The administration of MMC (1 g/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly attenuated anxiety-like behaviour in mice by increasing the percentage of time spent and number of entries in the open arms in the elevated plus maze (EPM), and significantly enhanced the exploration in the light box in the light/dark test (LDT)...
December 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209170/noradrenaline-modulates-the-membrane-potential-and-holding-current-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons-via-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors-and-hcn-channels
#14
Katarzyna Grzelka, Przemysław Kurowski, Maciej Gawlak, Paweł Szulczyk
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) receives dense noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus. Adrenergic innervation of mPFC pyramidal neurons plays an essential role in both physiology (control of memory formation, attention, working memory, and cognitive behavior) and pathophysiology (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, cognitive deterioration after traumatic brain injury, behavioral changes related to addiction, Alzheimer's disease and depression). The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism responsible for adrenergic receptor-mediated control of the resting membrane potential in layer V mPFC pyramidal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203736/the-exchange-of-monoamines-during-the-experimental-neurosis-on-the-background-of-using-of-amide-2-hydroxy-n-naphthalen-1-yl-2-2-oxo-2-dihydroindol-3-ylidene
#15
Ruslan V Lutsenko, Elena V Vlasova, Elina G Kolot, Victoria M Gladka, Antonina G Sidorenko
INTRODUCTION: Incessant increase in the frequency and distribution of anxiety disorders stipulates searching, research and study of the mechanism of action of new substances for their correction, including the group of 2-oxoindolin-3-glyoxylic acid derivatives. THE AIM: To research the effect of N-(1-naphthyl) amide-2-oxoindolin-3-glyoxylic acid on monoaminergic system of subjected to experimental neurosis of rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiments were performed on male Wistar rats, who have weight 180-220g and were researching the effect of 2-hydro-N-naphthalen-1-yl-2-(2-oxy-1,2-dihydroindol-3-ylidene)-acetamide (compound 18) at a dose (12 mg/kg), by intragastric drug injection of subjected to experimental neurosis rats, during 30 days (1 time in three days), for monoamines content (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) in the blood, their decay products (homovanillic acid, vanillylmandelic acid and 5-oxyindolacetic acid) in the urine and the ratio of end products of the reaction to their predecessors...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203420/compound-action-potential-inhibition-produced-by-various-antidepressants-in-the-frog-sciatic-nerve
#16
Ryo Hirao, Tsugumi Fujita, Aiko Sakai, Eiichi Kumamoto
Although an inhibition of action potential conduction in nerve fibers possibly contributes to at least a part of antinociception produced by analgesics and the adjuvants, it has not been fully examined yet how the conduction inhibition differs in extent among their drugs. We investigated the effects of various antidepressants used as analgesic adjuvants on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. The results were compared with those of the other adjuvants that were reported previously...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202289/concentrating-mixtures-of-neuroactive-pharmaceuticals-and-altered-neurotransmitter-levels-in-the-brain-of-fish-exposed-to-a-wastewater-effluent
#17
Arthur David, Anke Lange, Charles R Tyler, Elizabeth M Hill
Fish can be exposed to a variety of neuroactive pharmaceuticals via the effluent discharges from wastewater treatment plants and concerns have arisen regarding their potential impacts on fish behaviour and ecology. In this study, we investigated the uptake of 14 neuroactive pharmaceuticals from a treated wastewater effluent into blood plasma and brain regions of roach (Rutilus rutilus) after exposure for 15days. We show that a complex mixture of pharmaceuticals including, 6 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, 3 atypical antipsychotics, 2 tricyclic antidepressants and a benzodiazepine, concentrate in different regions of the brain including the telencephalon, hypothalamus, optic tectum and hindbrain of effluent-exposed fish...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199231/augmented-contractility-to-noradrenaline-in-femoral-arteries-from-the-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-rat-a-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#18
Shota Kobayashi, Takayuki Matsumoto, Makoto Ando, Maika Iguchi, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Although vasculopathies may occur systemically, there are few reports regarding femoral arteries of type 2 diabetes. Here, we investigated whether contractile response to noradrenaline in femoral arteries would change in type 2 diabetic male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat at the chronic stage of disease (1 year old) versus age-matched control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rat. OLETF rat exhibited hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hypoinsulinemia compared to age-matched LETO rat...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187690/-treatment-for-paroxysmal-sympathetic-hyperactivity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patient
#19
Katsunori Yokoi, Tetsuo Ando, Sawao Ishikawa
We report a case of an 80-year-old man who contracted amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) 15 years ago, was put on a ventilator 8 years ago, and became locked in 3 years ago. Two years ago, he began to suffer from sudden symptoms of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) attacks (hot flushes, abnormal sweating, tachycardia, and increased blood pressure). One day, he developed multiple-organ failure. This failure healed in a few days, but PSH attacks remained. His catecholamine levels were abnormal: adrenaline, 215 pg/ml; noradrenaline, 5,960 pg/ml; and dopamine, 606 pg/ml...
November 28, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186431/monoamine-oxidase-a-gene-methylation-and-its-role-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-first-evidence-from-the-south-eastern-europe-see-ptsd-study
#20
Christiane Ziegler, Christiane Wolf, Miriam A Schiele, Elma Feric Bojic, Sabina Kucukalic, Emina Sabic Dzananovic, Aferdita Goci Uka, Blerina Hoxha, Valdete Haxhibeqiri, Shpend Haxhibeqiri, Nermina Kravic, Mirnesa Muminovic Umihanic, Ana Cima Franc, Nenad Jaksic, Romana Babic, Marko Pavlovic, Bodo Warrings, Alma Bravo Mehmedbasic, Dusko Rudan, Branka Aukst-Margetic, Abdulah Kucukalic, Damir Marjanovic, Dragan Babic, Nada Bozina, Miro Jakovljevic, Osman Sinanovic, Esmina Avdibegovic, Ferid Agani, Alma Dzubur-Kulenovic, Jürgen Deckert, Katharina Domschke
Background: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterized by an overactive noradrenergic system conferring core PTSD symptoms such as hyperarousal and re-experiencing. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is one of the key enzymes mediating the turnover of noradrenaline. Here, DNA methylation of the MAOA gene exonI/intronI region was investigated for the first time in regards to its role in PTSD risk and severity. Methods: MAOA methylation was analyzed via direct sequencing of sodium bisulfite treated DNA extracted from blood cells in a total sample of N=652 (m=441) patients with current PTSD, patients with remitted PTSD and healthy probands (comparison group) recruited at five centres in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, and the Republic of Kosovo...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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