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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449567/dose-dependent-course-of-hyperprolactinemic-and-normoprolactinemic-galactorrhea-induced-by-venlafaxine
#1
Mehmet Akif Camkurt, Gizem Gülpamuk, Ebru Fındiklı, Rengin Elve
Venlafaxine is a serotonergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor which is used for the treatment of depression. We report a case of galactorrhea in a patient with major depressive disorder after starting treatment with venlafaxine. In particular, we discuss the course of hyper and normoprolactinemic galactorrhea. We managed this side effect initially by dose reduction and further by switching to essitalopram. Physicians should be aware of endocrinologic side effects such as galactorrhea during the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor treatment...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444738/factors-influencing-biased-agonism-in-recombinant-cells-expressing-the-human-%C3%AE-1a-adrenoceptor
#2
Edilson Dantas da Silva Junior, Masaaki Sato, Jon Merlin, Natalie Broxton, Dana S Hutchinson, Sabatino Ventura, Bronwyn A Evans, Roger J Summers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Agonists acting at G protein-coupled receptors promote biased signalling via Gα or Gβγ subunits, G protein-coupled receptor kinases and β-arrestins. Since demonstration of biased agonism has implications for drug discovery, it is essential to consider confounding factors contributing to bias. We have examined bias at human α1A -adrenoceptors stably expressed at low levels in CHO-K1 cells, identifying off-target effects at endogenous receptors that contribute to ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to the agonist oxymetazoline...
April 25, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442026/neuromodulatory-effect-of-oestradiol-in-the-metabolism-of-ovarian-progesterone-and-oestradiol-during-dioestrus-ii-participation-of-the-superior-mesenteric-ganglion
#3
Adriana Vega Orozco, Cynthia Bronzi, Sandra Vallcaneras, Zulema Sosa, Marilina Casais
The aims of the present study were to determine: (1) whether oestradiol (E2) in the superior mesenteric ganglion (SMG) modifies the release of ovarian progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A2) and E2, the activity and gene expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 20α-HSD and the expression of P450 aromatase (Cyp19a1) and (2) whether any such modifications are related to changes in ovarian nitric oxide (NO) and noradrenaline (NA) levels during dioestrus II. Using an ex vivo SMG-ovarian nervous plexus-ovary system, ovarian P4 release was measured following the addition E2 plus tamoxifen (Txf) (10-6M) to the ganglion, whereas A2, E2, NA and NO were measured following the addition of E2 alone...
April 26, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441717/dexmedetomidine-relieves-formaldehyde-induced-pain-in-rats-through-both-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-and-imidazoline-receptor
#4
Hong Zhang, Xiang Yan, De-Gui Wang, Yu-Fang Leng, Zhan-Hai Wan, Yong-Qiang Liu, Yan Zhang
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist. In this study, we investigated the analgesic effect and the underlying mechanisms of DEX on inflammatory visceral pain in rats. Twenty-five male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including control, sham, low dose DEX, medium dose DEX and high dose DEX group. Pain was induced with 10% formalin and scored every 15min till 2 h-post the induction. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to evaluate the toxicity of DEX on spinal cord neurons...
April 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438663/acute-effects-of-amitriptyline-on-adult-zebrafish-potential-relevance-to-antidepressant-drug-screening-and-modeling-human-toxidromes
#5
Konstantin A Demin, Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Darya M Meshalkina, Evgeniya V Efimova, Yuri Yu Morzherin, Allan V Kalueff
The need to develop novel antidepressants is an emerging problem in biomedicine. An aquatic vertebrate species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) may serve as a useful in-vivo screen for CNS drugs, and displays high sensitivity to a wide range of antidepressants. Amitriptyline is a commonly used tricyclic antidepressant which acts primarily as a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. Here, we characterize drug-induced behavioral and neurochemical responses in adult zebrafish following their acute exposure to amitriptyline...
April 21, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438532/kinetic-properties-and-adrenergic-control-of-trek-2-like-channels-in-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex-mpfc-pyramidal-neurons
#6
W Ładno, M Gawlak, P Szulczyk, E Nurowska
TREK-2-like channels were identified on the basis of electrophysiological and pharmacological tests performed on freshly isolated and enzymatically/mechanically dispersed pyramidal neurons of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Single-channel currents were recorded in cell-attached configuration and the impact of adrenergic receptors (α1, α2, β) stimulation on spontaneously appearing TREK-2-like channel activity was tested. The obtained results indicate that noradrenaline decreases the mean open probability of TREK-2-like channel currents by activation of β1 but not of α1- and α2-adrenergic receptors...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435274/hashimoto-encephalopathy-with-high-plasma-monoamine-metabolite-levels-a-case-report
#7
Sho Horikoshi, Itaru Miura, Yasuto Kunii, Satoko Asano, Keiko Kanno-Nozaki, Hirobumi Mashiko, Hirooki Yabe
Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) is believed to be an immune-mediated disorder associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It was suggested that neuropsychiatric symptoms, the presence of antithyroid antibody, and good response to steroids were important for the diagnosis of HE. It has been reported that homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), which are monoamine metabolites of dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively, are the possible biomarkers of neuropsychiatric diseases. We report a case of Hashimoto encephalopathy, in which we longitudinally measured the plasma levels of monoamine metabolites...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434993/effect-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury-hemisection-on-the-ex-vivo-uptake-and-release-of-3-h-noradrenaline-from-a-slice-preparation
#8
Zoltán Borbély, Benedek Krisztián Csomó, Ágnes Kittel, Gábor Gerber, Gábor Varga, E Sylvester Vizi
We measured the ex vivo uptake and release of [(3)H]noradrenaline ([(3)H]NA) from perfused rat spinal cord slice preparations at 1, 3 and 14 days after unilateral hemisection-induced spinal cord injury (SCI) compared with control slice preparations. After surgical hemisection under anaesthesia, the rats showed characteristic signs of hemiplegia, with no movement of the ipsilateral hindlimb. After 3 days, the electron microscopy images showed overall degeneration of neuronal organelles and the myelin sheath, but the synapses seemed to be intact...
April 20, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434061/the-sources-of-calcium-for-noradrenaline-induced-contraction-in-the-human-thoracic-internal-artery
#9
Leszek Buzun, Beata Modzelewska, Anna Kostrzewska, Ewa Kleszczewska, Tomasz Kleszczewski
The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution of intracellular and extracellular calcium sources in contraction caused by noradrenaline (NA) of the human internal thoracic artery (ITA) in vitro. Distal segments of ITA were obtained from 20 patients (aged 38-73, at the time of routine coronary artery surgical revascularization (CABG)). Contractile responses to 10(-6) mol/L NA in the physiological salt solution and in Ca(2+)-free solution without and after incubation with 10(-6) mol/L thapsigargin (TSG) were recorded under isometric conditions...
April 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430976/acute-and-chronic-noradrenergic-effects-on-cortical-excitability-in-healthy-humans
#10
Hsiao-I Kuo, Walter Paulus, Giorgi Batsikadze, Asif Jamil, Min-Fang Kuo, Michael A Nitsche
Background: Noradrenaline is a major neuromodulator in the central nervous system, and it is involved in the pathophysiology of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. Previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggested that acute application of selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRI) enhances cortical excitability in the human brain. However, other, such like clinical effects, usually require prolonged NRI treatment, which might go along with different physiological effects...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430139/the-metalloproteinase-adam28-promotes-metabolic-dysfunction-in-mice
#11
Lakshini Herat, Caroline Rudnicka, Yasunori Okada, Satsuki Mochizuki, Markus Schlaich, Vance Matthews
Obesity and diabetes are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The current study builds upon our previous association studies highlighting that A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 28 (ADAM28) appears to be implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Our novel study characterised the expression of ADAM28 in mice with the metabolic syndrome and used molecular inhibition approaches to investigate the functional role of ADAM28 in the pathogenesis of high fat diet-induced obesity...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429337/from-acute-to-chronic-pain-tapentadol-in-the-progressive-stages-of-this-disease-entity
#12
F Coluzzi, D Fornasari, J Pergolizzi, P Romualdi
OBJECTIVE: Chronic pain is now recognized as a neural disease, which results from a maladaptive functional and structural transformation process occurring over time. In its chronic phase, pain is not just a symptom but also a disease entity. Therefore, pain must be properly addressed, as many patients still report unsatisfactory pain control despite on-going treatment. The selection of the therapy - taking into account the pathophysiological mechanisms of pain - and the right timing can result in a successful analgesic outcome...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428755/pharmacological-analysis-of-the-anti-epileptic-mechanisms-of-fenfluramine-in-scn1a-mutant-zebrafish
#13
Jo Sourbron, Ilse Smolders, Peter de Witte, Lieven Lagae
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a genetic encephalopathy that is characterized by severe seizures and prominent co-morbidities (e.g., physical, intellectual disabilities). More than 85% of the DS patients carry an SCN1A mutation (sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit). Although numerous anti-epileptic drugs have entered the market since 1990, these drugs often fail to adequately control seizures in DS patients. Nonetheless, current clinical data shows significant seizure reduction in DS patients treated with the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) drug fenfluramine (FA)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427990/neuropeptide-y-not-involved-in-cutaneous-vascular-control-in-young-human-females-taking-oral-contraceptive-hormones
#14
Gary J Hodges, Zachary T Martin, Andrew T Del Pozzi
We previously reported that the cutaneous vasodilator response to local warming in males required noradrenaline (NA) and neuropeptide-Y (NPY). Animal work has shown no role for NPY in female vascular control. We investigated the contribution of NA and NPY in human female cutaneous vascular control. Nine female and nine male participants volunteered. To elucidate whether synthetic oestrogen and progesterone altered cutaneous vascular responses, females were tested in high-hormone (HH) and low-hormone (LH) phases of oral contraceptive pill (OCP)...
April 18, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427932/reciprocal-changes-in-noradrenaline-and-gaba-levels-in-discrete-brain-regions-upon-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-deprivation-in-rats
#15
Rachna Mehta, Sudhuman Singh, Mudasir Ahmad Khanday, Birendra Nath Mallick
Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) plays important role in maintenance of normal brain functions. Neurons containing various neurotransmitters in different brain regions interact to regulate this complex phenomenon in health and diseases. The number of neuronal projections, their firing rates and neurotransmitter levels vary in different brain regions under various conditions leading to normal or altered patho-physio-behavioral states. In this study using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) we quantified noradrenaline (NA) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels in locus coeruleus (LC), dorsal raphe (DR), pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT), frontal lobe (FL), cortex and hippocampus (Hippo) in control and after 96 h REMS deprivation (REMSD) rats...
April 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426956/amines-astrocytes-and-arousal
#16
Narges Bazargani, David Attwell
Amine neurotransmitters, such as noradrenaline, mediate arousal, attention, and reward in the CNS. New data suggest that, from flies to mammals, a major mechanism for amine transmitter action is to raise astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i and release gliotransmitters that modulate neuronal activity and behavior.
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424423/the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-trans-astaxanthin-involves-the-serotonergic-system
#17
Xi Jiang, Keqi Zhu, Quanyi Xu, Guokang Wang, Jiajia Zhang, Rongrong Cao, Jiang Ye, Xuefeng Yu
The antidepressant-like effect of trans-astaxanthin, a compound present rich in algae, was evaluated through behavioral and neurochemical methods. Results showed that trans-astaxanthin treatment significantly decreased the immobility time in force swim test and tail suspension test, but did not influence locomotor activity. Trans-astaxanthin treatment did not effectively antagonize hypothermia and ptosis induced by reserpine. However, pre-treatment with para-chlorophenylalanine abolished the anti-immobility effect of trans-astaxanthin in force swim and tail suspension test...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423914/current-views-on-neuropeptide-y-and-diabetes-related-atherosclerosis
#18
Wei-Wei Sun, Ping Zhu, Yan-Chuan Shi, Chen-Liang Zhang, Xu-Feng Huang, Shi-Yu Liang, Zhi-Yuan Song, Shu Lin
Diabetes-induced atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death of diabetic patients. Neuronal regulation plays a critical role in glucose metabolism and cardiovascular function under physiological and pathological conditions, among which, neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y has been shown to be closely involved in these two processes. Elevated central neuropeptide Y level promotes food intake and reduces energy expenditure, thereby increasing adiposity. Neuropeptide Y is co-localized with noradrenaline in central and sympathetic nervous systems...
April 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421436/molecular-mechanisms-of-synthesis-of-noradrenaline-as-an-inducer-of-development-in-the-adrenal-glands-of-rats-in-ontogenesis
#19
N S Bondarenko, A R Murtazina, Yu O Nikishina, A Ya Sapronova, M V Ugrumov
The level of gene expression and the protein content of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase were determined. In the perinatal period of rats, when noradrenaline functions as a morphogenetic factor, the level of gene expression of these enzymes increased and the content of protein products of these genes was almost unchanged, indicating the difference in the regulatory mechanisms of their transcription and translation.
January 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419057/gabaergic-modulation-of-noradrenaline-release-caused-by-blood-pressure-changes-in-the-rat-median-preoptic-area
#20
Makoto Takahashi, Junichi Tanaka
Experiments using in-vivo microdialysis methods were conducted to investigate whether blood pressure changes cause an alteration in the release of noradrenaline (NA) in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and whether the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor mechanism is involved in the modulation of the pressure response-induced alteration in the NA release. In urethane-anesthetized male rats, intravenous administration of metaraminol, an α-agonist, significantly produced an increase in dialysate NA concentration in the MnPO area accompanied by an elevation in the mean arterial pressure (MAP)...
April 20, 2017: Neuroreport
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