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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#1
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810262/fetal-sheep-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-functional-and-structural-maturation
#2
Julia J Müller, Matthias Schwab, Charles R Rosenfeld, Iwa Antonow-Schlorke, Peter W Nathanielsz, Florian Rakers, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Sven Rupprecht
BACKGROUND: Fetal blood pressure increases during late gestation; however, the underlying vascular mechanisms are unclear. Knowledge of the maturation of resistance arteries is important to identify the mechanisms and vulnerable periods for the development of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. METHODS: We determined the functional and structural development of fetal sheep mesenteric resistance arteries using wire myography and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Media mass and distribution of myosin heavy-chain isoforms showed no changes between 0...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808887/chronic-silymarin-quercetin-and-naringenin-treatments-increase-monoamines-synthesis-and-hippocampal-sirt1-levels-improving-cognition-in-aged-rats
#3
F Sarubbo, M R Ramis, C Kienzer, S Aparicio, S Esteban, A Miralles, D Moranta
Polyphenols have beneficial neurological effects delaying cognitive and motor decline in aging due to their antioxidant, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties. These effects could be related to SIRT1 activation (implicated in synaptic plasticity, memory and inflammation) and monoaminergic synthesis modulation. In this work, we studied in old male rats, the in vivo effects of long-term administration of different polyphenols (silymarin, quercetin and naringenin; 20 mg/kg/day i.p, 4 weeks) (Sprague-Dawley, 18 months) on cognition and motor coordination...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808590/genesis-and-maintenance-of-attentional-biases-the-role-of-the-locus-coeruleus-noradrenaline-system
#4
REVIEW
Mana R Ehlers, Rebecca M Todd
Emotionally arousing events are typically better remembered than mundane ones, in part because emotionally relevant aspects of our environment are prioritized in attention. Such biased attentional tuning is itself the result of associative processes through which we learn affective and motivational relevance of cues. We propose that the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NA) system plays an important role in the genesis of attentional biases through associative learning processes as well as their maintenance...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807495/the-colorful-spectrum-of-tourette-syndrome-and-its-medical-surgical-and-behavioral-therapies
#5
Jan Roth
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, more common in males than females, with onset before age 18. TS is characterized by multiple motor tics and one or more vocal/phonic tics, persisting for more than a year. Tics are unvoluntary, abrupt, rapid, repetitive, but non-rhythmic movements or sounds (vocalizations). They are preceded by an inner urge. Tics can be temporarily suppressed, but this leads to a powerful re-emergence. The performance of tics results in immediate but transient relief...
August 10, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804807/plasma-cortisol-response-cannot-be-classically-conditioned-in-a-taste-endocrine-paradigm-in-humans
#6
Liubov Petrakova, Karoline Boy, Marisa Kügler, Sven Benson, Harald Engler, Lars Möller, Manfred Schedlowski
RATIONALE: Peripheral immune responses can be modified by associative learning procedures. Less is known, however, whether and to what extent neuroendocrine parameters can be classically conditioned. OBJECTIVES: In this randomized double-blind study, we modified an established paradigm to behaviorally condition endocrine responses in humans. METHODS: Thirty-one healthy male participants received a distinctively flavored green drink as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (CRH group, N = 17) or NaCl (placebo group, N = 14) as the unconditioned stimulus (US) during two subsequent acquisition trials...
August 13, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802898/neurochemical-evidence-that-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-55-102-peptide-modulates-the-dopaminergic-reward-system-by-decreasing-the-dopamine-release-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#7
Angelina Rakovska, Maria Baranyi, Katalin Windish, Polina Petkova-Kirova, Hristo Gagov, Reni Kalfin
CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802861/contrasting-effects-of-vortioxetine-and-paroxetine-on-pineal-gland-biochemistry-in-a-tryptophan-depletion-model-of-depression-in-female-rats
#8
M Franklin, N Hlavacova, Y Li, I Bermudez, A Csanova, C Sanchez, D Jezova
We studied the effects of the multi-modal antidepressant, vortioxetine and the SSRI, paroxetine on pineal melatonin and monoamine synthesis in a sub-chronic tryptophan (TRP) depletion model of depression based on a low TRP diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to groups a) control, b) low TRP diet, c) low TRP diet+paroxetine and d) low TRP diet+vortioxetine. Vortioxetine was administered via the diet (0.76mg/kg of food weight) and paroxetine via drinking water (10mg/kg/day) for 14days. Both drugs resulted in SERT occupancies >90%...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797602/venlafaxine-exerts-antidepressant-effects-possibly-by-activating-mapk-erk1-2-and-p13k-akt-pathways-in-the-hippocampus
#9
Peng Shen, Qingchuan Hu, Meixue Dong, Shunjie Bai, Zihong Liang, Zhi Chen, Pengfei Li, Zicheng Hu, Xiaogang Zhong, Dan Zhu, Haiyang Wang, Peng Xie
Serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors are effective antidepressant drugs, which include venlafaxine and duloxetine. Venlafaxine is commonly used in a clinical context, but the molecular biological mechanisms behind its effects have not been fully determined. Here, we explored the potential biological effects of venlafaxine on mouse hippocampus. Mice were randomly divided into two groups and injected daily with 0.9% NaCl solution or venlafaxine. A GC-MS-based metabolomic approach was used to identify possible metabolic differences between these groups, and the key proteins involved in the relevant pathways were validated by western blotting...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795477/exogenous-serotonin-regulates-colorectal-motility-via-the-5-ht2-and-5-ht3-receptors-in-the-spinal-cord-of-rats
#10
H Nakamori, K Naitou, Y Sano, H Shimaoka, T Shiina, Y Shimizu
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that intrathecal injection of noradrenaline or dopamine causes enhancement of colorectal motility. As these monoamines are neurotransmitters of descending pain inhibitory pathways in the spinal cord, we hypothesized that serotonin, which is one of the neurotransmitters involved in descending pain inhibition, also influences the lumbosacral defecation center. Therefore, we examined whether serotonin acting on the spinal defecation center enhances colorectal motility...
August 10, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780039/disruption-of-5-ht2a-pdz-protein-interaction-differently-affects-the-analgesic-efficacy-of-ssri-snri-and-tca-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#11
Anne-Sophie Wattiez, Amandine Dupuis, Anne-Marie Privat, Maryse Chalus, Eric Chapuy, Youssef Aissouni, Alain Eschalier, Christine Courteix
Antidepressants remain one of the first line treatments prescribed to neuropathic pain patients despite their limited efficacy and/or their numerous side effects. More and more, pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain has evolved towards the use of therapeutic combinations. The goal of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the combination of antidepressants - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors-with a peptide (TAT-2ASCV) able to disrupt the interaction between serotonin type 2A (5-HT2A) receptors and associated PDZ proteins...
August 2, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765907/antidepressant-like-effects-of-marasmius%C3%A2-androsaceus-metabolic-exopolysaccharides-on-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-rat-model
#12
Jia Song, Xue Wang, Yu Huang, Yidi Qu, Lesheng Teng, Di Wang, Zhaoli Meng
Marasmius androsaceus (M. androsaceus), a medicinal fungus, has various pharmacological activities including antidepression. The present study investigated the effects of exopolysaccharides obtained during M. androsaceus submerged fermentation in a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)‑induced depression rat model. Similar to fluoxetine (positive drug), 4‑week administration of M. androsaceus exopolysaccharides (MEPS) at doses of 6, 30 and 150 mg/kg strongly enhanced bodyweight gain and sucrose consumption, and reduced the immobility time in forced swimming test and tail suspension test in CUMS rats...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763901/-diagnosis-and-treatment-experience-of-transurethral-resection-for-paraganglioma-of-urinary-bladder-in-8-cases
#13
X S Ren, W J Fu, Y P Wang, C Y Wang, X Zhang
Objective: To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of transurethral resection of paraganglioma in urinary bladder. Methods: This retrospective study included 8 patients who underwent transurethral resection of paraganglioma in bladder from October 2009 to April 2015. Four males and 4 females were enrolled. The age ranged from 33 to 77 years (mean: 50.4 years), with a clinical course from 1 month to 8 years. Five cases presented with hypertension and 4 had high level of noradrenaline in blood. Preoperative ultrasound, CT and MRI were performed on every patient and the results showed all tumors were solitary and limited in bladder wall...
July 25, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763344/the-impact-of-fatigue-and-energy-on-work-functioning-and-impairment-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-treated-with-desvenlafaxine
#14
David Sarfati, Vanessa C Evans, Edwin M Tam, Cindy Woo, Grant L Iverson, Lakshmi N Yatham, Raymond W Lam
Fatigue and low energy are cardinal symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) that have an impact on work functioning. Antidepressants with noradrenergic activity have been hypothesized to improve symptoms of fatigue and low energy. We examined the impact of these symptoms on work functioning in patients with MDD treated with the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, desvenlafaxine. A secondary analysis was carried out from a study of employed adult outpatients (n=35) with MDD and subjective cognitive complaints treated with desvenlafaxine 50-100 mg/day for 8 weeks...
July 31, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759191/effects-of-age-on-the-glucoregulatory-response-following-acute-glucoprivation-induced-by-2-deoxyglucose-2dg-in-the-adrenal-medulla-of-sprague-dawley-rats
#15
Nor Azura Muda, Hajira Ramlan, Hanafi A Damanhuri
OBJECTIVES: Impairment in glucose homeostasis is one of the factors that may alter the feeding drive, hunger and satiety signals, which essential to maintain a sufficient level of energy for daily activities especially among the elderly. Adrenal medulla is one of the important organs that involves in glucose homeostasis through secretion of catecholamines. The catecholamines biosynthesis pathway utilizes various enzymes and protein kinases. The aims of this study are to investigate the effects of age on the biosynthetic pathway of catecholamines in adrenal medulla by determining the level of blood glucose and blood catecholamines, the gene and protein expression of biosynthetic catecholamine enzymes (TH, DBH and PNMT) as well as protein kinase substrates that involved in the phosphorylation of TH in 2DG-induced rats...
July 2, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756213/noradrenergic-antagonists-mitigate-amphetamine-induced-recovery
#16
M J Hylin, M M Brenneman, J V Corwin
Brain injury, including that due to stroke, leaves individuals with cognitive deficits that can disrupt daily aspect of living. As of now there are few treatments that shown limited amounts of success in improving functional outcome. The use of stimulants such as amphetamine have shown some success in improving outcome following brain injury. While the pharmacological mechanisms for amphetamine are known; the specific processes responsible for improving behavioral outcome following injury remain unknown. Understanding these mechanisms can help to refine the use of amphetamine as a potential treatment or lead to the use of other methods that share the same pharmacological properties...
July 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754711/10-oxo-12-z-octadecenoic-acid-a-linoleic-acid-metabolite-produced-by-gut-lactic-acid-bacteria-enhances-energy-metabolism-by-activation-of-trpv1
#17
Minji Kim, Tomoya Furuzono, Kanae Yamakuni, Yongjia Li, Young-Il Kim, Haruya Takahashi, Ryuji Ohue-Kitano, Huei-Fen Jheng, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Yuriko Kano, Rina Yu, Shigenobu Kishino, Jun Ogawa, Kunitoshi Uchida, Jun Yamazaki, Makoto Tominaga, Teruo Kawada, Tsuyoshi Goto
Gut microbiota can regulate the host energy metabolism; however, the underlying mechanisms that could involve gut microbiota-derived compounds remain to be understood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of KetoA [10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid]-a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria-on whole-body energy metabolism and found that dietary intake of KetoA could enhance energy expenditure in mice, thereby protecting mice from diet-induced obesity. By using Ca(2+) imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp methods, KetoA was noted to potently activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and enhance noradrenalin turnover in adipose tissues...
July 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746816/expression-of-classical-mediators-in-hearts-of-rats-with-hepatic-dysfunction
#18
Dagmar Jarkovska, Monika Bludovska, Eliska Mistrova, Vera Krizkova, Dana Kotyzova, Tereza Kubikova, Jana Slavikova, Sumeyye Nur Erek, Aleksandar Djordjevic, Magdalena Chottova Dvorakova
Liver cirrhosis is associated with impairment of cardiovascular function including alterations of the heart innervation, humoral and nervous dysregulation, changes in systemic circulation and electrophysiological abnormalities. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), enzyme forming acetylcholine, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH), enzymes participating in noradrenaline synthesis, are responsible for the production of classical neurotransmitters and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced by cardiomyocytes...
July 26, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743460/high-resolution-in-vivo-imaging-of-human-locus-coeruleus-by-magnetization-transfer-mri-at-3t-and-7t
#19
Nikos Priovoulos, Heidi I L Jacobs, Dimo Ivanov, Kamil Uludag, Frans R J Verhey, Benedikt A Poser
Locus Coeruleus (LC) is a neuromelanin-rich brainstem structure that is the source of noradrenaline in the cortex and is thought to modulate attention and memory. LC imaging in vivo is commonly performed with a 2D T1-weighted Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) MRI sequence, an approach that suffers from several drawbacks at 3T, including long acquisition times and highly anisotropic spatial resolution. In this study, we developed a high-resolution Magnetization Transfer (MT) sequence for LC imaging at both 7T and 3T and compared its performance to a TSE sequence...
July 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738359/predictors-of-subclinical-inflammatory-obesity-plasma-levels-of-leptin-very-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-cd14-expression-of-cd16-monocytes
#20
Fernanda Leite, Ângela Leite, Ana Santos, Margarida Lima, Joselina Barbosa, Marco Cosentino, Laura Ribeiro
OBJECTIVE: Predictors of subclinical inflammatory obesity (SIO) can be important tools for early therapeutic interventions in obesity-related comorbidities. Waist circumference (WC) and BMI have different SIO sensitivity. We aimed to i) identify SIO predictors and ii) investigate whether CD16+ monocytes are associated with BMI- (generally) or WC-defined (centrally) obesity. METHODS: Anthropometric and metabolic/endocrine (namely catecholamines, adrenaline and noradrenaline) parameters were evaluated, and CD16+ monocytes were studied by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood from 63 blood donors, and compared and correlated to each other...
July 22, 2017: Obesity Facts
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