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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730851/agomelatine-for-the-treatment-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#1
Massimiliano Buoli, Silvia Grassi, Marta Serati, A Carlo Altamura
Agomelatine is a melatonergic antidepressant, approved for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in Europe and Australia, but not in the United States. This compound seems to be promising in the short-term and maintenance treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Areas covered: This paper presents an evaluation of the available data about the clinical efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine in the treatment of GAD. Expert opinion: First-line GAD treatments are limited by high rates of lack of clinical response...
July 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726094/gene-expression-and-content-of-enzymes-of-noradrenaline-synthesis-in-the-rat-organ-of-zuckerkandl-at-the-critical-period-of-morphogenesis
#2
A R Murtazina, Yu O Nikishina, N S Bondarenko, A Ya Sapronova, E V Volina, M V Ugrumov
Gene expression and content of the key enzymes involved in the synthesis of noradrenaline-tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase-was evaluated in the organ of Zuckerkandl of rats in the critical period of morphogenesis. High levels of mRNA and protein of both enzymes in the perinatal period of development and their sharp decline on day 30 of postnatal development were detected. These data indicate that the synthesis of noradrenaline in the organ of Zuckerkandl is maximum during the critical period of morphogenesis and decreases during the involution of this paraganglion...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716540/developmental-vitamin-d-deficiency-alters-multiple-neurotransmitter-systems-in-the-neonatal-rat-brain
#3
James P Kesby, Karly Turner, Suzanne Alexander, Darryl W Eyles, John J McGrath, Thomas H J Burne
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests that developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. DVD deficiency in rats is associated with altered brain structure and adult behaviours indicating alterations in dopamine and glutamate signalling. Developmental alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have also been observed in DVD-deficient rats but a comprehensive assessment of brain neurochemistry has not been undertaken...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716399/prelimbic-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptors-are-involved-in-the-regulation-of-depressive-like-behaviors-in-the-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#4
Zhong Heng Wu, Qiao Jun Zhang, Cheng Xue Du, Yue Xi, Wen Juan Li, Fang Yuan Guo, Shu Qi Yu, Ya Xin Yang, Jian Liu
At present, it is not clear whether α1-adrenoceptors in the prelimbic cortex (PrL) are involved in Parkinson's disease-related depression. Here we examined effects of PrL α1-adrenoceptors on depressive-like behaviors in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced depressive-like responses as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests compared to sham-operated rats. Intra-PrL injection of α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine induced or increased the expression of depressive-like behaviors in sham-operated and the lesioned rats...
July 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714085/neural-control-of-sweat-secretion-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Y Hu, C Converse, M C Lyons, W H Hsu
Humans have 4 million exocrine sweat glands, which can be classified into two types: eccrine and apocrine glands. Sweat secretion is a constitutive feature, which is directly involved in thermoregulation and metabolism. Sweat secretion is regulated by both the central nervous system(1) and autonomic nervous system.(2) In peripheral areas, the ANS, especially the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), mediates the transmission of neurotransmitters to sweat glands. Two principal chemical mediators, acetylcholine and noradrenaline (NA)/adrenaline (ADR), are released by the SNS, which stimulate sweat secretion...
July 17, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712765/losartan-reverses-cox-2-dependent-vascular-dysfunction-in-offspring-of-hyperglycaemic-rats
#6
Diego Barbosa de Queiroz, Fernanda Elizabethe Ramos-Alves, Juliana Santos-Rocha, Gloria Pinto Duarte, Fabiano Elias Xavier
AIMS: This study examined whether chronic treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist, might reverse COX-2-mediated vascular dysfunction in mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) from offspring of hyperglycaemic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male 12-month-old offspring of hyperglycaemic (O-DR) and normoglycaemic (O-CR) rats were treated with losartan (15mg·kg·day(-1)) during 2months. Third order MRA of untreated and losartan-treated O-DR and O-CR were mounted in wire myograph for isometric tension measurements...
July 13, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710899/effects-of-dobutamine-dopamine-phenylephrine-and-noradrenaline-on-systemic-haemodynamics-and-intestinal-perfusion-in-isoflurane-anaesthetised-horses
#7
C Dancker, K Hopster, K Rohn, S B Kästner
BACKGROUND: In the horse, effects of cardiovascular-active drugs on local perfusion of the gastrointestinal tract are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of drugs commonly used to support blood pressure, on local intestinal blood flow and tissue oxygenation under isoflurane anaesthesia. STUDY DESIGN: In vivo randomised crossover experiment METHODS: Ten horses were anaesthetised with isoflurane. After 90 minutes of equilibration three doses (μg/kg bwt/min) of dobutamine (DOB 0...
July 15, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701860/noradrenaline-serotonin-gaba-and-glycine-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-during-labor-pain-a-cross-sectional-prospective-study
#8
Pornpan Chalermkitpanit, Atikun Thonnagith, Phatthanaphol Engsusophon, Somrat Charuluxananan, Sittisak Honsawek
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The inhibitory pathways that play a role in spinal modulation include local interneurons and descending control. Clinical data regarding the role of these pathways in acute pain is lacking. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of noradrenaline, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine in parturients with labor pain compared to those without labor pain. METHODS: One hundred term uncomplicated pregnant women receiving spinal anesthesia for cesarean section were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701669/muscle-weakness-is-associated-with-an-increase-of-left-ventricular-mass-through-excessive-blood-pressure-elevation-during-exercise-in-patients-with-hypertension
#9
Yumi Kamada, Takashi Masuda, Shinya Tanaka, Ayako Akiyama, Takeshi Nakamura, Nobuaki Hamazaki, Michihito Okubo, Naoyuki Kobayashi, Junya Ako
Autonomic imbalance in hypertension induces excessive blood pressure (BP) elevation during exercise, thereby increasing left ventricular mass (LVM). Although muscle weakness enhances autonomic imbalance by stimulating muscle sympathetic activity during exercise, it is unclear whether muscle weakness is associated with an increase of LVM in patients with hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between muscle weakness, BP elevation during exercise, and LVM in these patients. Eighty-six hypertensive patients aged 69 ± 8 years with controlled resting BP (ie, < 140/90 mmHg) were recruited...
July 13, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697904/the-adra2b-gene-in-the-production-of-false-memories-for-affective-information-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#10
Beth Fairfield, Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Marco D'Aurora, Liborio Stuppia, Valentina Gatta
False memories are common memory distortions in everyday life and seem to increase with affectively connoted complex information. In line with recent studies showing a significant interaction between the noradrenergic system and emotional memory, we investigated whether healthy volunteer carriers of the deletion variant of the ADRA2B gene that codes for the α2b-adrenergic receptor are more prone to false memories than non-carriers. In this study, we collected genotype data from 212 healthy female volunteers; 91 ADRA2B carriers and 121 non-carriers...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694773/loud-noise-exposure-produces-dna-neurotransmitter-and-morphological-damage-within-specific-brain-areas
#11
Giada Frenzilli, Larisa Ryskalin, Michela Ferrucci, Emanuela Cantafora, Silvia Chelazzi, Filippo S Giorgi, Paola Lenzi, Vittoria Scarcelli, Alessandro Frati, Francesca Biagioni, Stefano Gambardella, Alessandra Falleni, Francesco Fornai
Exposure to loud noise is a major environmental threat to public health. Loud noise exposure, apart from affecting the inner ear, is deleterious for cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous systems and it is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we investigated DNA, neurotransmitters and immune-histochemical alterations induced by exposure to loud noise in three major brain areas (cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum) of Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to loud noise (100 dBA) for 12 h. The effects of noise on DNA integrity in all three brain areas were evaluated by using Comet assay...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694433/antidepressant-effect-of-taurine-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-rats
#12
Gao-Feng Wu, Shuang Ren, Ri-Yi Tang, Chang Xu, Jia-Qi Zhou, Shu-Mei Lin, Ying Feng, Qun-Hui Yang, Jian-Min Hu, Jian-Cheng Yang
Depression, a psychiatric and dysthymic disorder, severely affects the learning, work and life quality. The main pathogenesis of depression is associated with central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Taurine has been demonstrated to exert protective effects on the brain development and can improve learning ability and memory. Our study investigated the antidepressant-like effects of taurine pre-treatment by examining the changes in depression-like behavior, hormones, neurotransmitters, inflammatory factors and neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus of a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive rat model...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694090/milnacipran-affects-mouse-impulsive-aggressive-and-depressive-like-behaviors-in-a-distinct-dose-dependent-manner
#13
Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Yu Ohmura, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are widely used for the treatment for major depressive disorder, but these drugs induce several side effects including increased aggression and impulsivity, which are risk factors for substance abuse, criminal involvement, and suicide. To address this issue, milnacipran (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg), an SNRI and antidepressant, was intraperitoneally administered to mice prior to the 3-choice serial reaction time task, resident-intruder test, and forced swimming test to measure impulsive, aggressive, and depressive-like behaviors, respectively...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683170/noradrenergic-modulation-of-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-gene-expression-in-the-brain-of-japanese-quail
#14
Yasuko Tobari, Norio Kansaku, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds and mammals. In Japanese quail, GnIH neurons express the noradrenergic receptor and receive noradrenergic innervation. Treatment with noradrenaline (NA) stimulates GnIH release from diencephalic tissue blocks in vitro. However, the effects of NA on hypothalamic GnIH gene expression have not been determined. We investigated noradrenergic regulation of GnIH gene expression in the brain of male quail using the selective noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675825/the-association-between-in-vivo-central-noradrenaline-transporter-availability-and-trait-impulsivity
#15
Swen Hesse, Ulrich Müller, Michael Rullmann, Julia Luthardt, Anke Bresch, Georg-Alexander Becker, Franziska Zientek, Marianne Patt, Philipp M Meyer, Matthias Blüher, Maria Strauß, Wiebke Fenske, Mohammed Hankir, Yu-Shin Ding, Anja Hilbert, Osama Sabri
The brain noradrenaline (NA) system, particularly NA transporters (NAT), are thought to play an important role in modulating impulsive behavior. Impaired impulsivity is implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions; however, an in vivo link between central NAT availability and human impulsivity has not been shown. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and S,S-[(11)C]O-methylreboxetine (MRB), we tested whether NAT availability is associated with this basic behavioral trait based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) in twenty healthy individuals (12 females, 33...
June 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674852/effects-of-long-term-treatment-with-haloperidol-clozapine-and-aripiprazole-on-mice-isolated-vas-deferens
#16
Mehmet Hanifi Tanyeri, Mehmet Emin Buyukokuroglu, Pelin Tanyeri, Oguz Mutlu, Füruzan Yildiz Akar, Güner Ulak, Bekir Faruk Erden
PURPOSE: Sexual dysfunction is a common condition in patients taking antipsychotics and is the most bothersome symptom and adverse drug effect, resulting in a negative effect on treatment compliance. Pharmacology research into human ejeculatory disorders is limited to clinical studies with registered drugs affecting the ejaculation process; therefore, animal research has become the need. We aimed to investigate the effects of haloperidol, clozapine and aripiprazole on serotonin, noradrenaline, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and potassium chloride (KCl)-induced contractions of the vas deferens in order to evaluate the effect of haloperidol, clozapine and aripiprazole on the contraction of the vas deferens...
July 3, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672928/mechanism-of-mongolian-medical-warm-acupuncture-in-treating-insomnia-by-regulating-mir-101a-in-rats-with-insomnia
#17
Agula Bo, Lengge Si, Yuehong Wang, Lidao Bao, Hongwei Yuan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) and the target genes before and after warm acupuncture at the genetic level were assessed, and the cytokines and neurotransmitters related to insomnia were studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to create PCPA insomnia rat models and randomly divided into the normal, model, warm acupuncture, and drug groups. The Dinghui Acupoint, Heyi Acupoint, and Xin Acupoint were inserted in the Mongolian medicine warm acupuncture group. The differential expression profile of microRNA in the brain tissue of the insomnia rats was determined before and after Mongolian medicine warm acupuncture for establishment of miR-101a mimics and inhibitor...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672405/driving-performance-of-depressed-patients-who-are-untreated-or-receive-long-term-antidepressant-ssri-snri-treatment
#18
Nick N J J M van der Sluiszen, Marleen Wingen, Annemiek Vermeeren, Frederick Vinckenbosch, Stefan Jongen, Johannes G Ramaekers
Introduction Depression is a mental disorder likely to affect everyday functions. The present study aimed to assess actual driving performance of depressed patients who were without specific antidepressant treatment or received long-term antidepressant treatment. Methods A standardized on-the-road driving test was used to assess standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) in 3 patient groups receiving either no antidepressant treatment (with or without benzodiazepine medication) or treatment with selective serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors for a period of 6-52 weeks...
July 3, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668486/glycogenolysis-an-astrocyte-specific-reaction-is-essential-for-both-astrocytic-and-neuronal-activities-involved-in-learning
#19
REVIEW
Leif Hertz, Ye Chen
In brain glycogen, formed from glucose, is degraded (glycogenolysis) in astrocytes but not in neurons. Although most of the degradation follows the same pathway as glucose, its breakdown product, l-lactate, is released from astrocytes in larger amounts than glucose when glycogenolysis is activated by noradrenaline. However, this is not the case when glycogenolysis is activated by high potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations - possibly because noradrenaline in contrast to high K(+) stimulates glycogenolysis by an increase not only in free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) but also in cyclic AMP (c-AMP), which may increase the expression of the monocarboxylate transporter through which it is released...
June 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662893/both-serotonergic-and-noradrenergic-systems-modulate-the-development-of-tolerance-to-chronic-stress-in-rats-with-lesions-of-the-serotonergic-neurons-of-the-median-raphe-nucleus
#20
A C Pereira, M C Carvalho, C M Padovan
Acute exposure to stress induces significant behavioural changes, while repeated exposure to the same stressor leads to the development of tolerance to stress. The development of tolerance appears to involve the serotonergic projections from the Median Raphe Nucleus (MnRN) to the dorsal Hippocampus (dH), since rats with lesions of this pathway does not develop tolerance to stress. Previous data from our laboratory showed that treatment with imipramine, a serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitor, lead to the development of tolerance...
June 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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