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motoric skills

Andrew Miller, Narelle Eather, Mitch Duncan, David Revalds Lubans
This study investigated if object control relates to children's game play competence, and examined these competencies as correlates of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Game play (Game Performance Assessment Instrument), object control (The Test Gross Motor Development-3), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (Accelerometry), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20-metre shuttle) assessments were completed for 107 children (57% Female, 43% Male) aged 9-12 years (M 10.53, SD 0.65). Two-level regression of object control on game play competence, and object control and game play competence on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed associations...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Yu-Lun Chen, Hao-Ling Chen, Jeng-Yi Shieh, Tien-Ni Wang
AIMS: Constraint-induced therapy (CIT) is effective, but concerns have been repeatedly raised regarding the generalizability, feasibility, and potentially intrusive nature of restraining a child's unimpaired upper limb. We examined the feasibility and efficacy of friendly-CIT, which uses home-based model, a caregiver-determined schedule, and gentle restraint, in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: In a one-group pre-post intervention trial, 15 children (median of age = 8 years, 4 months) participated in 8 weeks of friendly-CIT (36 hours)...
June 18, 2018: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
Emily R Burnside, Fred De Winter, Athanasios Didangelos, Nicholas D James, Elena-Cristina Andreica, Hugo Layard-Horsfall, Elizabeth M Muir, Joost Verhaagen, Elizabeth J Bradbury
Chondroitinase ABC is a promising preclinical therapy that promotes functional neuroplasticity after CNS injury by degrading extracellular matrix inhibitors. Efficient delivery of chondroitinase ABC to the injured mammalian spinal cord can be achieved by viral vector transgene delivery. This approach dramatically modulates injury pathology and restores sensorimotor functions. However, clinical development of this therapy is limited by a lack of ability to exert control over chondroitinase gene expression. Prior experimental gene regulation platforms are likely to be incompatible with the non-resolving adaptive immune response known to occur following spinal cord injury...
June 14, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Sean Berman, Toni L Uhlendorf, Mark Berman, Elliot B Lander
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 1.9 million Americans, including blast TBI that is the signature injury of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Our project investigated whether stromal vascular fraction (SVF) can assist in post-TBI recovery. We utilized strong acoustic waves (5.0 bar) to induce TBI in the cortex of adult Rowett Nude (RNU) rats. One hour post-TBI, harvested human SVF (500,000 cells suspended in 0.5 mL lactated Ringers) was incubated with Q-Tracker cell label and administered into tail veins of RNU rats...
June 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
Orlagh Farmer, Sarahjane Belton, Wesley O'Brien
This study examines the relationship between actual fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency, perceived motor confidence and competence, and physical activity (PA) among female children ( n = 160; mean age = 10.69 ± 1.40 years). The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition (TGMD-2) was used to assess seven FMSs (locomotor, object-control, and stability). Motor confidence and competence were assessed using a valid skill-specific scale, and a modified version of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. PA levels were assessed using self-report (PA Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C)) and classified as low, moderate, and high active...
September 27, 2017: Sports (Basel)
Jeff R Crane, John T Foley, Patti-Jean Naylor, Viviene A Temple
As children transition from early to middle childhood, the relationship between motor skill proficiency and perceptions of physical competence should strengthen as skills improve and inflated early childhood perceptions decrease. This study examined change in motor skills and perceptions of physical competence and the relationship between those variables from kindergarten to grade 2. Participants were 250 boys and girls (Mean age = 5 years 8 months in kindergarten). Motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceptions were assessed using a pictorial scale of perceived competence...
August 10, 2017: Sports (Basel)
Leah E Robinson, Kara K Palmer
Assessing children's perceptions of their movement abilities (i.e., perceived competence) is traditionally done using picture scales-Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Acceptance for Young Children or Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. Pictures fail to capture the temporal components of movement. To address this limitation, we created a digital-based instrument to assess perceived motor competence: the Digital Scale of Perceived Motor Competence. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity, reliability, and internal consistency of the Digital-based Scale of Perceived Motor Skill Competence...
July 4, 2017: Sports (Basel)
Mehmet Fatih Yüksel, Tarık Sevindi
This research was conducted to examine the anthropometric and biometric features of the elite wheelchair basketball players in different league levels, and to evaluate them with regards to field tests particular to wheelchair basketball. A sample of 21 male players volunteered to participate in the research with similar classification points, 12 of whom were from Turkey Wheelchair Basketball First League and 9 of whom were from the Second League. Anthropometric measurements, biometric features of the players and their skill test scores particular to wheelchair basketball were detected...
February 25, 2018: Sports (Basel)
Andrzej Jakubczyk, Elisa M Trucco, Maciej Kopera, Paweł Kobyliński, Hubert Suszek, Sylwia Fudalej, Kirk J Brower, Marcin Wojnar
Emotion dysregulation and impulsivity are important factors influencing the development and course of alcohol dependence. However, few empirical studies investigate the association between different aspects of impulsivity (cognitive, attentional, behavioral), emotion regulation, and alcohol use disorder symptoms in the same model. The goal of this study was to assess the association between emotion regulation and different facets of impulsivity among patients with an alcohol use disorder and healthy controls...
August 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Heather C Karras, Danita N Morin, Kamaldeep Gill, Sara Izadi-Najafabadi, Jill G Zwicker
BACKGROUND: Although Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is primarily a motor disorder, it can also impact emotional and psychosocial functioning of children with this condition. Evidence suggests that children with DCD experience lower quality of life than their peers, but few studies have explicitly examined the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these children. AIMS: To: (1) describe HRQOL of children with DCD compared to typically-developing children; (2) compare HRQOL from the perspectives of children with DCD and their parents; and (3) explore predictors of HRQOL for children with DCD...
June 12, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Mario Manto
More than a century after the description of its cardinal components, the cerebellar motor syndrome (CMS) remains a cornerstone of daily clinical ataxiology, in both children and adults. Anatomically, motor cerebellum involves lobules I-V, VI, and VIII. CMS is typically associated with errors in the metrics of voluntary movements and a lack of coordination. Symptoms and motor signs consist of speech deficits, impairments of limb movements, and abnormalities of posture/gait. Ataxic dysarthria has a typical scanning (explosive with staccato) feature, voice has a nasal character, and speech is slurred...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Codi White, Dianne C Shanley, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Kerryann Walsh, Russell Hawkins, Katrina Lines
Despite being a key target outcome to prevent child maltreatment, little research has been conducted to examine the prevalence and predictors of interpersonal safety skills in a standardised manner. In this study, interpersonal safety skills were measured in a Year 1-2 student sample through use of a standardised simulated risk scenario, with three primary skills examined: withdrawal from an unknown confederate (motor safety response), verbal refusal of an abduction lure (verbal safety response) and disclosure of confederate presence...
June 11, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Laura Mori, Valeria Prada, Alessio Signori, Davide Pareyson, Giuseppe Piscosquito, Luca Padua, Costanza Pazzaglia, Gian M Fabrizi, Alessandro Picelli, Angelo Schenone
BACKGROUND: The outcome measures (OMs) in clinical trials for Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT) still represent an issue. A recent study highlighted that three additional clinical OMs, the 10 meters walk test (10MWT), 9 hole-peg test, and foot dorsal flexion dynamometry, further improve discrimination between severely and mildly affected patients. Another study recently assess the validity and reliability of the 6 Minutes Walking test (6MWT). AIM: To identify the most useful scales in the clinical evaluation of CMT1A patients...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Marco Ewerton, David Rother, Jakob Weimar, Gerrit Kollegger, Josef Wiemeyer, Jan Peters, Guilherme Maeda
In the practice of motor skills in general, errors in the execution of movements may go unnoticed when a human instructor is not available. In this case, a computer system or robotic device able to detect movement errors and propose corrections would be of great help. This paper addresses the problem of how to detect such execution errors and how to provide feedback to the human to correct his/her motor skill using a general, principled methodology based on imitation learning. The core idea is to compare the observed skill with a probabilistic model learned from expert demonstrations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Reem Al Marshad, Razan Al Khatib, Hanine Amer, Munirah Al Shammari, Aysha Al Otaibi, Fahad Al Otaibi, Nadiah Behbehani, Anwaar Al Sayed, Norah Al Hoty, Zuheir Hassan, Amer Kamal
Objective: To investigate the deterioration of the brain functions by diabetes mellitus (DM) and the beneficial effect of caffeine. Materials and Methods: First, the component of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA) of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) were recorded in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM and compared with control animals. Later, 40 mice were divided randomly into five groups (8 mice in each): (1) Normal control (Cont), (2) diabetic group (DM), (3) animals pretreated with i...
May 2018: International Journal of Health Sciences
Matthew Dyson, Jessica Barnes, Kianoush Nazarpour
The objective of this study was to compare the use of muscles appropriate for partial-hand prostheses with those typically used for complete hand devices and to determine whether differences in their underlying neural substrates translate to different levels of myoelectric control.
 Approach: We developed a novel abstract myoelectric decoder based on motor learning. Three muscle pairs, namely, an intrinsic and independent, an intrinsic and synergist and finally, an extrinsic and antagonist, were tested during abstract myoelectric control...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Caroline M Taylor, Alan M Emond, Raghu Lingam, Jean Golding
As part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), measures of child motor skills were collected in research clinics. The ALSPAC Coordination Test was derived from subtests of the Movement ABC at age 7 years in children participating in ALSPAC. Maternal blood lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry in samples from women at a median gestation age of 11 weeks. Maternal reports at 32 weeks' gestation were used to generate data on a range of potential confounders...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Jessica Grundey, Nivethida Thirugnasambandam, Rosa Amu, Walter Paulus, Michael A Nitsche
Nicotine has been shown to modulate neuroplasticity, cognition, and learning processes in smokers and non-smokers. A possible mechanism for its effect on learning and memory formation is its impact on long-term depression and long-term potentiation (LTP). Nicotine abstinence in smokers is often correlated with impaired cognitive performance. As neuroplasticity is closely connected to learning and memory formation, we aimed to explore the effect of nicotine spray administration in deprived smokers on paired-associative stimulation (PAS25)-induced neuroplasticity and on performance of the serial reaction time task (SRTT), a sequential motor learning paradigm...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Indiana Wollman, Virginia Penhune, Melanie Segado, Thibaut Carpentier, Robert J Zatorre
The auditory and motor neural systems are closely intertwined, enabling people to carry out tasks such as playing a musical instrument whose mapping between action and sound is extremely sophisticated. While the dorsal auditory stream has been shown to mediate these audio-motor transformations, little is known about how such mapping emerges with training. Here, we use longitudinal training on a cello as a model for brain plasticity during the acquisition of specific complex skills, including continuous and many-to-one audio-motor mapping, and we investigate individual differences in learning...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hind H Neamah, Christopher Sudfeld, Dana Charles McCoy, Günther Fink, Wafaie W Fawzi, Honorati Masanja, Goodarz Danaei, Alfa Muhihi, Sylvia Kaaya, Mary C Smith Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the relationship between maternal depression and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) with child physical growth and development is equivocal. Our aim in the current study is to examine these relationships among women and their children in Tanzania. METHODS: The Bayley Scales of Infant Development and anthropometric measures were used to assess children 18 to 36 months of age ( n = 1031). Maternal exposure to IPV and depression were assessed using the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey questionnaire and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively...
June 11, 2018: Pediatrics
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