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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655043/the-impact-of-feedback-frequency-on-performance-in-a-novel-speech-motor-learning-task
#1
Mara Steinberg Lowe, Adam Buchwald
Purpose: This study investigated whether whole nonword accuracy, phoneme accuracy, and acoustic duration measures were influenced by the amount of feedback speakers without impairment received during a novel speech motor learning task. Method: Thirty-two native English speakers completed a nonword production task across 3 time points: practice, short-term retention, and long-term retention. During practice, participants received knowledge of results feedback according to a randomly assigned schedule (100%, 50%, 20%, or 0%)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655039/speech-motor-sequence-learning-effect-of-parkinson-disease-and-normal-aging-on-dual-task-performance
#2
Jason A Whitfield, Alexander M Goberman
Purpose: Everyday communication is carried out concurrently with other tasks. Therefore, determining how dual tasks interfere with newly learned speech motor skills can offer insight into the cognitive mechanisms underlying speech motor learning in Parkinson disease (PD). The current investigation examines a recently learned speech motor sequence under dual-task conditions. Method: A previously learned sequence of 6 monosyllabic nonwords was examined using a dual-task paradigm...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654799/neurobehavioral-consequences-of-continuous-spike-and-waves-during-slow-sleep-csws-in-a-pediatric-population-a-pattern-of-developmental-hindrance
#3
Valentina De Giorgis, Melissa Filippini, Joyce Ann Macasaet, Silvia Masnada, Pierangelo Veggiotti
INTRODUCTION: Continuous spike and waves during slow sleep (CSWS) is a typical EEG pattern defined as diffuse, bilateral and recently also unilateral or focal localization spike-wave occurring in slow sleep or non-rapid eye movement sleep. Literature results so far point out a progressive deterioration and decline of intellectual functioning in CSWS patients, i.e. a loss of previously normally acquired skills, as well as persistent neurobehavioral disorders, beyond seizure and EEG control...
June 24, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654501/developing-overhand-throwing-skills-for-a-child-with-autism-with-a-collaborative-approach-in-school-based-therapy
#4
Jennifer A Colebourn, Ann C Golub-Victor, Arsenio Paez
PURPOSE: This case report presents an interdisciplinary approach in school-based therapy, combining physical therapy and applied behavior analysis to improve the motor skills and the participation in recreational activities of a child with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS: A 9-year-old child with autism spectrum disorder participated in a 20-week gross motor intervention designed to improve the child's overhand throwing ability, which included weekly physical therapy instruction and daily throwing trials using applied behavior analysis approaches...
July 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654492/a-range-of-service-delivery-modes-for-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-are-effective-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Emily J Ward, Susan Hillier, Annette Raynor, John Petkov
PURPOSE: To investigate whether the environment and personnel providing intervention to children with developmental coordination disorder make a difference in motor outcomes and perceived competency. METHODS: Ninety-three children (66 males), aged 5 years 1 month to 8 years 11 months, with developmental coordination disorder were randomized to receive a 13-week group-based task-oriented intervention, either at school by a school assistant or physical therapist, or in a health clinic by a physical therapist...
July 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654414/handwriting-in-children-and-adults-with-down-syndrome-developmental-delay-or-specific-features
#6
Raphaele Tsao
While there is a long history and tradition of behavioral research on basic motor skills in Down syndrome (DS), there has been only limited research on handwriting ability. We analyzed the spatiotemporal features of handwriting produced by children and adults with DS (n = 24), and compared their productions with those of comparison groups matched for developmental (n = 24) or chronological (n = 24) age. Results indicated that the participants with DS performed an alphabet letter-writing task just as efficiently as the children of the same developmental age, in terms of the length, duration and speed of their handwriting, and the number and duration of their pauses...
July 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652064/a-randomized-trial-on-the-effects-of-attentional-focus-on-motor-training-of-the-upper-extremity-using-robotics-with-individuals-after-chronic-stroke
#7
Grace J Kim, Jim Hinojosa, Ashwini K Rao, Mitchell Batavia, Michael W O'Dell
OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term effects of external focus (EF) versus internal focus (IF) of attention after 4-weeks of arm training. DESIGN: Randomized, repeated measure, mixed ANOVA. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. PARTICIPANTS: 33 individuals with stroke and moderate-to-severe arm impairment living in the community (3 withdrawals). INTERVENTIONS: 4-week arm training protocol on the InMotion ARM robot (12 sessions)...
June 23, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651976/observational-learning-during-simulation-based-training-in-arthroscopy-is-it-useful-to-novices
#8
Marie-Eve LeBel, John Haverstock, Sayra Cristancho, Lucia van Eimeren, Gavin Buckingham
OBJECTIVE: Observing experts constitutes an important and common learning experience for surgical residents before operating under direct guidance. However, studies suggest that exclusively observing experts may induce suboptimal motor learning, and watching errors from non-experts performing simple motor tasks may generate better performance. We investigated whether observational learning is transferrable to arthroscopy learning using virtual reality (VR) simulation. SETTING/DESIGN: In our surgical simulation laboratory, we compared students learning basic skills on a VR arthroscopy simulator after watching an expert video demonstration of VR arthroscopy tasks or a non-expert video demonstration of the same tasks to a Control group without video demonstration...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650397/action-observation-of-motor-skills-followed-by-immediate-sleep-enhances-the-motor-rehabilitation-of-older-adults-with-stroke
#9
Alisa A Lubart, Arthur I Leibovitz, Liora D Peleg, Alexandra I Yarovoy, Gilad O Gal, Eliyahu H Mizrahi, Emily N Lubart
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Motor rehabilitation following stroke is a demanding challenge in search for new strategies to improve outcome. Rehabilitation through action observation has been reported beneficial for older adults recovering from stroke. Early sleep session following motor learning enhanced the performance of the acquired motor skills. The purpose of this study was to examine whether an early sleep session following action observation has benefit over action observation alone in the rehabilitation of older adults after stroke...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649514/early-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-patient-with-severe-mucopolysaccharidosis-ii-a-7%C3%A2-years-follow-up
#10
Anneliese L Barth, Tatiana S P C de Magalhães, Ana Beatriz R Reis, Maria Lucia de Oliveira, Fernanda B Scalco, Nicolette C Cavalcanti, Daniel S E Silva, Danielle A Torres, Alessandra A P Costa, Carmem Bonfim, Roberto Giugliani, Juan C Llerena, Dafne D G Horovitz
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II - Hunter syndrome) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the enzyme iduronate-2 sulfatase (I2S), leading to the accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans, affecting multiple organs and systems. Enzyme replacement therapy does not cross the blood brain barrier, limiting results in neurological forms of the disease. Another option of treatment for severe MPS, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become the treatment of choice for the severe form of MPS type I, since it can preserve neurocognition when performed early in the course of the disease...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648457/enriched-environment-promotes-remyelination-and-motor-function-recovery-through-modulation-of-hdac1-2-in-mice
#11
Jian Zheng, Weijun Ding, Baoming Li, Youjun Yang
Brain structure and functions are significantly affected by enriched environment (EE). Rodent and rhesus monkeys raised in EE will increase myelination in development, and these increase correlate with improved cognitive functions on learning and memory. However, whether and how EE influences remyelination in the adult remained undefined. Here, we used a cuprizone-induced demyelination mouse model demonstrate that EE significantly enhances remyelination. This EE-regulated remyelination is associated with improved motor skills...
June 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647804/estimating-the-long-term-functional-burden-of-osteoporosis-related-fractures
#12
S Fischer, K A Kapinos, A Mulcahy, L Pinto, O Hayden, R Barron
Although fractures are associated with short-term reductions in functional status, there is limited information on longer-term burden of fracture. This study documents evidence of an association between fractures and significant declines and functional health and activities that persist but attenuate beyond two years. INTRODUCTION: Although fractures are associated with short-term reductions in functional status and may have other short-term effects on healthcare utilization (hospitalization and follow-up care), there is limited information on long-term burden of fracture beyond 12 to 24 months post-fracture...
June 24, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646563/cohesive-network-reconfiguration-accompanies-extended-training
#13
Qawi K Telesford, Arian Ashourvan, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett
Human behavior is supported by flexible neurophysiological processes that enable the fine-scale manipulation of information across distributed neural circuits. Yet, approaches for understanding the dynamics of these circuit interactions have been limited. One promising avenue for quantifying and describing these dynamics lies in multilayer network models. Here, networks are composed of nodes (which represent brain regions) and time-dependent edges (which represent statistical similarities in activity time series)...
June 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646336/nogo-a-antibodies-enhance-axonal-repair-and-remyelination-in-neuro-inflammatory-and-demyelinating-pathology
#14
Benjamin V Ineichen, Sandra Kapitza, Christiane Bleul, Nicolas Good, Patricia S Plattner, Maryam S Seyedsadr, Julia Kaiser, Marc P Schneider, Björn Zörner, Roland Martin, Michael Linnebank, Martin E Schwab
Two hallmarks of chronic multiple sclerosis lesions are the absence of significant spontaneous remyelination and primary as well as secondary neurodegeneration. Both characteristics may be influenced by the presence of inhibitory factors preventing myelin and neuronal repair. We investigated the potential of antibodies against Nogo-A, a well-known inhibitory protein for neuronal growth and plasticity, to enhance neuronal regeneration and remyelination in two animal models of multiple sclerosis. We induced a targeted experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) lesion in the dorsal funiculus of the cervical spinal cord of adult rats resulting in a large drop of skilled forelimb motor functions...
June 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645698/radiological-studies-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-in-humans-and-animal-models-an-updated-comprehensive-review
#15
Van T Nguyen, Suyinn Chong, Quang M Tieng, Karine Mardon, Graham J Galloway, Nyoman D Kurniawan
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders encompass a wide range of birth defects in children born to mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Typical mental impairments in FASD include difficulties in life adaptation and learning and memory, deficits in attention, visuospatial skills, language and speech disabilities, mood disorders and motor disabilities. Multimodal imaging methods have enabled in vivo studies of the teratogenic effects of alcohol on the central nervous system, giving more insight into the FASD phenotype...
June 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645622/in-vivo-effects-of-knocking-down-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-in-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
Tiziana Bonifacino, Luca Cattaneo, Elena Gallia, Aldamaria Puliti, Marcello Melone, Francesca Provenzano, Simone Bossi, Ilaria Musante, Cesare Usai, Fiorenzo Conti, Giambattista Bonanno, Marco Milanese
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder due to loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). The mechanisms of neuronal death are largely unknown, thus prejudicing the successful pharmacological treatment. One major cause for MN degeneration in ALS is represented by glutamate(Glu)-mediated excitotoxicity. We have previously reported that activation of Group I metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5) at glutamatergic spinal cord nerve terminals produces abnormal Glu release in the widely studied SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS...
June 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644921/targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep-but-not-wake-enhances-sensorimotor-skill-performance-a-pilot-study
#17
Brian P Johnson, Steven M Scharf, Kelly P Westlake
The benefits of sleep on memory consolidation have been enhanced for declarative and motor sequence learning through replaying classically conditioned auditory stimuli during sleep, known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). However, it is unknown if TMR can influence performance of a sensorimotor skill, in the absence of the cognitive requirements of sequence learning. Here, young adults performed a nondominant arm throwing task separated by a full night of sleep or a full day of wake, with half of all participants receiving TMR between sessions...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644768/error-feedback-frequency-affects-automaticity-but-not-accuracy-and-consistency-after-extensive-motor-skill-practice
#18
Daniel Krause, Manfred Agethen, Christina Zobe
Earlier studies addressed the effects of feedback frequency on movement accuracy and consistency. The authors additionally addressed the effects on motor automatization. High error feedback frequencies may induce attentional control processes and impede motor automatization. In a pre-post design, 42 participants were assigned to 2 groups with different feedback frequencies and practiced an arm movement sequence with 760 trials in 5 sessions. The 100% group practiced with feedback on 3 movement reversals of the sequence after each trial...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643052/the-spaced-learning-concept-significantly-improves-training-for-laparoscopic-suturing-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-study
#19
Michael Boettcher, Johannes Boettcher, Stefan Mietzsch, Thomas Krebs, Robert Bergholz, Konrad Reinshagen
BACKGROUND: Spaced learning has been shown to be effective in various areas like traditional knowledge or motor skill acquisition. To evaluate the impact of implementation of the spaced learning concept in laparoscopic training was the aim of this study. METHODS: To evaluate the effectiveness of spaced learning, subjects were asked to perform four surgeon's square knots on a bowel model prior and post 3 h of hands-on training. All subjects were medical students and novice in laparoscopic suturing...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642071/the-link-between-motor-and-cognitive-development-in-children-born-preterm-and-or-with-low-birth-weight-a-review-of-current-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz, Hanna Mulder, Marian J Jongmans, Ineke J M van der Ham, Stefan Van der Stigchel
The current review focuses on evidence for a link between early motor development and later cognitive skills in children born preterm or with Low Birth Weight (LBW). Studies with term born children consistently show such a link. Motor and cognitive impairments or delays are often seen in children born preterm or with LBW throughout childhood and studies have established a cross-sectional association between the two. However, it is not yet clear if, and if so, how, motor and cognitive skills are longitudinally interrelated in these children...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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