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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782942/effects-of-light-and-dark-phase-testing-on-the-investigation-of-behavioural-paradigms-in-mice-relevance-for-behavioural-neuroscience
#1
Juliet Richetto, Marcello Polesel, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer
Different timing and light phases are critical factors in behavioural neuroscience, which can greatly affect the experimental outcomes of the performed tests. Despite the fact that time of testing is one of the most common factors that varies across behavioural laboratories, knowledge about the consequences of testing time on behavioural readouts is limited. Thus, in this study we systematically assessed the effect of this factor on the readout of a variety of elementary and recurrent behavioural paradigms in C57Bl/6 mice...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782941/dopamine-and-serotonin-metabolism-associated-with-morphine-reward-and-its-inhibition-with-buspirone-a-study-in-the-rat-striatum
#2
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Shazia Nawaz, Tabinda Salman
Adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate nucleus (CN) dopamine neurotransmission are involved in behavioral sensitization and enhanced incentive motivation towards drug paired stimuli which lead to drug addiction. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) can modulate dopamine neurotransmission to reduce rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. A recent study from our laboratory shows that rewarding effects of morphine are inhibited in rats co-treated with buspirone. To understand the neurochemical mechanism involved in morphine addiction and its inhibition with buspirone, present study determines the effects of buspirone, morphine and their co-administration on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the NAc and CN...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782883/a-new-outlook-on-cholinergic-interneurons-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#3
REVIEW
Melissa M Conti, Nicole Chambers, Christopher Bishop
Traditionally, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) striatal systems were considered antagonistic and imbalances or aberrant signaling between these neurotransmitter systems could be detrimental to basal ganglia activity and pursuant motor function, such as in Parkinson's disease (PD) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Herein, we discuss the involvement of cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) in striatally-mediated movement in a healthy, parkinsonian, and dyskinetic state. ChIs integrate numerous neurotransmitter signals using intrinsic glutamate, serotonin, and DA receptors and convey the appropriate transmission onto nearby muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors to produce movement...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782882/prolonged-increase-in-ser31-tyrosine-hydroxylase-phosphorylation-in-substantia-nigra-following-cessation-of-chronic-methamphetamine
#4
Michael F Salvatore, Vicki A Nejtek, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Methamphetamine (MA) exposure may increase the risk of motor or cognitive impairments similar to Parkinson's disease (PD) by middle age. Although damage to nigrostriatal or mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) neurons may occur during or early after MA exposure, overt PD-like symptoms at a younger age may not manifest due to compensatory mechanisms to maintain DA neurotransmission. One possible compensatory mechanism is increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation. In the rodent PD 6-OHDA model, nigrostriatal lesion decreases TH protein in both striatum and substantia nigra (SN)...
May 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782864/are-dopamine-receptor-and-transporter-changes-in-rett-syndrome-reflected-in-mecp2-deficient-mice
#5
Dean F Wong, Mary E Blue, James R Brašić, Ayon Nandi, Heather Valentine, Kirstie H Stansfield, Olivier Rousset, Genila Bibat, Mary E Yablonski, Michael V Johnston, Albert Gjedde, SakkuBai Naidu
In the present study we tested the claim that the dopaminergic dysfunction of Rett Syndrome (RTT) also occurs in Mecp2-deficient mice that serve as a model of the syndrome. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to image dopamine D2 receptors (D2 R) and transporters (DAT) in women with RTT and in Mecp2-deficient mice, and D1 R and D2 R density was measured in postmortem human tissue by autoradiography. Results showed 1) significantly reduced D2 R density in the striatum of women with RTT compared to control subjects...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782798/regulatory-activities-of-dopamine-and-its-derivatives-towards-metal-free-and-metal-induced-amyloid-%C3%AE-aggregation-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Eunju Nam, Jeffrey S Derrick, Seunghee Lee, Juhye Kang, Jiyeon Han, Shin Jung C Lee, Su Wol Chung, Mi Hee Lim
A catecholamine neurotransmitter, dopamine (DA), is suggested to be linked to the pathology of dementia; however, the involvement of DA and its structural analogues in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, composed of multiple pathogenic factors has not been clear. Herein, we report that DA and its rationally designed structural derivatives (1-6) based on DA's oxidative transformation are able to modulate multiple pathological elements found in AD [ i.e., metal ions, metal-free amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-bound Aβ (metal-Aβ), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)], with demonstration of detailed molecular-level mechanisms...
May 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782621/darpp-32-and-t-darpp-promote-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-growth-through-regulation-of-ikk%C3%AE-dependent-cell-migration
#7
Sk Kayum Alam, Matteo Astone, Ping Liu, Stephanie R Hall, Abbygail M Coyle, Erin N Dankert, Dane K Hoffman, Wei Zhang, Rui Kuang, Anja C Roden, Aaron S Mansfield, Luke H Hoeppner
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Here we demonstrate that elevated expression of dopamine and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32000 (DARPP-32) and its truncated splice variant t-DARPP promote lung tumor growth, while abrogation of DARPP-32 expression in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells reduces tumor growth in orthotopic mouse models. We observe a novel physical interaction between DARPP-32 and inhibitory kappa B kinase-α (IKKα) that promotes NSCLC cell migration through non-canonical nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells 2 (NF-κB2) signaling...
2018: Commun Biol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781560/conditioned-reward-of-opioids-but-not-psychostimulants-is-impaired-in-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-subunit-knockout-mice
#8
Milo S Siivonen, Elena de Miguel, Juho Aaltio, Aino K Manner, Mikko Vahermo, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Anni-Maija Linden, Teemu Aitta-Aho, Esa R Korpi
Extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (δ-GABAA Rs) are emerging as targets for a number of neuropsychopharmacological drugs, including the direct GABA-site agonist gaboxadol and neuroactive steroids. Among other regions, these δ-GABAA Rs are functionally expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the cell body region of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system important for motivated behaviors, and in the target region, the nucleus accumbens. Gaboxadol and neurosteroids induce VTA DA neuron plasticity ex vivo, by inhibiting the VTA GABA neurons, and aversive place conditioning, which are absent in the δ-GABAA R knockout mice (δ-KO)...
May 21, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781450/music-brain-plasticity-and-the-resilience-the-pillars-of-new-receptive-therapy
#9
Helena Dukić
This paper describes a new type of receptive music therapy which aims to build the patients' psychological resilience by increasing the levels of dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin in order to increase standard psychopharmacological treatment efficiency. Previous research concerning the musically induced production of the two neurotransmitters and a hormone is discussed and reviewed. Based upon the existent studies concerning the influence of music on dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin induction, a new design of specific music features for this purpose is proposed and elaborated upon...
April 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781347/interaction-of-drd4-methylation-and-phthalate-metabolites-affects-continuous-performance-test-performance-in-adhd
#10
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Inkyung Shin, Bung-Nyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the interaction effect between the methylation of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and phthalate exposure in ADHD on continuous performance test (CPT) variables. METHOD: Urine concentrations of mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) were tested. The methylation status was analyzed for CpG sites of DRD4. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to investigate the interaction effects of methylation and phthalate levels...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781098/pet-imaging-of-the-influence-of-physiological-and-pathological-%C3%AE-synuclein-on-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-neurotransmission-in-mouse-models
#11
Elise Levigoureux, Caroline Bouillot, Thierry Baron, Luc Zimmer, Sophie Lancelot
AIMS: Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation is a neuropathological hallmark of neurodegenerative synucleinopathies. This in vivo study explored glucose metabolism and dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmission in KO α-syn, wild-type mice and an accelerated murine model of synucleinopathy (M83). METHODS: MicroPET acquisitions were performed in all animals aged 5-6 months using five radiotracers exploring brain glucose metabolism ([18 F]FDG), dopamine neurotransmission ([11 C]raclopride, [11 C]PE2I) and serotonin neurotransmission ([18 F]MPPF, [11 C]DASB)...
May 20, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780881/nucleus-accumbens-microcircuit-underlying-d2-msn-driven-increase-in-motivation
#12
Carina Soares-Cunha, Bárbara Coimbra, Ana Verónica Domingues, Nivaldo Vasconcelos, Nuno Sousa, Ana João Rodrigues
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780859/monoaminergic-impairment-in-down-syndrome-with-alzheimer-s-disease-compared-to-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Alain D Dekker, Yannick Vermeiren, Maria Carmona-Iragui, Bessy Benejam, Laura Videla, Ellen Gelpi, Tony Aerts, Debby Van Dam, Susana Fernández, Alberto Lleó, Sebastian Videla, Anne Sieben, Jean-Jacques Martin, Rafael Blesa, Juan Fortea, Peter P De Deyn
Introduction: People with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Defects in monoamine neurotransmitter systems are implicated in DS and AD but have not been comprehensively studied in DS. Methods: Noradrenaline, adrenaline, and their metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG); dopamine and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid; and serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were quantified in 15 brain regions of DS without AD (DS, n = 4), DS with AD (DS+AD, n = 17), early-onset AD (EOAD, n = 11) patients, and healthy non-DS controls (n = 10) in the general population...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780124/hiv-dementia-with-a-decreased-cardiac-123-i-metaiodobenzylguanidine-uptake-masquerading-as-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#14
Masanori Kurihara, Takuya Sasaki, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Shoji Tsuji
Cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is a promising biomarker for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, we experienced a patient with cognitive decline, parkinsonism, and a decreased MIBG uptake who turned out to have HIV dementia. Normal dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography reduced the possibility of comorbid Lewy body pathology causing the patient' s parkinsonism. The decreased MIBG uptake was most likely due to postganglionic sympathetic nerve denervation, which can also be caused by HIV...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779874/a-gabaergic-feedback-shapes-dopaminergic-input-on-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-to-promote-appetitive-long-term-memory
#15
Alice Pavlowsky, Johann Schor, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Thomas Preat
Memory consolidation is a crucial step for long-term memory (LTM) storage. However, we still lack a clear picture of how memory consolidation is regulated at the neuronal circuit level. Here, we took advantage of the well-described anatomy of the Drosophila olfactory memory center, the mushroom body (MB), to address this question in the context of appetitive LTM. The MB lobes, which are made by the fascicled axons of the MB intrinsic neurons, are organized into discrete anatomical modules, each covered by the terminals of a defined type of dopaminergic neuron (DAN) and the dendrites of a corresponding type of MB output neuron (MBON)...
May 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779223/gene-editing-vectors-for-studying-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-cholinergic-transmission
#16
Can Peng, Yijin Yan, Veronica J Kim, Staci E Engle, Jennifer N Berry, J Michael McIntosh, Rachael L Neve, Ryan M Drenan
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), prototype members of the cys-loop ligand gated ion channel family, are key mediators of cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Despite their importance, technical gaps exist in our ability to dissect the function of individual subunits in the brain. To overcome these barriers, we designed CRISPR/Cas9 small guide RNA sequences (sgRNAs) for production of loss-of-function alleles in mouse nAChR genes. These sgRNAs were validated in vitro via deep sequencing...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779176/intranasal-delivery-of-pgdnf-dna-nanoparticles-provides-neuroprotection-in-the-rat-6-hydroxydopamine-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Amirah E-E Aly, Brendan T Harmon, Linas Padegimas, Ozge Sesenoglu-Laird, Mark J Cooper, Barbara L Waszczak
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene therapy could offer a disease-modifying treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we report that plasmid DNA nanoparticles (NPs) encoding human GDNF administered intranasally to rats induce transgene expression in the brain and protect dopamine neurons in a model of PD. To first test whether intranasal administration could transfect cells in the brain, rats were sacrificed 1 week after intranasal pGDNF NPs or the naked plasmid. GDNF ELISA revealed significant increases in GDNF expression throughout the brain for both treatments...
May 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779156/adolescent-isolation-rearing-produces-a-prepulse-inhibition-deficit-correlated-with-expression-of-the-nmda-glun1-subunit-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#18
Megan L Fitzgerald, Virginia M Pickel
Adolescence is a transition period during which social interaction is necessary for normal brain and behavior development. Severely abnormal social interactions during adolescence can increase the incidence of lifelong psychiatric disease. Decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a quantifiable hallmark of some psychiatric illnesses in humans and can be elicited in rodents by isolation rearing throughout the adolescent transition period. PPI is a measure of sensorimotor gating in which the nucleus accumbens (Acb) is crucially involved...
May 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779114/general-sources-of-dopamine-as-a-potential-morphogenic-factor-in-the-developing-striatum-of-rats
#19
A I Kurtova, L K Dil'mukhametova, E R Mingazov, M V Ugrumov
In the striatum of rats at different stages of development, we determined the content of tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino acids decarboxylase using double immunohistochemical labeling and estimated the expression level of their transcripts by real-time PCR. We found that, in different periods of development, there are three sources of dopamine in the striatum of rats: bienzymatic nerve fibers (throughout ontogeny), bienzymatic neurons (appear on day 18 of embryonic development), and monoenzymatic neurons (in adult animals)...
March 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779103/dopamine-synthesis-as-a-mechanism-of-brain-plasticity-in-nigrostriatal-system-pathology
#20
A A Kolacheva, M V Ugrumov
Using an experimental Parkinson's disease model (symptoms develop in mice after the injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), we studied the characteristics of the synthesis of dopamine as a possible compensatory mechanism aimed at maintaining the dopamine level in the dopaminergic neurons that survived in this pathology. We found no correlation between the content and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nigrostriatal system. The enzyme activity and the dopamine content showed unidirectional changes in the substantia nigra, but not in the striatum, which is apparently due to triggering other compensatory mechanisms...
March 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
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